Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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studied under Sohadow at Berlin, and under Corne-
lius at Munich. In 1824-5 he was working under
Hermann on the frescoes in the Aula at Bonn,
and was afterwards employed on those in the
arcades of the Munich Hofgarten. He married
a daughter of Jean Paul Richter, and this con-
nection led him again in the direction of literature.
After the death of his father-in-law he pubKshed
several biographical notices of him, and edited his
literary remains. He was employed in 1832 by
the then Crown Prince Max, of Bavaria, to visit
Italy, and make a series of drawings from the
antique, and his archasological researches in con-
nection with this work were afterwards embodied
in his 'Material for a new History of Art' (1835).
He also carried out various decorative works in
the new palace at Munich. Of his numerous
literary productions in connection with art the most
important are : ' A History of German Art ' (1851-

762



60) ; ' Monuments of German Architecture, Sculp-
ture and Painting' (1853-69) ; 'Life of Raphael'
(1867-69); 'History of Italian Art' (1869-75).
He published the continuation of Schorn's German
version of Vasari, and was joint editor vnth Kugler
of the 'Kunstblatt' from 1842-49. He died in
1885.

FRANCOIS, Alphonse, one of the most famous
of modern French engravers, was born in Paris in
1811. Left an orphan in his childhood, he was
early thrown on his own resources, and began life
as a goldsmith's engraver. His skill and industry
soon insured him a modest livelihood in Paris, but,
oppressed by the mechanical drudgery of his craft,
he turned his thoughts to music, and was even
engaged for a time in the orchestra of the Con-
servatoire concerts. He next tried the stage, and
was fond, in after life, of describing a memorable
occasion on which he played with Rachel. Through
his elder brother, Jules, he was introduced at the
mature age of twenty-six to Henriquel-Dupont, the
engraver. Henriquel received him kindly, and
agreed to let him work in his atelier. Though
absolutely ignorant even of the elements of draw-
ing, Fran9ois set to work, confident of success.
It happened during the first year of his apprentice-
ship that he saw a portrait of Titian at the house
of the well-known collector, M. Chaix d'Est-Ange,
and asked leave to make a drawing of it. To the
amazement df Henriquel, he then announced his
intention of engraving it. The result was extra-
ordinarily successful for a first efEort. With each
fresh undertaking his powers developed. His plates
began to attract attention at the Salon, where he
first exhibited in 1842, and Paul Delaroche per-
suaded Messrs. Goupil to intrust one of his own
pictures to the debutant, the 'Napoleon crossing
the Alps.' This was followed by numerous com-
missions from the same firm, and by plates after
Fra Angelico's ' Coronation of the Virgin,' and
Cabanel's ' Birth of Venus,' for the Chalcographie
du Louvre. Henceforth commissions poured in on
him, and the story of his later years is one of
uneventful prosperity, up to the time of his loss
of sight. Debarred by this calamity from the work
in wliich he delighted, his health and spirits alike
gave way, and he died in Paris, July 6, 1888.
Among his later undertakings was a commission
from the directors of the Dor6 Gallery, in London,
to reproduce the pictnres-in their exhibition. This
long and laborious work was carried out with the
help of pupils and assistants, the plates being
finally worked over by Franfois himself. Of his
finer plates after other masters we may also name:

The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine ; after Memlinc.

The Virgin ou the Steps ; after Titian.

Marie Antoinette leaving the Eevolutionary Tribunal ;

after Delaroche.
The Youth of Pico de la Mirandola ; after the same.
Psyche ; after Jules Lefebvre.

FREEMAN, James Edward, painter, was a
native of Nova Scotia, but was educated in the
National Academy in New York. He settled in
Rome, where he painted genre pictures, mostly of
Italian subjects. He is known also by his publica-
tion, ' A Portfolio of Italian Sketches.' He died in
1884.

FRERE, Charles ThiSodorb, (Bey,) painter, was
born in Paris in 1815. He was a pupil of Roque-
plan and L^on Cogniet, and made his debvi at
the Salon in 1834 with landscapes from Northern
France. Two years later he went to Algiers, and



FrSre



SUPPLEMENT.



Baglie



afterwards spent some time in Africa, whence he
drew his subjects for the rest of his life. He died
in Paris, March 24, 1888.

FR:feRE, PiEBBE Edodaed, a French genre painter,
was born in Paris, January 10, 1819. He studied
under Delaroche, and made his dibut at the Salon of
1843. His early pictures were chiefly interiors of
cottages, workshops, &c., with cobblers, coopers,
cooks, and other industrious members of the lower
classes at work. They were warm and transparent
in colour, and often forcible in chiaroscuro. In
later years he almost entirely confined himself to
painting incidents of child life, and became cold in
colour and feeble in his light and shade. He
produced a great number of drawings in which
coloured figures are set against monochrome back-
grounds, generally sketched in black chalk. His
works are well known in England, where he
frequently exhibited, first at the French Gallery in
1854. His first picture in the Eoyal Academy was
one of his most characteristic works, the ' Girls
leaving School.' Frire lived at Bcouen, and died
there. May 23, 1886.

6A1LLARD, Claude Ferdinand, engraver and
painter, was born in Paris, January 7, 1834. He
entered the fioole des Beaux Arts in 1850, and
worked under L^on Cogniet. He won the Prix
de Rome as an engraver in 1856, and from 1863
onwards was a constant contributor to the Salon,
of portraits, classical and sacred ■ subjects, both
painted and engraved. He executed several im-
portant commissions for the Chalcographie du
Louvre, among them the reproduction of Leonardo's
' Monna Lisa ' and ' Last Supper,' and engraved a
number of plates for the ' Gazette des Beaux Arts.'
His plates were principally after the old masters,
but he also engraved occasionally from his own
pictures, and those of other modern painters. His
style, both with paint-brush and burin, was a
marvel of accurate minuteness. Several of his
works are in the Luxembourg. He died in January,
1887.

GALLAIT, Louis, painter, was born at Tournay
in 1810, and was educated in his native town. He
showed his artistic talent at a very early age, and
gained a prize from the Ghent Academy while
still a boy. The municipal authorities of Tournay
bought one of his early performances, a ' Christ
restoring sight to the Blind Man,' and presented
it to the cathedral. The city further granted him
a sum of money in 1835, which enabled him to
study in Paris, under Hennequin. Henceforth his
career was one of assured success. His ambitious
and melodramatic pictures were received with
great favour by the public, though condemned by
artists and connoisseurs. His art had much in
common with that of his contemporary, Scheffer,
with whom he was often compared, though Gallait
was a very much more accomplished craftsman
than the Franco-Dutch painter. He gained a long
list of honours, prizes, and distinctions both at home
and abroad, was a member of the Institute of
Prance, and an honorary foreign Eoyal Academi-
cian. Several of his pictures were at the Inter-
national Exhibition of 1862. He died November
20, 1887.

6AUCHEREL, LiON, engraver, etcher, _ and
painter in water-colours, was born in Paris in
1816. He was a pupil of Viollet le Due, with
whom he travelled in Italy and Sicily. He was a
constant exhibitor at the Salon, where he gained



numerous official honours from 1853 onwards. Ho
etched many plates for the 'Gazette des Beaux
Arts,' for ' L'Art,' the ' Portfolio,' and other pub-
lications. He died in Paris in 1885.

GBYERj Alexius, landscape painter, was born
at Berlin in 1826, and studied in the academies
of Berlin, Munich, and Dresden. He worked for
some years in Rome and Paris, and was patronized
by King Otho of Greece. He painted a num-
ber of large water-colours for the Archasological
Museum at Berlin, and also worked for King
Frederick William IV. of Prussia. He died in
1883.

GILL, Ande^, a French painter and political
caricaturist, was bom in October, 1840. He studied
under Leloir, and at the Acaddmie des Beaux Arts.
He exhibited a few portraits, &c. at the Salon, but
was best known by his caricatures of notabilities
under the second empire. He became insane about
five years before his death, which took place in
1885.

GILLIES, Miss Maesaeet, the daughter of a
Scotch merchant settled in London, and niece of
Lord Gillies the judge, was born in Tbrogmorton
Street in 1803. Her father having lost his fortune,
she lived as a girl under the care of her uncle in
Edinburgh, where she enjoyed the society of some
of the most notable men of the day, among them
Scott, Brskine, and Jeffrey. Determined, however,
to earn an honourable livelihood for herself, she
resolved to become an artist, and went to Paris to
study, where she made the acquaintance of the
Soheifers, and worked more or less under their
direction. She made her (Mmt as a painter of
miniatures, and afterwards devoted herself to water-
colour drawings of domestic or romantic subjects.
In 1852 she was elected an associate of the Water-
Colour Society, of which she was the first lady
member. With that body she was a constant
exhibitor, contributing down to the year before her
death, which took place at her house at Hampstead
in the spring of 1888.

GODDARD, Bouveeie, an Enghsh animal
painter, was bom in Wiltshire in 1834. He came
to London in 1849, and studied for two years in
the Zoological Gardens. In 1851 he settled in
Salisbury, but six years later returned to London.
He was a constant exhibitor at the Eoyal Academy.
He died at Brook Green in 1888. His ' Struggle
for Existence ' is in the Walker Art Gallery,
Liverpool

GOSLING, William, landscape and figure
painter, was bom in 1824. He took to painting
somewhat late in life, but in 1852 he was elected
a member of the Society of British Artists; he
exhibited frequently with that body, and with the
Royal Academy. He died at Wargrave, Henley-
on-Thames, December 6, 1883.

GOUPIL, Jules Adolphe, born in Paris in 1839,
was a pupil of Henri and Ary Scheffer, and a
popular painter of portraits and genre. He first
exhibited at the Salon in 1878. He died in Paris
of consumption, April 28, 1883.

HADAMARD, Auguste, a French painter of
portraits and genre, was born at Metz in 1823, and
was a pupil of Paul Delaroche. He was a frequent
exhibitor at the Salon between 1846 and 1880. He
died in 1886.

HAGHE, Louis, water-colour painter and litho-
grapher, was bora at Tournay in 1806. He came
to England while still a young man, was elected

763



Hamman



SUPPLEMENT.



HoU



one of the foundation members of the New Society
(afterwards Institute) of Painters in Water-Colours,
and made his debut in London at their exhibition
in 1835. Of this body he continued an influential
member for many years ; he acted as vice-president
under Mr. Henry Warren, and on the death of the
latter in 1873 was elected President. His subjects
were chiefly the picturesque streets and buildings
of Northern France and of the Low Countries, which
he treated both in water-colour and lithography.
He was a partner in the well-known lithographic
establishment of Day & Haghe. He exhibited oc-
casionally in Paris. Among his best-known publi-
cations was 'A Portfolio of Sketches in Belgium,
Germany, &o.,' in three vols. London, 1840-60. In
1883 he resigned his Presidentship of the Institute,
and died at Stockwell, March 9, 1885.

HAMMAN, Edoaed Jean Conead, a Belgian
painter, was born at Ostend in 1819. He was a
pupil of Nicaise de Keyser, and in 1846 settled in
Paris. He was much employed by the French
Government, and gained the orthodox honours.
He died in Paris, on March 30, 1888. Pictures :

Dante at Ravenna. {Brussels Museum.')
Entry of Albert and Isabella into Ostend. {Do.)
Vesalius.

Infancy of Charles V. ; a reading of Erasmus. {Luxem-
bourg.)

HEDODIN, Edmond, painter and engraver, was
born at Boulogne in July, 1820, and became a pupil
of Paul Delaroche and of C^lestin Nanteuil. He
first attracted attention as a painter of rustic scenes
and of Algerian subjects. But it is as an engraver
that he takes an important place among modern
artists. For the Print Department of the Louvre
he reproduced Boucher's ' Diana at the Bath,' and
Carl van Loo's 'Halt of Huntsmen.' He was
largely employed by French publishers as an
illustrator of Editions de luxe. Among his most
successful undertakings were the engravings for
'Manon Lesoaut,' for the French translation of
'The Sentimental Journey,' for Rousseau's 'Con-
fessions,' and for the works of Moliere. This last
received the m^daille d'honnev/r at the Salon of
1888. He died on the 13th of January, 1889.

HEINLEIN, Heineich, landscape painter, was
born at Nassau-Weilburg in 1803. His mother, a,
pastel painter of some repute, gave him his early
instruction in art. He also worked under Gartner
at Munich, and later in the Mannheim Academy.
He travelled much in Italy and Switzerland, and
his subjects were chiefly mountain scenery. Many
of his pictures are in German galleries. He died
in 1885.

HENDSCHEL, Albbet, painter, draughtsman,
and etcher, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Maine,
June 9, 1834, and studied at the Staedel Institute
under Steinle, Passavant, and Jakob Becker. In
1869-70 he visited Italy. His pictures were chiefly
poetical and humorous illustrations of German
legends and folk-lore, but he occasionally painted
genre. His ' Sketch-Book ' was published in 1872-
74. He etched a few plates. He died in 1883.

HERDMAN, Robert, a Scottish painter of
portraits and historical subjects, was born at
Rattray, Perthshire, in 1830, and was educated at
the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh. The son of a
minister, he was himself intended for the church,
but showed such a disposition for art, that he was
allowed to abandon the idea and become the pupil
of R. S. Lauder. From 1861 onwards he was a
frequent contributor to the Royal Academy Exhibi-



tions, where, however, his works failed to attract
much attention. In the north he had a considerable
reputation, and painted many portraits of Edin-
burgh notabilities. He became an associate of the
Scottish Academy in 1861, and a full member in
1863, and took an active part in the management
of that body. He died very suddenly of heart
disease, in his studio at Edinburgh, December 31,
1887. There are two pictures by him in the Scot-
tish National Gallery.

HILLEMACHER, Ernest, a French historical
and genre painter, was born about 1818. He was
a pupil of L6on Cogniet, and a frequent exhibitor
at the Salon, where he won the usual honours. He
died in 1887. Works :

Moliere and his Housekeeper.
Philip lY. and Velazquez.
Mortimer and Kichard Flantagenet,
A Game of Whist.

HOLL, Feank, was born at St. James's Terrace,
Kentish Town, London, on the 4th July, 1845.
He was the son of the eminent engraver, Francis
Holl, A.R.A. He was educated at Heath Mount
School, Hampstead, and at University College
School, Gower Street. At the age of fifteen he
became a probationer in the school of the Royal
Academy, where he was among the most successful
students of his year. In 1868 he won the travel-
ling scholarship with his picture of ' The Lord
gave, and the Lord hath taken away,' but resigned
it twelve months later, as he found he was not
profiting by the foreign travel it rendered obliga-
tory. Between 1869 and 1878 he exhibited many
pictures at the Academy, dealing mostly with the
more sombre incidents in domestic life. By these
he won reputation, but scarcely popularity. In
1878 he exhibited 'Newgate,' his most ambitious
subject picture, and a portrait. The latter was a
success, and led to the production of a half-length
portrait of Mr. Samuel Cousins, the famous en-
graver. This was at the Academy in 1879, and
its merits were so great that from the moment it
was seen until the author's death, he was never
without more commissions for portraits than he
could carry out. A list of the more remarkable
among them is given below. HoU's constitution,
which had been weakly from his birth, gave way
under the strain imposed upon him by his popu-
larity, and during his latter years he developed a
dangerous weakness of the heart. In 1888, after
the pictures had been sent in for the annual exhi-
bition, he paid a flying visit to Madrid. The
fatigue thus caused, added to the strain of finishing
his portraits for the Academy, brought on an
attack which proved fatal on the morning of the
last day in July. Holl was elected an A.R.A. in
1878, and a full Academician in 1884. The follow-
ing list is confined to his more notable works :

The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away. 1863.

{F. a Fawle, Esq.)
No Tidings from the Sea. 1871. {Tke Queen.)
'I am the Resurrection and the life.' 1872. {John

Akroyd, Esq.)
Leaving Home. 1873. {Mrs. Sill.)
Want. The Pawnbroker's Shop. 1873. {The late Felix

Vigne, Esq.)
Deserted. 1874.

Ordered to the Front. 1880. {Sir Thos. Zucas, Bart.)
Returned from the Wars. 1881. {Do.)
Portrait of Dr. Oradook. IBS] . {Brasenose College.)
„ „ Sir Henry Rawlinson. 1881.
„ „ Captain Sim. 1881. {Commercial Dock

Company.)



Hubert!



SUPPLEMENT.



Leai



Portrait of Sir Fredk. Roberts. 1881. (The Queen.)

„ „ William Agnew, Esq. 1S83.

„ „ Lord Wolseley. 1883. (Mrs. Frank Soil.)

„ „ Duke of Cambridge. 1883.

„ „ B. H. Oarbutt, Esq. 1884.

„ „ Prince of Wales. 1884. (Middle Temple.)
Francis Holl, A.R.A. 1884. (Mrs. Frank Holl.)
Portrait of Marquis of Dufferin and Ara. 1885.

„ „ Viscount Hampden. 1885.

„ „ Duke of Cleveland. 1885.

„ „ Sir George Trevelyan. 1886.

„ „ Lord Overstone. 1887. (Lord Wantage.)

,, „ Mr. Bright. 1887. (Reform Club.)

'„ „ Earl Spencer. 1888.

„ „ Mr. Gladstone. 1888.

„ „ Pierpont Morgan, Esq. 1888. {J. S. Mor-
gan, F.sq.)

„ „ Major Graham.

„ „ John Tenniel. ( William Agnew, Esq)

„ „ Mr. Chamberlain.

HUBEBTI, Gaspab, the engraver of an excellent
plate in the etyle of Hollar, after a portrait of
General Thomas Preston, now at Gormanston
Castle, County Meath. Of Huberti's life no par-
ticulars have been yet discovered. The only known
impression from his plate is in the library of Trinity
College, Dublin.

INCHBOLD, John William, painter and etcher,
bora at Leeds, April 29, 1830, was the son of Mr.
Thomas Inchbold, editor and proprietor of the
'Leeds Intelligencer.' He was educated in his
native town, and showing a strong taste for
drawing, was sent to London to be trained as a,
draughtsman in Messrs. Day and Haghe's litho-
graphic works. About 1847 he began the study
of_ water-colours under Mr. Louis Haghe. His
first exhibited works were ' Sheep's Tor, Dartmoor,'
and ' The Dewer Stone, Dartmoor,' which he sent
to the Suffolk Street Gallery in 1849. He early
became an adherent of Pre-Eaphaelism, his works
being distinguished by a laborious accuracy and
minuteness. In 1851 he exhibited two water-
colours at the Academy, and in 1855 his contribu-
tion, ' The Moorland,' was the subject of a warm
panegyric from Mr. Ruskin in his notes on that
year's Academy. As his powers developed, the
painter gradually acquired a larger and more
sympathetic manner, retaining the sentiment which
distinguished his early works, and showing much
power in the treatment of mountain distances and
effects of atmosphere. He etched a considerable
number of plates, though few were published, and
was favourably known in the literary" world as the
author of a volume of poems, 'Annus Amoris,'
published in 1877. He died suddenly of heart
disease, at his sister's house at Headingly, near
Leeds, January 23, 1888.

ISABEY, EnGENB Louis Gabriel, painter, son
and pupil of the famous miniaturist, was born in
Paris in 1804. He was one of the most original
of the ' men of '30.' In 1830 he accompanied the
French expedition to Algiers as marine draughts-
man. He practised later in Paris, and distin-
guished himself by his bold, effective, though
sometimes false treatment of marines and land-
scapes. He gained the usual honours from the
French Government, and died in April, 1886.
Among his best pictures we may name :

Battle off the Texel. 1839. (Versailles Museum.)
Embarkation of Napoleon's Corpse.
View of Boulogne. {Toulouse Museum.)
Embarkation of DeWitt and De Euyter. (Luxembourg.)
Wreck of the 'Emily.'



JAMIELLL See above, Miel, Jan.
JONG KIND, Johannes Barthold, Dutch painter,
is still alive.
JUSTUS OF Padua. See above, Menabuoi.

KALTBNMOSER, Max, a German painter of
domestic genre, was born at Munich in 1842, and
was the son of Caspar Kaltenmoser. In 1858 he
entered the Munich Academy, where he studied
under Poltz and Arthur von Eamberg. He died
in 1887.
KEARSB, Mrs. See above, Lawrence, Mary,
KEELING, W. K., an English painter, born
about 1808, practised in Manchester, where he took
an active part in the foundation of the Manchester
Academy of Fine Arts. He died February 21,
1886.

LALANNE, Maxime, draughtsman and etcher,
was bom at Bordeaux in 1827. . He was a pupil of
Gigoux. He was an assiduous exhibitor at the
Salon, where ho won the orthodox medals and
knighthood. His etchings are famous for the
scientific clarity of their method, a method which
he explained in his ' Treatise on Etching,' published
in 1866. Lalanne died in 1886. Among his
plates we may name :

Animals at Pasture ; after Berchem. 1864.
Italian Landscape ; after Claude. 1865.
Souvenir de Bordeaux. 1867.
Paris from the Trocad^ro. 1867.
Cows crossing a Ford ; after Troyon. 1873.
The Cornfield ; after Ruysdael.
Twilight ; after Crome.
Paris from the Louvre.

LAN^ON, AuGUSTB, painter and etcher, was a
native of Saint-Claude (Jura), and a pupil of Picot.
He painted chiefly battle-pieces and animals, and
was well known as an etcher. His best plates were
a series of seventeen from the Franco-Prussian War
of 1870-1. He died in May, 1885. His heirs pre-
sented his ' Lionne en arret ' to the Luxembourg,
and his ' Tranch^e devant Le Bourget' to the city
of Paris.

LAPIERRE, Louis-EMiLfi, landscape painter,
born in Paris in 1817, was a pupil of V. Bertin.
He exhibited landscapes, many of them of scenes
in the neighbourhoods of Rome and Fontainebleau.
He died in 1886.

LAZEEGES, Jean Raymond Hippolyte, painter,
was born at Narbonne, July 5, 1817. He was a
pupil of David d'Angers and of F. Bouchot, and
painted religious and historical subjects, exhibiting
a large number of works at the Salon between 1840
and 1880. He was much employed in decorative
painting for French churches. Examples of his
work in this genre are to be seen in the Bglise
Saint-Laurent at Orleans, and in the Eglise de
Notre Dame de Recouvrance ; also in the church
of S. Eustache in Paris. A ' Death of the Virgin '
by him, in the Tuileries Chapel, perished with the
palace. He died in Paris, October, 1887.

LEAR, Edward, draughtsman and landscape
painter, was born in 1813 (?), on the Earl of Derby's
estate near Knowsley, in Lancashire, his father
being an employe of the Earl. He was the youngest
of twenty-one children, and by the help of friends
was enabled to become an accurate zoological
draughtsman. In 1835 he came to London, and
first exhibited at the Suffolk Street Gallery in the
following year — ' A Study of Dead Birds.' It was
his practice to make minute studies of birds in

765



Legras



SUPPLEMENT.



SCaillot



the Zoological Gardens, and many of the draw-
ings in Gould's earlier volumes were by him.
He also worked much in hospitals as a patholo-
gical draughtsman. The outcome of a visit to
Knowsley was 'The Knowsley Menagerie,' now
a rare and highly-prized book. He became a con-
stant visitor at Knowsley, and there composed that
' Book of Nonsense,' by which he is best known.
He had meanwhile been devoting himself seriously
to landscape painting, and when his delicate health
began to give way under the severity of English
winters, the successor of his first patron started a
subscription wliich enabled him to go to Rome for
further study. In 1846 he published his 'Illus-
trated Excursions in Italy,' which he gratefully
dedicated to the then Earl of Derby. A kindred
work was 'Sketches of Rome and its Environs.'
Journeyings in Greece, -Albania, Sicily, Malta,
Corsica, Palestine, Syria and Egypt, &o., were all



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 199 of 201)