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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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of the Royal Academy, where in 1769 he was the
first gold medallist for historical painting. Sent
to Rome, he forfeited the travelling studentship by
non-compliance with the conditions. He had a
contest^with the Academy in 1788 as to the recep-
tion of his picture of the ' Deluge,' and was much
befriended by Dr. Johnson. Improvident and ill-
conditioned by nature, his circumstances were
aggravated by an imprudent marriage, and he
gradually sank out of public notice. He died in
Westminster in 1793.

LOWENSTERN, Christian Ludwig von, was
born at Darmstadt in 1702. In the Museum of
that town is a battle-piece by this artist. He died
in 1755.




LOWRY, Robert. See Ladkie.
LOWRY, Strickland, a portrait painter,
flourished in the latter part of the 18th century.
He was a native of Whitehaven, where he practised
as well as in Dublin, Shropshire, StafEordshire, and
Worcestershire, obtaining a considerable local
reputation. He furnished some illustrations for
Phillips's ' History and Antiquities of Shrewsbury,'

LOWRY, Wilson, was born at Whitehaven in
1762. He was the son of Strickland Lowry, and
was by him taken when a child to L-eland. After-
wards, while still a boy, he worked as a house
painter at Worcester, and also began to practise
engraving. At the age of seventeen he was in
London, and was admitted into the schools of
the Royal Academy. Few of his earlier plates
bear his name, having been executed for other
artists, to whose fame they contributed. He en-
graved most of the plates on mechanical subjects
in Rees's ' Cyclopsedia,' Crabbe's ' Technological
Dictionary,' the 'Philosophical Magazine,' and
other works of a like kind. His mathematical
knowledge of drawing, his researches in the laws
of mechanics, his extensive acquaintance with
physics and the general properties of matter and
form, combined with the correctness of an eye that
never erred, and a hand that could not deviate,
highly qualified him for such work. Some of the
finest specimens of his abilities, ae an architectural
engraver, are to be found in the plates of Murphy's
'Batalha,' Nicholson's 'Architecture,' the print of
the House of Commons at Dublin, and Gandon's
designs. He died in London, after a prolonged
illness, in 1824, leaving a son and daughter, who
followed the same profession.

LOYER, — , was a native of Prance, who
flourished about the year 1760. Among other prints,
he engraved some plates of architectural subjects
from the designs of Dumont and others after
Marieschi, Bernini, and others.

LOYER, NicoLAES, a Flemish historical painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1625, and died in 1681.

LUARD, John Dalbiac, a subject painter, was
bom in 1830. He originally held a commission in
the army, which he left to become a pupil of John
Phillip. From 1855 he exhibited a few pictures,
bearing on a soldier's life, at the Royal Academy.
His health early failed him, and he died at Winters-
low in 1860, after having shown much promise
of future excellence.

LUBIENIECKI, Bogdan, or Teodoe, a Polish
painter and engraver, was born at Cracow in 1653.
He was instructed in design by Juriaan Stur,
a painter of Hamburg ; from thence he went
to Amsterdam, where he became a scholar of
Gerard de Lairesse. On leaving that master he
went to Italy, and resided some time at Florence,
where he was particularly patronized by the grand-
duke. On his return to Germany he was invited
to the court of Berlin, and was made painter to
the Elector of Brandenburg, and director ^f the
Academy. He painted history and landscapes in
the style of De Lairesse, and designed Schliiter's
' Masks,' which are in the arsenal at Berlin. He
etched a set of six grand landscapes and figures,
inscribed Th. de Luhinetzlci fecit., in 1698. Others
of hie works are marked T. D. L. He returned
to Poland in 1706, and was still living in 1729.

LUBIENIECKI, Kezysztof, the younger brother
of TeodorLubieniecki, was born at Stettin in 1659.
After receiving some instruction in design, with his
vol. II. Q

brother, from Juriaan Stur, he accompanied Theodoi
to Amsterdam, where he entered the school of
Adriaan Backer, and followed the style of that
master, both in history and portraits. He died at
Amsterdam in 1729. Two of his paintings, ' The
SnuflE-box and the Pipe ' and ' Table Friends,' aro
at Copenhagen.

LUBIN, Jacques, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1637. Prom the resemblance his style
bears to that of Gerard Bdelinck, he is supposed to
have been a pupil of that artist. He was living in
1694. Among other plates, the following are by


Henri, Vicomte de Turenue, Marshal of France; after

Philippe de Ckampaigne,
Henri Augusts, Comte de Brienne ; after Largilliire.
Prangois, Oomte de Grignan ; after the same. '
Louis, Due d'Humi^res,. Marshal of France : after F.

Voet. ■'

Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal de Richelieu.
Jean Pierre Camus, Bishop of Belley.
Jean Papire Masson, celebrated advocate.
Jacques Callot, engraver.
Vincent Voiture, of the Frencli Academy.
Pierre CorneiUe, dramatic poet.
Olivier Patru, of the French Academy.
Robert Aruauld d'Andilly.
Jean Baptiste Colbert, Minister of State.
Thirty-eight portraits, including some of the above, in

Perrault's ' Hommes illustres qui ont paru en France,'


The Entombment of Christ ; after Le Sueur.

LUBLINSKY, Martin Anton, a painter, was
born at Leschnitz in Silesia in 1643. He was a
pupil of Scieta. In the Collegiate Church of
Olmutz are frescoes by this artist, as also an altar-
piece, and several pictures are to be found in the
different churches in Olmutz. He died in 1690.

LUCA, Santo, a monk, was a native of Florence,
who lived in the 9th century, and on account of
his saint-like conduct was called Santo. He is
said to be the author of several paintings which
were formerly attributed to Luke the Evangelist,
as those of the ' Virgin and Child ' in the Madoima
di San Luca at Bologna, and in Santa Maria Mag-
giore at Rome.


LUCA FA Presto. See Giordano.

LUCAN, Margaret Bingham, Countess of, born
in 1740, was the daughter and co-heiress of James
Smith, M.P. She married in 1760 Sir Charles
Bingham, Bart., who in 1776 was created Baron
Lucan, and in 1795 Earl of Lucan. She painted
original miniatures, and made clever copies of
those by Hoskins, the Olivers, and Samuel Cooper.
There is at Althorp a Shakespeare illustrated by her
with portraits, views, and various ornaments. She
died in 1815.

LUCAS, Auger, a French historical painter, was
bom in 1685. He was a grandson of Tournieres,
and was received into the Academy in 1722 upon
his picture of ' Acis and Galatea,' which was
formerly at St. Cloud. He died in 1765. The
Museum of Nantes possesses 'Spring,' 'Summer,'
' Autumn,' and ' Winter,' by this artist.

LUCAS, August, a German landscape painter,
was born at Darmstadt in 1803. He resided for
some time at Rome, and died in 1863. In the
Darmstadt Gallery are three landscapes by hira.

LUCAS, Germain, a French engraver, -flourished





from about 1700 to 1746. He engraved, in a very
neat style, several architectural plates for the
collection of 'Views of Versailles,' published by
P. Menant. He had a son who engraved, but his
prints are not specified.

LUCAS, Jean Paul, was a French painter, who
died at Toulouse in 1808. He established the
Museum in that city, and published a catalogue
of its contents.

LUCAS, John, a portrait painter, was born in
London in 1807. He was a pupil of S. W. Eey-
iiolds, and began life as a mezzotint engraver, but
turned early to painting. He obtained a large
practice as a portrait painter, and was a constant
exhibitor at the Eoyal Academy from 1828 until his
death. Among his sitters were the Prince Consort
and the Duke of Wellington. He died in London
in 1874. In the National Portrait Gallery is a
portrait of Miss Mitford.

LUCAS, John Templeton, a portrait painter,
and the eldest son of John Lucas, was born in
1836. He exhibited at the Eoyal Academy, and
at the Society of British Artists. He was the
author of a farce called 'Browne the Martyr,' pro-
duced at the Court Theatre, and of a little volume
of fairy tales, entitled ' Prince Ubbely Bubble's
New Story Book,' published in 1871. He died at
Whitby in 1880.


LUCASZ, PlE'i'ER Feans, a landscape painter,
born at Mechlin in 1606, was a scholar of Gerard
Seghers. He painted landscapes ornamented with
small figures, and was patronized by the Archduke
Leopold, for whom he painted a great number of
pictures. He died in 1654. The portrait of
Pliiderpe, a Flemish sculptor, in the Museum at
Brussels, is by him.

LUCATELLI. See Locatelli.

LUCCA, Michelangelo da. See Anselmi.

LUCCHESE. See Ldoensis, and Eicchi.


LUCE, Louis Eene, a French engraver, was
born in Paris in 1695. He worked first for the
goldsmiths, but was afterwards appointed engraver
to the Imprimerie Eoyale. He died in 1774.

LUCENA, Diego db, of an illustrious family of
Andalusia, was a scholar of Velazquez, whom be
imitated in his portraits, both large and small.
He acquired great credit by his portrait of the
poet Atanasio Pantaleon, who repaid him with a
sonnet. He died young in 1650.

LUCENSIS, Michele, (or Lucchese,) was an
Italian engraver and printseller, who resided at
Eome about the year 1550. He engraved some
prints after Michelangelo, Eaphael, and Polidoro
da Caravaggio, which he usually marked with the

monogram jflF'

LUCENTI, GiROLAMO, a native of Correggio in
Lombardy resided at Seville in 1608. In that
year he painted for the chapel of St. Thomas's
College a pair of landscapes with figures, repre-
senting the ' Calling of St. Andrew and St. Peter.'
He also visited the city of Granada, where he exe-
cuted in 1642 seven small works on the subject
of the discovery of the manuscripts and relics at
Sacro Monte.

LUCHETTO DA GENOVA (or Luchino). See
Cambiaso, Luca.

LUCIANI, Antonio, a painter and engraver, was
born at Venice in 1700. He was a pupil of
Piocini in landscape and of Feldoni in engraving.


LUCIANI, Sebastiano, commonly called Sbbas-
TIANO DEL PlOMBO, from the ofiBce of Keeper of the
Leaden Seals, conferred upon him by Pope Clement
VII., was born at Venice in 1485, and was educated
by his father for the profession of music. Having
become acquainted with Giorgtone, who was like-
wise a musician, he was probably induced by him
to learn the art of painting, and to enter the
studio of Giovanni Bellini ; in after years he
became the disciple of Giorgione. Amongst his
earlier paintings were the altar-pieces of the
' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' executed for San
NiCcol6 at Treviso, and the ' Majesty of St. John
Chrysostom,' executed for San Giovanni Crisostumo,
Venice. Soon after finishing this last painting
Luciani went to Rome by invitation of Agostino
Chigi, who had just finished building his palace of
the Farnesina, and who desired his aid in its
decoration. His first work there was a series of
mythological designs taken from Ovid's ' Metamor-
phoses,' which attracted the attention and admiration
of both Michelangelo and Raphael. A friendship
then sprung up between Michelangelo and Sebas-
tiano, which produced a marked effect on the style
and future fortunes of the latter. The frescoes at
the Farnesina Palace were finished about 1512,
and it was then that Sebastiano commenced to
paint portraits in oil. Amongst these may be
mentioned the ' Fomarina,' now at Berlin, and that
in the Ufifizi, Florence. A league was now formed
between Sebastiano and Buonarroti against Eaphael,
and they both endeavoured to obtain commissions
from Julius II., that they might compete against
the acknowledged talents of the latter. Buonarroti
had felt some uneasiness at the growing fame of
Eaphael, and he readily availed himself of the
powers of Sebastiano as a colourist, in the hope
that, assisted by his designs, he might be enabled
to enter the lists with his illustrious antagonist, if
not to drive him from the field. With this view, he
furnished him with the designs for the ' Pieta ' in
the church of the Conventuali at Viterbo ; and
the ' Transfiguration ' and ' Flagellation ' in San
Pietro in Montorio at Rome, which, as he was
very tedious in his process, occupied him six years.
The extraordinary beauty of the colouring, and
the grandeur of Michelangelo's composition and
design, in these celebrated productions, were the
objects of universal surprise and applause. It was
at this juncture that the Cardinal Giulio de' Medici
commissioned Eaphael to paint his immortal picture
of the 'Transfiguration,' and being desirous of
presenting an altar-piece to the cathedral of Nar-
bonne, of which he was archbishop, he engaged
Sebastiano del Piombo to paint a picture of the
same dimensions, selecting for the subject the
' Eaising of Lazarus.' On this occasion he was
again assisted by the powers of Buonarroti, by
whom it was composed and designed. The picture
was publicly exhibited at Rome, in competition
with the ' "Transfiguration ' ; and it is no mean
proof of its extraordinary merit, that, notwith-
standing the transcendent beauty of Raphael's
chef-d'oeuvre, Sebastinno's performance excited
universal admiration. This celebrated work of art
was removed, by the Eegent of France, from the
cathedral at Narbonne into the Orleans collection,
of which it was once one of the most important
ornaments. It is now in the National Gallery.
After the death of Raphael, Sebastiano was reputed
the most distinguished artist at Rome. He was
particularly favoured by Clement VII., who re-




munerated his services by appointing him to a
lucrative office, which occasioned him, in the latter
part of his life, to relax in his labours as a painter.
On the death of that Pope he continued to hold
the post of Frate del Piombo under Paul III. His
last undertaking was the chapel of theChigi family,
in Santa Maria del Popolo, which he left incomplete:
it was afterwards finished by Francesco Salviati.
He died at Rome in 1547. The following are
some of his principal works :

Berlin. Gallery. Pieti.

„ „ Portrait of a Man (formerly called

„ „ Portrait of a Nobleman.

Bordeaux. Museum. Virgin and Dead Christ.
Burgos. Cathedral. Virgin and Infant Christ.
Edinburgh. Ifat. Gall. Bacchus and Ariadne.
Florence. Fitti Pal. Martyrdom of St. Agatha.
„ „ Portrait of a Young Man.

Lendinara. S. Biatjio. The Visitation.
London. Nat. Gall. Resurrection of Lazarus. 1519.
„ „ Portraits of the Artist and Car-

dinal Ippolito de' Medici.
,, „ Portrait of an Italian Lady, as

St. Agatha.
Madrid. Gallery. Christ bearing His Cross.

„ „ Christ in Hades.

Naples. Museum. The Child Jesus sleeping.

„ „ Portrait of Adrian VI.

„ Holy Family.

Paris. Louvre. The Visitation.

Parma^ Gallery. Portrait of Clement VII.

Petersburg. Serimtaye. Christ bearing His Cross.
„ „ The Descent from the Cross.

„ „ Portrait of Cardinal Pole.

Home. FarnesiTia. Fresco : Subjects from the story

of Galatea.
„ S. M. del Popolo. Birth of the Virgin.
,, S. Fietro in Mon- 1 mi, m ^ i.- ur \
torio \ Transfiguration (fresco).

„ „ The Flagellation (oil, on the wall).

„ „ St. Bernard.

„ Doria Pal. Portrait of Admiral Andria Doria.

Treviso. S. Niccolb. Incredulity of St. Thomas.

Venice. S. Giovanni \ St. John Chrysostom surrounded

CHsostomo. } by Saints.

Viterbo. S. Francesco. The Dead Christ.

LUCIDEL. See NedfohItbl.

LUCIEN, Jean Baptiste, a French engraver in
the crayon manner, was born in Paris in 1748, and
died in 1806. He produced some academy figures
and heads as studies for pupils, and some beautiful
vignettes after Cochin for an edition of 'Tele-
machus.' Besides these he engraved the following
plates :

The Eape of Cephalus ; after Fietro da Cortona.

St. Cecilia ; after Guercino.

Italian Girls ; after the same.

The Vintage ; a, ter the same.

Children dancing ; after the same.

The Persian Beauty ; after the same.

The Kising of Aurora ; after Pierre.

Italian Musicians ; after Rouchardon.

Fauns and Cupids ; after Cipriani.

The Young Sister ; after Grmze.

Andromache weeping over the ashes of Hector ; after
Angelica Kauffmann.

Napoleon I. ; afte}- Le Barlner.

Bas-relief for the Arc de Triomphe de la Federation ;
after Moitte.

LUCINI, Antonio Francesco, an engraver, was
born at Florence in 1605. He was instructed by
Stefano della Bella, and engraved some plates in
the style of that master, as well as in that of Callot.
He usually marked his plates with the cipher
..MLF. Tliere is by him a copy of Stefano della
Bella's print of the ' Festival on the Arno ' ; as well
as the following :

o 2

Sixteen plates of Scenes during the Siege of Malta by

the Turks in 1565 ; a/tej- Mateo Perez de Alesio.
Portrait of B. Tremblet, the sculptor.

LUCKX, Chbistiaan, a Flemish flower painter,
was born at Antwerp in 1623, and in 1639 became
a pupil of Philips de Maeher, with whom lie re-
mained three years, and afterwards of Frans
Francken III., under whose guidance he painted
some small historical pictures, such as ' Lot and his
Daughters,' ' The Adoration of the Kings,' ' Christ
bearing His Cross,' ' Christ's Appearance to St.
Theresa,' and 'St. Ignatius.' In 1645 he beonme
a master in the painters' guild at Antwerp, and
henceforward devoted himself to still-Iife and
flowers. There is no record of him after the bap-
tism of his son in 1653. The Madrid Gallery has
a flower piece by him.

LUCQUIN, Henriquetta, whose maiden name
was GiROUARD, was born at Lisbon in 1819. She
became a pupil of Gosse, and exhibited portraits
and historical subjects at the Salon from 1841 to
1865. She died in 1866.

LUCY, Charles, a portrait painter, was born in
London in 1692. He studied at Rome and Bologna,
and for eight years was a pupil of Cignani.

LUCY, Charles, an historical painter, was born
at Hereford in 1814. He commenced life as an
apprentice to his uncle, who was a druggisl, but
he soon abandoned that business, and proceeding
to Paris, entered the Boole des Beaux-Arts, where
he attended principally the classes under Paul
Delaroche. Subsequently he returned to England,
and became a student in the Royal Academy.
After oscillating for some time between England
and France, he settled down at Barbison, near
Fontainebleau, where he resided nearly sixteen
years. From 1838 until the time of his decease
scarcely a year passed without one or more of his
works appearing on the walls of the Royal Academy.
In 1843 he sent to the "Westminster Hall competi-
tion a cartoon of ' Caractacus and his Family before
the Emperor Claudius,' and in 1844 another cartoon
of ' Agrippiiia interceding for the Family of Carac-
tacus.' In 1845 he sent to the same exhibition
' An Abstract Personification of Religion ; ' and in
1847 ' The Embarkation of the Pilgrim Fathers in
the Ship Mayflower,' for which he received a
premium of £200. He also painted for Sir Joshua
Walmsley several portraits of distinguished states-
men and others, which have since been bequeathed
to the South Kensington Museum. He devoted
himself almost entirely to historical subjects, chiefly
connected with the Puritan era of English history,
several of which have through engravings become
popular both here and in America, where some of
his works have found a home. He died in London
in 1873. The most important of his exhibited
works are :

The Interview of Milton with Galileo 1840.

An Illustration of II Penseroso. 1843.

The Parting of Burns and his Mary. . 1844.

The First Love of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1845.

Salvator Mundi. 1847.

The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. 1848.

The Death of Mrs, Claypole. 1849.

Evangeline in the Church. 1849.

The Parting of Charles I. with his Children. 1850.

The Eoyal Captives of Carisbrooke. 1851.

The Parting of Lord and Lady Rusfiell. 1852.

Nelson in the Cabin of the Victory. 1S54.

The Burial of Charles I. 1857.

Cromwell resolving to refuse the Crown. 1857.

Bonaparte in Discussion with the Savants. 1858.

Prayers for the Dead— All Saints' Day. 1859.





Lord Saye and Sele before Jack Cade. 1860.

The Reconciliation of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Gains-
borough. 1863.

Cromwell with his Family at Hampton Court. 1863.
(Glasgow Corporation Galleries.)

Garibaldi at the Tomb of TJgo Foscolo. 1865.

The Intercepted Embarkation of John Hampden and
his Friends. 1867.

The Forced Abdication of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scot-
land, at Loehleven Castle. 1868.

Noontide Eepo.se. 1869.

Portrait of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 1869.

Ohsirlotte Corday returning to Prison after her Con-
demnation. 1871.

Columbus at the Monastery of La Rabida. 1872

Shakespeare before Sir Thomas Lucy.

LtJDEKB, Petek Ludwig, a painter, was born
about 1760. He studied landscape painting, and
tben proceeded to Italy. In 1786 he went to Rome,
but in the next year returned to Berlin.

LtJDERS, David, a portrait painter, was born
at Hamburg about 1710. He was first instructed
by PfeifEer at that city, but went afterwards to
Paris, where he studied under Lemoine, and then
to Italy, and subsequently to England and St. Peters-
burg. Among his best portraits are :

The Prince of Wales. 1751.

The Family of the Russian Ambassador.

Count Tschernitschev.

LUDIUS, was a Roman painter in the time of
Augustus, who, according to Pliny, was the first to
adorn the walls of rooms with landscapes, which
he embellished with figures variously occupied.
He was the first Roman artist who painted in
fresco, and he was chiefly employed in decorating
the walls of the villas and country-houses with
views of gardens, woods, and water-courses, with
graceful figures.

LUPFGLI, Giuseppe Maria, was a native of
Pesaro, who flourished about 1680. He was a pupil
of Siraone Contarini, and painted portraits and
historical subjects.

LUGANO, Lo Zoppo di. See Discepoli.

LUGARDON, Jean L:Sonaed, a French. historical
painter, was born at Geneva of French parentage
in 1801. He studied under Gros and Ingres, and
exhibited at the Salon from 1827 to 1857. Three
landscapes by him were in the Exposition Univer-
selle of 1867. He died in 1875.

LUGRENCBLIS. This name is afSxed to a
bold, spirited etching of a Bacchanalian subject,
in the style of Benedetto Castiglione. It is inscribed
Lugrencelis inv. et scul.

LUHNE, Joachim, was born at Hamburg about
1620, and studied under A. Backer, whose style he
imitated with success, hut he afterwards studied
the works of Carlo Lotti, and adopted from him a
darker colouring. In 1673 he was master, and in
1692 head of the Guild at Hamburg. He died
there in 1717. Among his works are :

Brunswick. Museum. His own Portrait, those of his
family, and that of the mathe-
matician Hertel. 1672.

Hamburg. ^™- 1 ^j^^ „j HamUrg.

LUIGI, Andkba di. See Alovigi.

LUIKEN, Gaspae, (or Ldyken,) o, Dutch en-
graver, supposed to have been the brother of Jan
Luiken, was born at Amsterdam about the year
1670, and is known to have been living in 1710.
He executed many works in conjunction with Jan
Luiken. Those executed by him alone are very
inferior, and consist chiefly of book-plates, in


which he was almost entirely employed. Among
them are the following :

Twelve plates of the Months of the Year.

Four plates of the Seasons.

St. Francis Xavier preaching before the Emperor of

The Miracle of the Loaves.

LUIKEN, Jan, (or Luykbn,) was born at Am-
sterdam in 1649. He was a scholar of Martinus
Zaagmolen, and for some time applied _ him-
self to painting, but not succeeding to his ex-
pectation, he turned his thoughts to engraving,
in which he became eminent. He usually engraved
after his own designs, and he received, from his
crowding his compositions with an infinite number
of figures, the name of ' The Dutch Callot.' He
died in 1712. His principal work is the set o£
plates he engraved for the Biblical works published
by Mortier. Only a few of the plates of the so-
called ' Mortier's Bible ' are by Luiken, but there
is another series published by Mortier and Covens,
consisting of 62 very elaborate engravings of
occurrences in Bible history, the whole of which
are by him, and exhibit uncommon powers of
invention and freedom of execution. Out of
upwards of 900 engravings, the following may be
selected :

Ten plates of the Commandments.

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