Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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mentioned by Vasari as having come to the aid of
his fellow-pupil, Perino del Vaga, vfhen the latter
was rendered destitute by the sack of Rome in 1527.

BEATRICIUS. See above, Master of the Die.

BEAULIEU, Anatolb Henri db, a French
painter of historical, genre, and military subjects,
was born in Paris in 1819, and was a pupil of Dela-
croix. He died in 1884.

BEAUME, Joseph, a French historical painter,
bom at Marseilles in 1796, was a favourite pupil
of Gros, and a frequent contributor to the Salon
between 1819 and 1878. In the time of Louis
Philippe he was commissioned to paint several
large battle-pieces for Versailles. His ' Henri III.
on his Death-bed ' is in the Luxembourg. He died
in September, 1885.

BEAUMONT, Charles Edouaed de, painter,
was a native of Lannion (C6tes de Nord), and a
pupil of Boisselier. He painted genre pictures,
generally of a humorous character, both in oils and
water-colour, and gained medals in 1870 and 1875.
He was president of the Sooietd des Aquarellistes
Franjais at the time of his death, which took place
in January, 1888.

BECKER, AnensT, landscape painter, was born
at Darmstadt in 1822. He studied in his native
town under Sohilbach, and afterwards settled at
Diisseldorf. He several times visited Queen Vic-
toria at Balmoral, where he painted a series of
pictures of Highland scenery, and gave lessons to
the young princesses. In 1862 lie became teacher
to the Hereditary Princess of Hohenzollern. He
died at Dusseldorf in December, 1887.

BEGAS, OsKAR, painter, was born in Berlin,
July 31, 1828. He was the son of Carl Begas,
from whom he received his first teaching. In 1862
he won a premium, which enabled him to travel to
Italy. He worked in Rome for some time, and
there painted a ' Descent from the Cross ' for the
church of St. Michael at Berlin. He then visited
France and England, and on his return to Berlin
devoted himself to portrait painting and decora-
tion. In 1866 he became Professor at the Berlin
Academy. He died at Berlin, in November, 1883.

BERNARD, Theodore. See Barentsejt, Dibk.

BBRTINOT, GusTAVB, a French engraver, was
bom at Louviers (Eure), June 23, 1822. He was
a pupil of Drolling and Martinet, and gained the
prix de Rome in 1850. In 1867 he gained a medal
of the first class and the Cross of the Legion. He
succeeded Martinet at the Academic des Beaux
Arts in 1878. He died April 19, 1888. Among
his best plates were portraits of Ingres, Cherubini,
and Van Dyck, and the ' Vierge aux Donataires,'
after Van Dyck.

BERTRAND, James, a French painter, and native
of Lyons, was one of tlie most distinguished of
Perrin's pupils. His subjects were chiefly poetical
and mythological. Among pictures exhibited by
him at the Salon we may mention : ' The Com-
munion of S. Benedict (now in the possession of
the Soci6t6des Beaux Arts at Lyons), ' The Conver-
sion of S. Thais,' ' S. Mary of Egypt,' ' Peasants of
the Abruzzi at S. Peter's,' ' Phryne at Bleusis,' and
' The Death of Sappho.' He died in September, 1887.


BEVILACQUA, Amerogio and Filippo, Milanese
painters, were brothers and partners, and flourished
at the end of the 15th century. 'They were em-
ployed at the Palace and in the Duomo, and
Ambrogio painted an allegory of Charity on the
front of the Milan poor-house in 1486. The only
acknowledged picture by him is a ' Virgin and
Child between King David and Peter Martyr,' in
the Brera. See also Vigevano, Ambrogio da, above.

BIELBY, W., topographical draughtsman, flour-
ished towards the end of the 18th century, and
painted some of the views engraved in Angus'
' Seats of the Nobility and Gentry,' publislied 1787.
Some views of Chelsea and Battersea by him were
engraved in aquatint by Jukes.

BILLINGTON, Horace W., landscape painter,
was the brother of the celebrated singer. A land-
scape by him was exliibited at the Royal Academy
in 1802. He died in London, November 17, 1812.

BLANC, Ltjdwig Ammy, a painter of portraits
and mediseval genre, was born at Berlin, August 9,
1810. In 1829 he entered the Berlin Academy
schools, and in 1834 removed to Diisseldorf, where
he studied under Julius Hiibner. From 1840 to
1842 he worked at Hanover, painting portraits of
members of the reigning family, and other persons
of note, and in 1845-7 he was similarly employed
at Darmstadt. In 1857 he visited France and
England. He died in April, 1885. There is a
picture by him in the Berlin National Gallery.

BOND, R. Sebastian, landscape painter, was
born at Liverpool in 1808. He was educated in
his native city, and practised there for the greater
part of his life, settling finally at Bettws-y-Coed.
He occasionally exhibited in London between 1846
and 1872, but most of his works appeared at
Liverpool and in the midland counties. He died
in February, 1886.

BONHBUR, FRANgois Auguste, painter, was
born at Bordeaux in 1824, and was his father's pupil.
He was the brother of Mile. Rosa Bonheur. His
first picture exhibited at the Salon was ' Children
and Cockchafer,' in 1845. He afterwards painted
portraits, but was best known by his landscapes
with cattle. He died of heart disease in a railway
carriage in Paris, February 21, 1884.

BONSTETTEN, Abr. Sigm. August von, a Swiss
landscape painter, born in 1796, of a good family.
He was brought up for the military service, and
served in a Swiss regiment in the pay of the
Dutch Government. After the separation of
Belgium from Holland, he gave up soldiering and
devoted himself entirely to art. Possessed of con-
siderable property, his works but seldom appeared
at the public exhibitions. He died at Sinneringen,
near Berne, in 1879.

BONVIN, Franqois Saint, a French painter of
still-life and of interiors in the style of Chardin,
was born in Vaugirard, Pai-is, November 22, 1817.
His father was a garde-champ&ifre, and Bonvin
was educated at the charge of patrons in the
drawing school of the Rue de I'Ecole de M^decine.
For more than thirty years he was a constant
exhibitor at the Salon, gaining the Legion of
Honour in 1870. In 1881 he entered the Hospital
of Saint Jean de Dieu to be operated on for the
stone, and for the rest of his life was an invalid.
He died in 1888. Pictures ;

L'Ecole des Orphelins. {Langres Museum.)
La Charity. {Niort Museum.)
Le E^fectoire. (Luxembourg Museum)
Servante a la Fontaine. [Do.)





BOULANGER, Gustavb Rodolphe Clabencb,
painter, was born in Paris, April 25, 1824. He
began his art education at an early age, and when
only fourteen was sent by an uncle to Aifrica, where
he spent eight months making sketches, and where
he seems to have imbibed his love for Oriental
subjects. He became a pupil of Paul Delaroche
and of Jolivet, and in 1849 gained the prix de
Rome, and remained in Italy till 1856. His mature
performances failed to justify bis early promise,
but his works had nevertheless great popularity.
He devoted himself to Oriental and archaeological
painting, treating Roman and Grecian themes
somewhat in the manner of Mr. Alma Tadema.
In 1882 he was elected a member of the Institute,
and was long a professor at the Ecole des Beaux
Arts, where he showed much ability as a teacher.
He married Madame Nathalie, of the Com^die
Pran9ais, and to this theatre he presented a portrait
of his wife, painted in 1867. He was also the
author of a series of mural pictures in the Foyer
de la Danse of the new Opera house in Paris, and
of two in Prince Napoleon's Pompeian house in the
Avenue Montaigne, the 'Flute Player' and the
' Wife of Diomed,' themes which he several times
repeated. He died in Paris of congestion of the
lungs, September 22, 1888.

BOURSSE, EsAiAs, a Dutch painter of domestic
interiors, was born at Amsterdam about 1630. He
was working in his native city from about 1656 to
1672. He visited Italy, and made several voyages
to the East Indies in the service of the Dutch East
India Company. His works are rare, and but little
known. The Rijks Museum at Amsterdam has an
' Interior with a Woman spinning ' ; the Suer-
mondt Museum at Aix-la-Chapelle has an example ;
and Sir Richard Wallace an ' Interior, with a
Woman sitting by a Child in a Cradle.'

BllASSEUR, Antoine, painter, was bom at
Lille in 1819, and brought up at the Comtesse
Foundling Hospital. He gained a wide reputation
as a restorer of pictures, JEollowing his calling at
Cologne. On his death, in 1886, he left his large
collection of pictures to the museum of his native

BREDAEL, Jozef van, a Flemish painter, born
at Antwerp, August 14, 1688, painted landscapes,
but was best known as a copyist of the works of
Brueghel, Wouvernians, and others, for the picture-
dealer Jacob de Witte. In 1736 he settled in Paris,
where he became painter to the Duke of Orleans.
He died in Paris in 1739. There is a river land-
scape by him in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam.

BRONDGEEST, Albeetus, a Dutch painter, was
born at Amsterdam, December 2, 1786. He was a
pupil of P. G. van Os and of H. Numan. He
travelled in Germany, became a member of the
Netherlands Institute and of the Antwerp Academy,
and painted many landscapes and marines. He
died at Amsterdam, July 30, 1849. Works :


B. Museum.

A River Scene. 1837.
Ditto (after Cuyp).

BROOKES, Warwick, draughtsman and de-
signer, was born at Salford, of poor parents, in
1808. On leaving school he was placed as 'tear-
boy' under his uncle, a block-printer in some
calico printing works. But his drawings having
attracted the attention of his master, he was pro-
moted to the designing-room. In 1838 a ' School
of Design' was established at Manchester, and
Brookes was one of the first to avail himself of

its instruction. He was afterwards one of the
most zealous among the band of young men who
associated themselves for study from the life as
"The United Society of Manchester Artists."
Brookes now began to make a local reputation,
and the Manchester Exhibition of 1857 brought
him before a wider public. His contributions were
noticed and admired by the Prince Consort, and
he was brought into contact with many brother
artists, and for a time paid yearly visits to London.
He was about this time engaged by the Rosson-
dale Printing Company, and among other books,
illustrated the works of Dr. John Browne. In
1865 the first symptoms of lung disease showed
themselves. He was gradually forced to give up
active work, aud in 1871 was granted a pension
of £100 a year on the Civil List. He died at
Salford, August 11, 1882, and was buried at Brook-
lands, near Sale, Cheshire. For further particulars
see the ' Portfolio ' for November and December,

BROWNE, Hablot Knight, better known as
'Phiz,' was bom at Kennington, June 15, 1816.
His father, a merchant, was a native of Norfolk.
Hablot (so named after a French officer killed at
Waterloo, to whom his sister was betrothed) was
apprenticed to William Finden, and domiciled in
London with a sister married to Elhanan Bicknell,
the well-known collector. Engraving, however,
was not to the boy's taste, and he began to dabble
in water-colour. After his time was out he took
a modest lodging in company with a friend, and
entered as a student at the St. Martin's Lane life-
school, where Etty was working at the time. In
1832 Browne gained a medal from the Society of
Arts, having in 1830 begun that association with
Dickens, for which he is chiefly remembered. His
first drawings were for ' Sunday as it is, by
Timothy Sparks.' The publication of ' Pickwick '
followed in the same year, and after the death of
Robert Seymour, and the failure of Buss, Browne
was chosen by Dickens to finish the series. On
the first two plates he signed himself ' Nemo,' but
afterwards adopted 'Pliiz,' as more in harmony
with 'Boz.' This association between writer and
artist lasted many years, and bore fruit in ' Nicho-
las Nickleby,' 1839; 'Martin Chuzzlewit,' 1844;
'Dorabey and Son,' 1848: 'David Copperfield,'
1850 ; ' Bleak House,' 1853'; '' Little Dorrit,' 1855,
and 'A Tale of Two Cities,' 1859. Later, 'Phiz'
designed illustrations for the novels of Ainswortli,
Lever, and Frank Smedley ; his mastery of horses
serving *liim well with the two latter. After his
prosperity became assured he left London, and
lived successively at Croydon and at Banstead,
working at his art, and spending most of his leisure
in the hunting-field. He painted in water-colours
and occasionally in oil, contributing for many years
to the British Institution and the Society of British
Artists, and even competing at Westminster Hall
in 1843. In 1867 he was overtaken lay partial
paral3'sis, and though he continued to work for
the fifteen years that passed before his death, his
hand had lost its cunning. Towards the close of
his life he received a small pension from the Royal
Academy. In 1880 he moved with his wife and
family to Brighton, where he died, July 8, 1882.

BUNNEY, John Wharlton, painter, born in
1808, was an English artist practising in Venice.
In 1873, 1879, and 1881 he exhibited views of
Venice at the Royal Academy. For the last four
years of his life he was engaged on an elaborate




and minutely finished transcript from the west
front of St. Mark's, on a commission from Mr.
Buskin. He died at Venice, Sept. 23, 1882.

BUENITZ, Carl Peter, landscape painter, was
bom at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1824. He was
brought up to the profession of an advocate, and in
1847 took his doctor's degree at Heidelberg, but
he meantime diligently studied art without a
teacher. After travels in Spain and Algiers, he
lived for ten years in Paris, where he devoted him-
self entirely to painting, and received valuable
help from Dupr6, Corot, and Theodore Rousseau.
He first exhibited at the Salon in 1855, a landscape
which was bought by the Emperor. He died in

BURTON, W. P., son of Capt. Wm. Paton
Burton, an oflBlcer in the Indian army, and nephew
of Dr. John Hill Burton, was born at Madras in
1828. He was educated in Edinburgh, and entered
the ofSce of David Bryce of that city, intending to
become an architect, but eventually devoted him-
self to landscape painting in water-colours. He
travelled much on the continent and in Egypt,
and produced many drawings of French river
scenery, and of old buildings in Holland and Egypt,
besides numerous studies of Surrey and Sussex
landscape. He died at Aberdeen on the 31st
December, 1883.

BUTIN, Ulyssb, painter, was bom at Saint
Quentin in 1838. He early showed a talent for
art, but his parents were poor, and could not
afford to educate him fully. He accordingly began
his career as a designer of patterns for muslins in
a factory of his native town. While thus en-
gaged he won a prize of three hundred francs, and
with the money travelled to Paris, where he com-
bined work at his trade with study under Pieot at
the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1871 he made his
dehut at the Salon with a picture called ' Le
Bouffon.' He subsequently exhibited many pic-
tures, chiefly scenes of fisher life. Among the best
of these were ' Waiting for the Boats, Villerville,'
1875, and 'A Sailor's Funeral, Villerville,' 1878.
The latter is in the Luxembourg. For twelve
years he held the post of professor of drawing to
the Bcoles de la Ville de Paris. He died in Paris,
December 9, 1883.

CABANBL, Alexandre, painter, was bom at
Montpellier in 1823. He came to Paris at an early
age, entered Picot's atelier, and crowned a successful
course at the ficole des Beaux Arts by gaining the
prix de Rome in 1845. While in Rome he painted
a 'Death of Moses,' which attracted considerable
attention at the Salon of 1862, and for which he
was awarded a medal of the second class. Another
meritorious early work was his 'Glorification of
Saint Louis,' exhibited at the Salon of 1855, and
now in the Luxembourg. But the picture by
which he is best known is his ' Birth of Venus ' of
1863, also in the Luxembourg, which was engraved
by Jules Franjois, and in which the painter may
be said to have reached the highest expression of
his graceful, delicate, and insipid art. Under the
Second Empire, Cabanel became the fashionable
portraitist of his day, and painted most of the
Mganles of the third Napoleon's Court. " His
satiny complexions and mincing hands," says a
French critic, " were a continual source of delight
to ladies and irritation to artists." His portrait of
the Emperor, painted for the Empress, gained the
mddaille d'honneur of 1866. Under the Republic

Cabanel was no less popular, and up to the very
time of his death was overwhelmed with com-
missions. As a teacher, he was very successful.
His studio at the Ecole des Beaux Arts was one of
the most frequented, and he turned out artists of
such widely diverse gifts as Benjamin Constant,
Bastien-Lepage, Albert Besnard, Aim^ Morot,
Fernand Cormon, and Henri Gervex, besides many
others. Though himself faithful to the traditions of
Cogniet, Ingres, and Abel de Pujol, Cabanel showed
great liberality in his relations with his pupils,
never seeking to impose his own style upon them,
but endeavouring to develop the individual bent
of each. In 1863 Cabanel succeeded Horace Vemet
as a member of the Institute. He was also a member
of a long list of foreign academies, and won a large
share of official honours. He died in Paris, January
22, 1889, and was buried at his native Montpellier.
CALDECOTT, Randolph, was the son of an
accountant at Chester, and was born in that city,
March 22, 1846. He was educated at the King's
School, Chester, and in his boyish days seems to
have shown the bent of his genius in drawings,
sketches, and models of animals cut in wood. At
the age of fifteen he became a clerk in the
Whitchurch Bank, Shropshire, living in an old
farm-house near the town, and in this country
atmosphere gathered up a store of impressions at
such scenes as meets, fairs, and markets, that later
yielded rich fruit. He remained at Whitchurch
for six years, and was then transferred to the
Manchester and SaHord Bank at Manchester,
where he worked steadily at his duties for five
years, meanwhile devoting all his spare time to
evening studies in the Manchester Art School, and
in summer weather to open-air sketching. In 1868
his first published drawings appeared in a local
paper called ' Will o' the Wisp,' to be followed the
next year by some contributions to another paper,
' The Sphinx.' At the same time he was painting
a little for friends, chiefly hunting subjects, and
in 1869 he exhibited a picture at the Manchester
Royal Institution. His artistic gifts now appeared
so unquestionable, that in 1870, acting on the advice
of some friends, he went to London with a letter
of introduction to Mr. Thomas Armstrong of the
South Kensington Museum, who throughout his
career consistently befriended him. Some drawings
of Caldecott's were submitted to Shirley Brooks, and
to Mark Lemon, then editor of ' Punch,' also to Mr.
Henry Blackburn, who was on the staff of ' London
Society,' with the result that the young man
became one of the regular contributors to that
journal. His water-colours and small oil-pictures
also began to ha ve a wider sale, and thus encouraged,
he determined to give up his situation in the bank,
and to devote himself to art. He came to London
early in 1872, and worked for a time in the life
class of the Slade School, under Mr. Poynter.
In June of the same year his first drawing for
' Punch ' was published. It was the beginning of
a long series of work for London illustrated papers
such as the 'Graphic,' the 'Pictorial World,' and
the American ' Daily Graphic." In the illustration
of books, Caldecott made his first essay in August,
1872, when he accompanied Mr. Blackburn to the
Harz district, and executed a number of whimsical
drawings for a book of summer travels by the
latter, ' The Harz Mountains, a Tour in the Toy
Country.' In 1873 he went to the Vienna EShibition,
to make drawings for the ' Daily Graphic' Later
in the year he worked in M. Jules Dalou's studio at





Chelsea, tlie sculptor having made a compact with
Caldeoott, who was to teach him English, while
he helped the novice with the clay. In 1876
Caldeoott exhibited an oil picture at the Royal
Academy, ' There were Three Ravens sat on a
Tree,' and a metal bas-relief, 'Horse Fair in
Brittany ; ' but towards the close of the year he
began to show symptoms of failing health, and
was obliged to winter in the South, whence he
Drought home innumerable sketches, and there
he made the drawings illustrating Mrs. Comyns
Carr's 'North Italian Polk.' In 1878 he agreed
with Mr. Edmund Evans to illustrate some books
for children, to be printed in colour. Of these
the following is a complete list, with dates of
publication : ' The House that Jack Built ' and
'John Gilpin,' 1878; 'Elegy on a Mad Dog'
and 'Babes in the Wood,' 1879; 'Three Jovial
Huntsmen' and ' Sing a Song of Sixpence,' 1880 ;
'Queen of Hearts' and 'Farmer's Boy,' 1881;
'The Milkmaid' and ' Hey-diddle-diddle,' 1882;
'The Fox jumps over the Parson's Gate' and
' A Frog he would a-wooing go,' 1883 ; ' Come,
Lasses and Lads ' and ' Ride a Cook Horse to
Banbury Cross,' 1884; 'Mrs. Mary Blaize' and
' The Great Panjandrum,' 1886. Of books illustrated
in black and white we may mention Washington
Irving's 'Old Christmas,' 1875; and ' Braoebridge
Hall,' 1876; ' iEsop's Fables with Modern In-
stances,' 1883 ; also illustrations for several of
Mrs. Swing's books, notably 'Jackanapes' and
' Lob-lie-by-the-Fire.' Various tours in Brittany
in company with Mr. Henry Blackburn were com-
memorated by drawings and terra-cotta studies of
Breton life. For many years Caldeoott suffered
from heart complaint, the result of rheumatic fever,
and in the winter of 1885-6 he was advised to winter
in Florida. He accordingly sailed with his wife
for the United States. The season, unhappily,
proved abnormally severe. He reached St. Augus-
tine's, Florida, but only to die, February 12, 1886.
His last work was part of a series of ' American
Facts and Fancies ' drawn for the ' Daily Graphic'

CALVERT, Edward, painter and draughtsman,
was born in Cornwall about 1803. His father was
a naval officer, and he himself served for a time as
a midshipman. He studied painting under a west
country artist named Johns, married at an early
age, and, coming to London, entered the Royal
Academy Schools. He began work in the capital
as an illustrative draughtsman upon wood. His
diffidence led him to constantly destroy his blocks
and plates, so that impressions from them are very
scarce. His admiration for Greek art led him to
visit Greece, whence he brought back many studies.
A worshipper of Blake, whose acquaintance he had
made in his youth, he became the intimate friend of
John Linnell, and of his son-in-law, Samuel Palmer.
He died on the 14th July, 1883. Among his prints
the most remarkable are perhaps the ' Christian
ploughing the Last Furrow of Life,' and the ' Cider
Press,' both strongly reminiscent of Blake.

CAMPBELL, Chaules William, an English
engraver in mezzotint, was born at Tottenham,
July 13, 1855. In 1870 he entered the office of his
father, an architect and surveyor, and stayed there
until 1878. In the meanwhile he studied Ruskin
and practised drawing so far as his means and
leisure would allow him. Finally he was intrusted
by Mr. Burne-Jones with his picture of the ' Birth
of Galatea,' to be scraped in mezzotint. The plate
was published early in 1886, and was followed by


an ' Ophelia,' from his own design, and ' Pan and
Psyche,' again after Burne-Jones. All three were
pure mezzotint, without adulteration by any other
process. Campbell also scraped a mezzotint of
Miss Ellen Terry from life, and at his premature
death, which occurred on May 31, 1887, left the
following plates in various stages of completion :

The Annunciation ; after E. Burne-Jones.
The Virgin among Eocks ; after Leajmrdo da Vinci,
Portrait of Cardinal Newman ; after G. F. Watts.
' Ariosto ' ; after the portrait iy Palma formerly so
called and ascribed to Titian, in the National Gallery.
After Strong Seas ; from his own design.

CANON, Hans, (or Johann von Steaschiripka,)
a German painter, of Polish descent, was bom in
1829. In 1853 he dropped his unpronounceable
Polish name for that by which he was afterwards
known. He began life in the army, but in 1863
studied under Rahl, and subsequently worked in
Paris under Delaroohe and Horace Vernet. He
first attracted attention as a satirico-poKtioal
draughtsman, then as a painter of portraits and

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 197 of 201)