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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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industriously recorded in like picturesque fashion
with pen and pencil, drawing from Tennyson the
' Lines to E. L. on his Wanderings and Travels in
Greece.' Lear never became popular, however, as
a landscape painter, and in his later, years he can
scarcely be said to have risen above the rank of a
topographical artist, as which he was accustomed
modestly to describe himself. In character he was
a man of great amiability and personal charm, and
his social gifts attracted to him an immense circle
of friends in the various countries he visited.
Towards the close of his life he lived in great
retirement at San Remo, where he had built him-
self a house, and where he died, January 29, 1888.
Besides the illustrated books above mentioned,
Lear further published 'Illustrations of Parrots,'
'More Nonsense Pictures,' and 'Laughable Lyrics.'

LEGRAS, AuGUSTE, was born at Perigueux,
June 2, 1817, and was a pupil of Bonnefond and
of Ary Soheffer. He was a successful painter of
portraits, genre, and still-life, and exhibited at the
Salon between 1847 and 1882. He died in October,

LELOIR, Alexandre, painter in water-colours,
born in Paris, March 14, 1843, was a pupil of
his father, J. B. Auguste Leloir. He made his
debut at the Salon of 1863, when he exhibited a
' Massacre of the Innocents,' which was followed
by various genre pictures and sacred subjects. He
died in Paris in 1884.

I LEMUD, AiM^ DE, a French painter, engraver,
and lithographer, was born in 1816, and studied
under M. Mar^ohal of Metz. He learnt engraving
in order to illustrate the songs of B^ranger, and
practised his new art with much success. He was
best known, however, by two popular lithographs,
' Maltre Wolf ramb ' and ' Helene Adelsfreit.' He
retired to Nancy some years before his death, which
took place in April, 1887. His 'Fall of Adam'
is in the Museum of Nancy, and his ' Prisonnier '
in that of Metz.

LE PAON, Jean Baptiste, a French draughts-
man and battle painter of some repute in the 18th
century, was born near Paris in 1738. He began
life as a dragoon, and served in the Seven Years'
War, but was wounded and discharged. He then
came to Paris and submitted sketches he had made
during the campaign to Boucher and Carle Van
Loo, who encouraged liim to persevere. He accord-
ingly studied under Casanova, and first exhibited
at the Salon in 1779. Several of his battle pieces
are in the Versailles Museum, and in the Nantes
Museum there is a hunting scene by him. He


also engraved a plate, ' La Trompette.' He married
in 1785, but the date of his death is not known.

LEEIUS, Joseph Henri FEANgois Van, a Belgian
historical and subject painter, was bom at Boom,
near Antwerp, in 1823. He studied in the Acade-
mies of Brussels and Antwerp, and was a pupil of
Baron Wappers. His works achieved much popu-
larity in his native country, and he rose into the
front rank of contemporary Belgian painters. He
became professor of painting in the Antwerp
Academy, and died at Mechlin in 1876. His best
known picture is ' Lady Godiva.'

LifeVEB, Bdouard, painter, engraver, and de-
signer, was born at Blamont, Meurthe, in 1829,
and was a pupil of Couture. He eventually de-
voted himself chiefly to archaeology, and published
several works on decoration and ornament, also a
book on ' The Works of Art in England.' He died
in Paris, November 26, 1886.

LOD. FERRARESE. See above, Mazzolini.

LOFTHOUSE, Mrs. Mary, n4e Foester, painter
in water-colours, was born in 1853. She was the
daughter of Mr. T. W. B. Porster, a painter who
frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy. Her
drawings appeared at the Dudley Gallery and at
Burlington House, but more often at the exhibitions
of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours, of
which she was elected an Associate in 1884. She
died at Halliford, May 2, 1885.

LUCAS, David, mezzotint engraver, was bom
on August 18, 1802. He is famous as " Con-
stable's engraver," having reproduced in mezzotint
a number of that painter's works. The chief enter-
prise on which the two men collaborated, was a
series of plates published with the collective title
of 'English Landscape.' Besides these Lucas
engraved the following single plates after Con-
stable: 'The Lock,' 'The Cornfield,' 'Salisbury
from the Meadows,' ' Dedham Vale,' ' The Young
Waltonians,' ' Hadleigh Castle.' In each of these
the style of the painter was reproduced with extra-
ordinary force and truth. Lucas also engraved a few
portraits, but they are of slight merit. Many years
before his death he gave way to intemperate habits,
and abandoned his art. He died in 1881. The
following plates by him may also be named :

The Grand Oanal ; after J. D. Harding.

The Corsair's Isle ; do,

Grace Darling ; after J. W. Garmichael and B, W.

Landscape with Mill ; after Lee.
The Burns Monument, on the Doon ; after F. C. AvXd.

MACBETH, NoBMAN, a Scottish portrait painter,
was born in 1822. He was educated in Edinburgh,
and in 1870 was elected an Associate of the Royal
Scottish Academy. In 1880 he became a full
member, his diploma picture being a portrait of
Sir John Steell, E.S.A. He afterwards moved to
London, where he was representative trustee of
the Scottish Academy at the British Institution.
He died in London, February 27, 1888. Mr. R. W.
Macbeth, A.R.A., Mr. James Macbeth, and Mr.
Macbeth-Raeburn, are his sons. His portrait of
Dr. William Lindsay Alexander is in the Scottish
National Portrait Gallerv.

MAGLIBTTI. See above, Macchietti.

MAILLOT, Theodore Pierre Nicolas, painter,
was born in Paris in 1826. He was a pupil of
Drolling and Picot. He won the First Grand Prix
de Rome in 1854, and afterwards painted many
historical pictures, including some for the French




Government. Works by him are in the Pantheon,
the church of St. Jaoijues-du-Haut-Pas, and in the
Chapelle de St. Marcel. He died at Passy, June
25, 1888.

MAKART, Hans, painter, was born at Salzburg,
May 29, 1840, of parents who belonged to the
humbler burgher class. In 1858 he entered the
Vienna Academy, from which he was dismissed
a few months later as " entirely devoid of talent 1 "
He returned, greatly discouraged, to Salzburg, and
had almost made up his mind to turn engraver,
when his maternal uncle, one- Sohiffmann, a local
painter, came to his aid, provided him with money,
and took him to Munich, where, after two years'
delay, he entered Piloty's atelier. Makart remained
there until 1868, painting and exhibiting a few
works, which attracted little attention, but enabled
him to pay visits to Paris, London, and Italy. In
1868 he painted two pictures which created an
immense sensation throughout Germany. These
were the ' Modern Amorini,' a triptych representing
groups of children against a background of gold,
and a 'Plague in Florence, or the Seven Deadly
Sins,' also in three compartments. Thenceforth
Makart' s career was an ever-recurrent triumph.
In 1869 he was invited to Vienna by the Emperor
Francis Joseph, and a splendid atelier built for
him at Government expense. In Vienna he became
the centre of a brilliant circle, the recognized
organizer of /^to and pageants,, and the dispenser
of gorgeous hospitalities in his own studio. The
great allegorical ' progress ' in honour of the Em-
peror's silver wedding (1879), was designed by him
in every detail. His talent was further shown in
his decorations for the Vienna ' Kunst-Museura.'
Of his easel pictures, the earliest were the best.
Later, he dashed ofi enormous compositions which
had little but a certain brilliant assertiveness to
recommend them. In 1879 Makart became pro-
fessor of a special school of history-painting in the
Vienna Academy, and as a teacher his influence
was beneficial. Makart was twice married ; for
the second time, in 1882, to the ballet-dancer,
Bertha Linda. He died suddenly on the 3rd of
October, 1884, at Vienna. He was buried with
extraordinary pomp, the whole city flocking to his
funeral. Of his more careful works, the best, per-
haps, are: ' Abundantia,' a series of life-size alle-
gorical figures, typifying the riches of land and
sea; 'The Triumph of Catarina Cornaro,' 1873,
now in the National Gallery of Berlin ; the ' Entry
of Charles V. into Antwerp,' 1878 (Hamburg Kunst-
halle) ; 'Cleopatra's Voyage' (Stuttgart Gallery);
allegories of 'The Senses,' 'Spring,' 'Summer,'
'Morning,' 'Evening,' 'Noon,' and 'Night'

MABAVEIA. See above, under Pensabbne.

MARC, A., born at Metz in 1818, was a painter
and draughtsman, but was better known as editor
of ' Illustration.' He practised for a time as draw-
ing-master at Diekirch, in Luxembourg, when a
very young man, and subsequently became a pupil
of Delaroche, exhibiting first at the Salon of 1847.
He died in 1886.

MARINI, Gtolia. See Ntjti.

MASTER P., The, is known as the engraver of
a fine early print, either German or Netherlandish
in origin, called the ' Immaculata ' pr ' Mary
as Queen of Heaven.' It bears as signature a
Gothic P. and the date 1451, but the latter, it is
thought, may have been tampered with on the one
impression known. This was formerly in the
Weigel collection, at the sale of which in 1872 it

fetched nearly £600, and was reproduced in
Weigel's ' Drucker-Kunst ' and The Sale Catalogue.

MATOUT, Louis, painter, was born at Eenwez,
Ardennes, March 19, 1811. He studied at the
College Rollin, at Charleville, and was intended
for the profession of an architect, but abandoned it
in favour of painting, and entered the ficole dea
Beaux Arts in Paris. In 1846 he was sent to
Rome, and commissioned by Government to paint
five pictures on the subject of ' The Senses.' 'Two
only were completed, and these were exhibited at
the Salon of 1848, together with a ' Pan surrounded
by Nymphs.' Shortly afterwards he made a stay
of some length in Algiers, and on his return he
received another important Government commis-
sion, the decoration of the Paris School of Medicine.
For this work he was awarded the Cross of the
Legion of Honour. It was followed by other
undertakings of a like nature, notably six paintings
for the HSpital de Lariboisifere, the decoration of
the chapel of St. Anne in the church of St. Gervais,
of the St. Louis chapel in the church of St. Sulpice,
and of the Salle des Bmpereurs in the Louvre.
His easel pictures, ambitious in conception, but
mediocre in execution, were chiefly mythological
and historical in subject. Matout died in Paris in
January, 1888.

MAUVE, Anton, a Dutch painter, was born at
Zaandam in 1838, and became a pupil of P. F. van
Os. He painted landscapes with animals, chiefly
sheep and cows, but occasionally horses. He
worked much in water-colour, in which his broad
methods showed to advantage. Many of his pic-
tures are in England. He died February 5, 1888.

MEADOWS, J. Kenny, draughtsman and painter,
was born in Cardiganshire, November 1, 1790. His
father was a retired naval officer. He himself first
became known in art by his designs on wood for
book illustration. He exhibited occasionally at
the Royal Academy and in Suffolk Street. His life
was spent mostly in the companionship of pro-
fessed humorists, and his designs have the rather
forced comicality we should thence expect. During
the last ten years of his life he was in receipt of a
pension from the Civil List. He died in August,
1874. Among the works he illustrated we may
name :

J. E. Planelie's ' Costume of Shakespeare's King John.'

1823. Figures designed and executed on stone by

J. K. M.
Autobiography of a notorious Legal Functionary, by

' Jack Ketch.' 1836.
Heads of the People, or Portraits of the English, drawn

byK.M. 1840.
Swift's Hints to Servants. 1843.
Shakespeare. 1843.

Punch's Complete Letter-Writer, by D. Jerrold. 1845.
New Testament. 1847.
Magic of Kindness, by J. and H. Mayhew ; illustrated

by Geo. Cruikshank and Kenny Meadows. 1849.
The Works of Byron. 1854.
Blanchard's ' Corporation Characters.' 1855.
Granny's Wonderfnl Chair, by F. Browne. 1857.
Merry Pictures by the Comic Hands of H. K. Browne,

M., and others. 1857.
Beeton's Book of Games. 1866.
Don Quixote. 1872.

M^DAED, Eugene, a French painter of battle
pieces, was born in 1849. He was a pupil of Ldon
Cogniet and of G^rome. His ' Retraite de Buzen-
val ' was bought in 1886 by the French Govern-
ment. He died in 1887.

MELIN, Joseph, a French painter, best known
by his vigorous studies of animals, though he





began life as an historical painter, was born in
1814, and was a pupil of P. Delaroche and David
d'Angers. He died in November, 1886.

MES&RIGNY, Frank, Marquis de, painter, born
in Paris in 1836. He was a pupil of Lalanne and
Worms, and exhibited a number of refined and
highly finished studies of French river scenery
(chiefly of the Oise and Seine) from 1870 onwards.
He died in 1884.

METELLI. See above, Mitblli.

MILLER, John, an amateur portrait painter, was
born in London in 1820. He exhibited at the
Eoyal Academy in 1846 and 1847, and resided for
some time in Rome and Florence. He returned to
England in 1852, and died in London in 1871.
Among his portraits are the following :

Henry, seventh Duke of Beaufort.

Kobert Graves, A.R.A.

John Richardson Jackson, mezzotint engraver.

MODENA, Barnaba da, who has been mis-
takenly called Serafini, and confused with Sera-
fino dei Serafini, flourished in the 14th century,
and seems to have passed much of his time in
Piedmont and Pisa. There are no records exist-
ing concerning his birth or death, and very
little is known of his life. He was a contem-
porary of Tommaso da Modena, and was sent for
by the Pisan authorities to finish the frescoes of
St. Eanieri in the Campo Santo in 1380, though no
evidences of his workmanship can now be found
there. Of two altar-pieces in the church of San
Francesco, one alone remains. An altar-piece, for-
merly in the monastery of San Giovanni del Fiero,
which represents an enthroned life-size Virgin and
Child with eight Angels, and is now in the Academy
of Pisa ; and an unsigned altar-piece in the sacristy
of Ripoli, four miles from Padua, are all that attest
his visit there. There also remain by him :

Berlin. Gallery. Virgin and Child ; signed^ and

dated 1369.
Frankfort. Siaedel Gall. Virgin and Child, half-length ;
signed Barnabas da Mutina
pinxit, anno 1367.

MOLE, John Henry, water-colour painter, was
a native of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was born about
1814. He first exhibited in London in 1846 at the
Royal Academy, and two years later became a
member of the New Society of Painters in Water-
Colours, of which body he was afterwards Vice-
President. He was a frequent exhibitor for many
years at the leading London galleries. He died
December 13, 1886.

MOODY, Thomas Wollaston, painter, better
known as a lecturer, teacher, and designer, was the
son of the Rector of Chatham, Kent, and was born
about 1824. He occasionally exhibited pictures,
but was chiefly occupied with his duties at the
South Kensington Museum, where for many years
he held the post of Instructor in Decorative Art.
He died August 10, 1886.

MORIN, &USTAVE, a French historical painter,
born at Rouen, April 18, 1809, was a pupil of
Chaumont and of L^on Cogniet. He first exhibited
at the Salon in 1833. In 1858 he was appointed
Director of the Academy of Painting at Rouen,
and in 1865 Conservator of the Museum. He died
February 15, 1886.

MDSSINI, Luisi, a modern Italian painter of
history, was born in the first years of the 19th
century, and enjoyed a considerable reputation in
his own country. Towards the close of his long
career he practically abandoned painting, and


devoted himself to his duties as Director of the
Siena Gallery. His portrait, painted by himself,
is in the Uffizi. Mussini died at Siena, June 18,

MDTRIB, Martha Darlet, a painter of fruit
and flowers, was born at Manchester in 1824. She
first exhibited at the Academy in 1861, when she
was living in Manchester. In 1863 she went to
London, and was henceforth a constant contributor
to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy and the
British Institution. She died at her house in Ken-
sington, December 30, 1886. The South Kensington
Museum has a ' Study of Camellias ' by her.

NEHER, Bernard, historical painter, was born
at Biberach, Wiirtemburg, in 1806. After some
early instruction in his native place, he studied at
Stuttgart under Dannecker, and at Munich under
Cornelius, and showed so much talent in his early
essays that he was relieved from military service,
and granted a government pension for further study
in Italy. He stayed four years in Rome, and while
there painted (1831) his ' Raising of the Widow's
Son,' now in the Stuttgart Gallery. On his return
to Munich he was commissioned to paint a fresco
on a large scale over the restored ' Isarthor,' repre-
senting the entry of Ludwig of Bavaria after the
battle of Ampfing. He was afterwards engaged
on decorative paintings at the Court of Weimar,
and designed a number of cartoons for glass-paint-
ing. In 1841 he became Director of the Leipsic
Academy, and in 1854 Director of the Ai-t School of
Stuttgart. He died in 1886. His ' Descent from
the Cross ' is in the Stuttgart Gallery.

NICHOLSON, T. (?) H., was popular as a book-
illustrator in the first half of the present century.
He produced a series of designs for a Shakespeare,
and was said to be the real author of Count
D'Orsay's statuette of Wellington.

NORBURY R., painter and sculptor, was bom
at Macclesfield in 1816. He held successively the
posts of assistant master to the Schools of Design
at Somerset House and at Liverpool. After his
resignation of the latter appointment he was
elected president of the Liverpool Water-Colour
Society. He was also a member of the Liverpool
and Cambrian Academies. He painted a large
number of portraits, and was also much employed
in decorative design and in book illustration, prac-
tising at Liverpool, but frequently exhibiting iu
London. He died April 25, 1886.

NULCK, L., a painter apparently of the Dutch
school, of whose life nothing is known. In the
collection of M. Ch. Careus, Brussels, there is an
interior with figures by him, signed L. Nulck, 1680.

NUTI, GiULlA, the wife of Antonio Marini (g.i).),
frequently painted flowers in her husband's pictures.

OAKES, John Wrioht, landscape painter, was
born at Sproston House, Middlewich, Cheshire,
which had been for several generations in the pos-
session of his family, on July 9, 1820. He was
educated at Liverpool, and received his art training
under Mr. Bishop, of the Liverpool College. His
first exhibited works appeared at the Liverpool
Academy, of which body he shortly afterwards
became a member, and later honorary secretary.
His subjects were chiefly Welsh coast, moorland,
or mountain, or studies of Highland scenery. In
1847 the first picture exhibited by him in London,
'Nant Francon, Caernarvonshire,' appeared at the
British Institution, and the following year he sent




' On the Greta, Keswick, to the Eoyal Academy.
In 1859 he settled in London, and thenceforth
was, with one intermission, a yearly contributor to
the Academy Exhibitions. In 1876 he was elected
an associate of the Eoyal Academy, and in 1883
an honorary member of the Scottish Academy.
About six years before his death his health began
to give way, and he had practically laid aside his
work for some time when he died on August 8th,
1887, at his house in Kensington. Among his
works we may name the following :

Early Spring twilight. (S. Kensington Museum.)
Early Spring. (Glasgow Gallery.)
Autumn. {Liverpool, Walker Gallery)

PALING. See above, Paulyn.

PAULI, (or Paul,) Andreas, also called Db
Padlis, a Dutch engraver, was bom about 1598.
No details of his life are known. The following
plates by him have much in common with those of
Johann Anton Pauli :

Portrait of the physician N. Bulius.

Titian and his Mistress ; copied on a reduced scale from

Van DycVs plate.
The Denial of Peter ; after G. Zeghers,
Virgin and Child ; after Rubens.
Bacchus and Ceres ; after Sprangher.
The Entry of Maria de' Medici into the towns of Mons,

Brussels, and Antwerp, in 1631 ; three plates.
A set of Fifty Plates of Emblems.

PEHAM. See Pecham.

PELLBGEINI, Carlo, draughtsman and cari-
caturist, was bom at Capua in 1838, and was, on
his father's side, the scion of an ancient family
long settled in the district, and known as the
SedUi Gapuani; on his mother's a descendant
of the Medici. In his youth he became involved
in the Italian struggle for liberty, and enrolled
himself among the Garibaldians. In 1865 he
arrived in England in straitened circumstances,
and a chance having revealed his gifts as a satirical
draughtsman, he was engaged on the staflE of
' Vanity Fair.' In 1869 his first political carica-
ture, a drawing of Lord Beaconsfield, appeared in
that journal. It was signed ' Singe,' a pseudonym
which he afterwards changed for 'Ape.' Hence-
forth he was a prolific contributor for many years
to ' Vanity Fair,' and has left behind him many
hundreds of portraits of notabilities in the English
political, artistic, and social world. One of the
most successful was a statuette in red plaster of
Mr. Lowe standing on a match-box, which the
artist modelled in Count Gleichen's studio. His
last gubUshed caricature was that of Sir William
Dolby, the famous aurist, and the last he drew a
sketch of Mr. Edison, the inventor of the phono-
, graph. During his long residence in London,
iPellegrini's gay and genial temper endeared him
to all with whom he came in contact, and in his
last illness a fund was provided by his more intimate
friends for his support. He died in Mortimer Street,
Cavendish Square, January 22, 1889, and was
buried at Kensal Green.

PEECY, S. B., landscape painter, was the
son of Edward Williams {q. v. ), and changed his
name to avoid being confused with his numerous
brothers. He was the founder of what is known
as the 'School of Barnes.' He was a frequent
contributor for over forty years to the exhibitions
of the Eoyal Academy, and his sketches and
pictures were very popular with the public. He
died April 13, 1886.

VOL. n. 3d

Spanish painter, born at Madrid about 1810. He
studied at the Madrid Academy, and painted land-
scape, genre, and notably architectural interiors
with figures. His best known picture is an ' Interior
of Seville Cathedral on Corpus Christi day.' He
published a work on Spanish architecture, illus-
trated by lithographs. He died at Madrid in 1853.

PFANNSCHMIDT, Karl Gottfried, painter,
was born at MUhlhausen in Thuringia, September
15, 1819. He came to Berlin in 1835, and studied
under Dage and Cornelius. He painted a great
many altar-pieces and pictures for North German
churches, also decorative works in the manner of
Cornelius ; of the latter the most remarkable is the
apse of the Charlottenbnrg Mausoleum. Pfann-
sohmidt died in July, 1887. There is a picture by
him in the National Gallery at Berlin.

PHILP, James George, painter, was a native
of Falmouth, and was born in 1816. He first ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1846, his contri-
butions being two landscapes in oils. He after-
wards successfully devoted himself to painting ia
water-colour, and in 1856 became a member of the
New Society of Painters in Water-Colours. He
died April 11, 1885.

PICKENOY, Nicolas Elias, called Elias, a
little-known Dutch painter, who is, however, the
reputed master of Van der Heist, was born at
.Amsterdam about 1590. There are twelve pictures
by him in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam, which
show him to have been an excellent portraiHst.
He died, probably at Amsterdam, between 1646
and 1656.

PINEL, Edouaed, painter, bom at La Eochelle,
was a pupil of Eoqueplan and of Gudin. He en-
joyed some repute as. a landscape painter in the
days of Louis Philippe, and was for many years
keeper of the Museum in his native town. He died
in 1884.

PITTOEI, Paoli, called Paolo del Masaccio, an
Italian painter, born at Masaccio, where he painted
many pictures for churches, &c. He died in 1590.

PONTIUS. See Du Pont.

EAJON, Paul Adolphb, draughtsman and etcher,
was born at Dijon in July, 1843, and was educated
at the Zyc/e of his native town. His father died
when Eajon was thirteen years old, and his mother,
left with small means, placed the boy with his
brother-in-law, a photographer, at Metz, who em-
ployed him to " touch up " plates. In 1864 he
came to Paris, and for a time gained a precarious

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 200 of 201)