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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Glasgow, and there, as he showed a taste for
drawing, he was apprenticed in 1820 to John Knox,
a landscape painter. After four years spent in
Knox's studio, he was employed at lithographic
work, but at nineteen he removed to Cumnock,
where he was engaged to paint snufE-boxes. He
then went to Edinburgh, and entered the studio
of the engraver Lizars. At the same time he
enrolled himself a pupil in the Trustees Academy,
and in 1825 he first exhibited at the Royal Scottish
Academy. He was elected a member of that body
in 1829. He gained his reputation exclusively by
his portraits. In 1832 he returned to Glasgow,
and there remained till 1876, when, on his election
as President of the Scottish Academy, he removed
to Edinburgh, where he died in 1882. He was
an occasional exhibitor at the Royal Academy.

92



MACOUUT, C, is stated by Horace Walpole to
have been a native of Germany. He resided in
London several years, where he practised portrait
painting, both in oil colours and miniature, and
was a member of the Chartered Society of Artists,
with whom he exhibited from the year 1761 till
1767. In the 'Addenda' to the 'Anecdotes' he is
said to have died in January, 1768. He is also
stated to have scraped some mezzotints.

MACRET, Charles Feanqois Adkien, a French
engraver, was born at Abbeville in 1760, and died
in Paris in 1783. He was a pupil of N. G. Dupuis,
and engraved a few plates, of which the following
are perhaps the most important :

Christ and the Woman of Samaria; afteii^ Van der

Werf.
The Arrival of Eousseau in the Elysian Fields ; after

Moreau.
The Eeeeption of Voltaire in the Elysian Fields ; after

Fauvel.
The Sacrifice to Cupid ; after Greiize.
The First Fruits of Self-Love ; after Gonzalez..

MACRINO. See Fava, Gianqiacomo.

MADDEN, Wyndham, an English portrait
painter, who lived in the latter part of the l8th
century. There is a mezzotint after him by
Dickinson.

MADDERSTAG, Michiel, or Michael, (or
Maddersteg,) was bom at Amsterdam about 1669,
and is called by Houbraken the ablest scholar of
L. Bakhuisen. He was invited to the court of
Berlin, where he passed the greater part of his
life. In later years he returned to Amsterdam
and took to trade. He died in 1709. Two sea-
pieces by him are in the Berlin Museum. He was
a shipbuilder as well as a painter, and constructed
a frigate for King Frederick I. of Prussia, which
was afterwards brought to St. Petersburg. His
sea-pieces and storms approach so near to the
pictures of Bakhuisen in the drawing of vessels,
the movement of the waves, and the lightness of
the skies, that they are sometimes mistaken for
those of that master.

MADDOX, Willis, portrait and historical
painter, was bom at Bath in 1813. He executed
several works for Beckford of Fonthill, and first
exhibited at the Academy in 1844. He was invited
to Constantinople, and painted the Sultan. He
died at Pera in 1853.

MADER, Gborg, a painter, was born near
Steinacb, in North Tyrol, in 1824. His, father
was a miller, and he was apprenticed to the same
trade, but at a very early age displayed a taste
for drawing, and at sixteen he went to Innsbruck
to learn painting. From 1844 till the year of his
death he was actively engaged in adding to the
religious art of bis country, the years between
1867 and 1873 being employed in decorating the
church of Steinach with frescoes of scenes in the
life of Christ. Mader died in 1881.

MADIJN (or Madin). See Mandijn.

MADIONA, Antoine, an historical painter, bom
at Syracuse in 1650. He was a pupil of A. Scilla.
He afterwards went to Rome, and joined Preti,
whom he accompanied to Malta. He died in
1719.

MADOT, Adolphus M., figure painter, was a
student at the schools of the Royal Academy. He
executed a large number of drawings on wood for
a series of papers on ' British Artists,' published in
the ' Art Journal.' The few small pictures — figure
subjects — exhibited by him showed signs of future



Uadou



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Maffei



ability, but he died of consumption, at an early
age, in 1861.

MADOU, Jean Baptiste, a Belgian lithographer
and genre painter, born at Brussels in 1796. In
early life he was engaged in commerce. Then,
turning his attention to art, he became a pupil of
Celestin Fran9ois, and studied in the Brussels
Academy. For several years he devoted himself
chiefly to lithography, and illustrated many works
in that fashion. Among these are : ' Un voyage
pittoresque dans les Pays-Bas' (1821-8); 'Cos-
tumes Belgiques' (1830); 'Costumes de I'arm^e
Beige'; 'Physionomie de la soci6t6 en Europe'
(1837) ; ' Scenes de la vie des Peintres de I'Ecole
Flamande \ (1840). After 1840, however, he chiefly
devoted himself to genre painting, in which he
achieved a high reputation. For several years he
taught in the Belgian military school. He died
in 1877. Several of his chief works are in the
museums of Brussels and Antwerp.

MADBAZO, Jos6, a Spanish portrait and his-
torical painter, born at Santander in 1781. He
was a pupil of Gregorio Ferro, but following
Charles IV. into France, he received lessons from
David, and afterwards went to Rome. He returned
to Spain in 1819, and established a National School
of Painting. He was Director of the Academy
and Museum at Madrid. He died in 1859. His
chief works are :

Christ before Annas.
Death of Viriathus.
Portrait of Ferdinand VII.
Sacred and Profane Love.

MAELLA, Mariano Salvador, a Spanish his-
torical, landscape, and marine painter, born at
Valencia in 1739. He studied painting under
Gonzalez and sculpture under Castro. He became
Director of the Academy of S. Fernando and
first painter to the king. He died at Madrid in
1819. Among his pictures are :

Madrid Museum. The Four Seasons.

„ „ The Ascension.

„ „ The Last Supper.

MAENNL. See Mannl.

MAES, Aaet van, Aknoolt, painter and en-
graver, was born at Gouda about 1620. He was
a pupil of Teniers. He travelled through Italy
and France, and died in his own country when
still young. He painted chiefly village festivals
and peasant scenes.

MAES, Dirk, painter and engraver, was born at
Haarlem in 1656. He was a pupil successively of
Mommers, Berghem, and Hugtenburg, but worked
in the style of the last. He painted hunting and
battle scenes, excelling chiefly in his horses. He
came to England, where he painted the ' Battle of
the Boyne,' and met with some success. His death
took place in 1717.

MAES, GoDEFROY, a Flemish painter, born at
Antwerp in 1649. He was a pupil of his father,
Godefroy Maes, who died in 1679, and of Pieter
van Lint. In 1682 he was appointed Director of
the Antwerp Academy. The 'Four Quarters of
the World,' four designs for tapestry, 'The Mar-
tyrdom of St. Luke and St. George,' an 'Assump-
tion,' and a ' Fishmarket,' at Venice, are his best
known works. He died about 1710.

MAES, Jan, the elder, born at Alkmaar in 1631.
He was a genre painter, but seems to have been
an amateur. He entered the Guild of St. Luke
in 1658. He painted in the style of Nicolas



Maes, but with far inferior talent. He died in
1693.

MAES, Jan, the younger, was born at Haarlem
in 1655. He was a son of Pieter Maes, and pro-
bably a pupil of Dirk Maes. He excelled in the
painting of horses, battles, and encampments.
He died in 1690.

MAES, Jan Baptist, a Flemish historical, por-
trait, and genre painter, born at Ghent in 1794.
He was the son and pupil of Maes-Canini, with
whom he is sometimes confounded. He completed
his studies in Italy, where he stayed from 1821
to 1826. Amongst his pictures are :

Amsterdam. Museum. The Good Samaritan.

Ghent. Academy. Holy Family.

Hamburg. Museum. Roman Fruit-seller.

Munich. IVemPinakothek. Roman Peasant praying.

Rotterdam. Museum. Apollo and the Muses:

MAES, (or MAAS,) Nicolaas, one of the best of
the Dutch genre pamters, was born at Dordrecht
in 1632. He studied under Rembrandt in Amster-
dam, and in his earlier pictures he followed his
master somewhat closely. About 1665 he left
Rembrandt's studio and removed to Antwerp, where
he lived until 1678. In that year he returned to
Amsterdam, where he died in 1693. This is all
we know of his life. The change in the style of
his later pictures is so remarkable that it has been
suggested that they are by another painter of the
same name, a notion that receives some support
from the fact that the signatures upon them are
oi'namented with flourishes which never appear on
his earlier and far better works. It is possible
that the Maes who returned to Amsterdam to die
in 1693 was the son of Rembrandt's pupil. Cer-
tainly no other example of so radical a change in
a master's style, both of conception and of execu-
tion, can be pointed to. Maes' early pictures are
extremely rare. Probably more than two-thirds
of them are in England. Tlie National Gallery
possesses at least three of the very highest quality.
The following are his chief works :

Amsterdam. Syks Mus. Old "Woman spinning.

„ „ Another Version of the same

subject.

„ „ Girl at a "Window.

„ Six Collection. The Inquisitive Servant.

Berlin. Museum. A Philosopher.

Brussels. Royal Musmm. An old "Woman reading.

Dresden. Gallery. Two Women in a Kitchen.

London. Apsley House. Selling Milk.

„ „ The Listening Girl.

„ Bridgewater Ho. A Girl threading her Needle.

„ Buckingham Pal. The Listening Girl.

„ National Gallery. The Cradle.

„ „ The Dutch House-wife.

„ „ The Idle Servant.

„ „ Portrait of a Girl (237 ; ascribed

to Rembrandt),

Petersburg. Hermitage. An Interior.

MAES-CANNINI, Jan Baptist Lodewyk, a
Flemish historical painter, born at Ghent in 1794.
He was a Professor in the Academy of Ghent. He
died at Rome in 1856. The Ghent Museum
possesses his chief works ; they are of no great
merit.

MAESTRO GIORGIO, II (or El Maestro
Jorge). See Ingles.

MAFFEI, Fbancesco, a painter and engraver,^
was a native of Vicenza, and at first a scholar of
Peranda, though he afterwards became a follower
of the style of Paolo Veronese. He died at Padua
in 1660. His picture of St. Anna, in the church

93



Magadan



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



IVIagnasco



of San Miohele at Vioenza, and other works by him
in the public palace, exhibit a poetical fancy, and
in colour are quite worthy of the Venetian school.
It is to be regretted that he adopted a hasty and
slight mode of execution, as many of his pictures
have already become nearly obliterated. Of his
large 'Paradise,' in the church of San Francesco
at Padua, scarcely a trace remains. He engraved
his own piotuie of ' The Death of St. Francis ' ; his
' Trials of Job ' was engraved by P. Monaco.

MAGADAN y GAMARRA, Jdan Cibilo, was a
miniaturist of some merit, and first secretary to
the Royal Academy of St. Ferdinand. He pub-
Ushed in 1743 a little book on his art, called the
' Amateur's Precious Torch,' and wrote some notes
on the various styles of painting, which were
published two years after his death. Neither of
these works, according to Cean Bermudez, possesses
much practical utility or literary merit. Their
author died in 1752.

MAGANZA, Alessandbo, the son of G. B.
Maganza the elder, was born at Vicenza in 1556.
After receiving some instruction from his father,
he became a scholar of Giovanni Antonio Fasolo,
and studied the works of Paolo Veronese and
Zelotti. His principal works nre the 'Adoration of
the Magi,' in the church of San Domenico at
Vicenza ; and the ' Martyrdom of St. Giustina,' in
San Pietro. He died in 1630 at Vicenza, of grief
for the loss of his two sons, Gibolamo and
Maecantonio, and of his grand-children, the sons
of Giovanni Maganza the younger, all of whom
died of the plague in the same year (1630).

MAGANZA, Giovanni Ba'itista, the elder, was
born at Vicenza in 1609, and was the head of a
family of artists, who did credit to their native
town. He was brought up in the school of Titian,
whose style he followed with some success ; but he
was more distinguished as a painter of portraits
than of historical subjects. He was one of the
reputable poets of the day, and published several
works under the name of ' Magagno.' He died in
1589.

MAGANZA, Giovanni Battista, the younger,
the son and scholar of Alessandro Maganza, was
born at Vicenza in 1677. He painted history in
the style of his father, to whom he showed himself
little inferior in his picture of St. Benedetto, in the
church of Santa Giustina at Padua. He assisted
Alessandro in many of his principal works at
Vicenza, where he died of the plague in 1617.

MAGATTA, II. See Simonetti, Dom.

MAGATTI, PiETBO Antonio, a painter of
Vaccalo, born in 1687, studied at Bologna under
Dal Sole, and painted several pictures for the
churches in Padua. He died at Varese in 1768.

MAGDALENEN-SMITZ. See Smitz.

MAGES, Joseph, was bom at Imst, in Tyrol, in
1728 ; he studied the art of painting at his native
place, and at Innsbruck, Vienna, Stuttgart, and
lastlj' at Augsburg, under G. Rotpletz. He was an
excellent painter of history, both in oil and fresco,
and was princij)ally employed at Stuttgart, Colmar,
and Strasburg. He died in 1769. His two chief
productions are at Augsburg, and consist of a
' St. Mary of Egypt,' in the Salvatorkirche, and a
'History of St. Augustin,' on the ceiling of the
church of the "Holy Cross.

MAGGI, Giovanni, was born at Home about
1566, and died about 1620. He painted landscapes
and architectural views, but is more known as an
engraver than as a painter. In 1618 he published



a set of plates of the principal fountains in Rome,
engraved in conjunction with Domenico Parasachi.
He had undertaken to engrave the plan of Rome,
on a very large scale, with all the principal
buildings ; but from the want of encouragement
he was not able to carry his object into execution.
We have by him the following prints :

A Landscape with Buins and a Waterfall, with figures ;
J. Mains in. et fee. 1595.

Figura della Vita humana ; Joh. Mains fee. 1600.

Tlje Portrait of a Cardinal ; life-size.

MAGIMEL, Albeet, a French painter, was bom
in Paris in 1799. He was a pupil of RegnauH
and Hersent, and afterwards of Ingres. He
executed some paintings in a chapel in St.
Eustache, Paris. He died in 1877.

MAGIOLLI. See Maglioli.

MAGIOTTO, Domenico, (or Majotto,) a painter,
was bom at Venice in 1713. He was a pupil
of Piazetta, in whose style he executed several
pictures for churches and private houses. He died
in 1794.

MAGIOTTO, Feanoesco, (or Majotto,) son of
Domenico, was born in 1750. He was instructed
by his father, and painted historical and still-life
pictures. He died at Venice in 1805.

MAGISTRIS, Simonb de, was a native of
Caldarola, in the Papal States, and flourished
towards the close of the 16th century. He dis-
tinguished himself as a painter and sculptor. He
has left a picture in the principal church of Orsino,
representing ' St. Philip and St. James,' painted in
1585 ; and at a more advanced period of his hfe
produced some works at Ascoli, particularly a
' Madonna del Rosario,' in San Domenico.

MAGLIAR, Andbea, an Italian engraver, was
born at Naples about the year 1692. He engraved
some plates after Francesco Solimena.

MAGLIAR, Giuseppe, was the son of Andrea
Magliar, by whom he was instructed in engraving.
He gave unusual promise of ability, but died very
young. He engraved a plate representing ' Christ
appearing to St. V^'illiam,' after Solimena.

MAGLIOLI, Giovanni Andrea, (Magiolli,
Majolds, or Maliolus,) worked at Rome from 1580
to 1610, and engraved a series of excellent plates
in which marine gods and monsters were introduced.

MAGNANI, Ceistoforo, was bom at Pizzighet-
tone, a castle in the vicinity of Cremona, and was a
scholar of Bernardino Campi. He flourished about
the year 1580, and painted history and portraits.
He is said to have possessed so retentive a memory,
that he could draw a most correct likeness of any
person he had once seen. He painted some con-
siderable works in fresco, in conjunction with
Cavaliere Malosso and Mainardi, and at Placentia
there is a ' St. James and St. John ' by him.

MAGNASCO, Alessandeo, called II Lissan-
DEINO, was born at Genoa in 1681, and was the son
of Steffino Magnasoo. He studied at Milan under
Filippo Abbiati, whose style he imitated, though
he painted on a smaller scale and different subjects.
These were public processions, military exercises,
and bambocciate. He is styled by Lanzi the
' Michelagnolo delle Battaglie ' of the Genoee
school. There are several of his pictures in the
Pitti Palace at Florence, where he resided some
time, being patronized by the Grand Duke Giovanni
Gastone. He died in 1747.

MAGNASCO, Stefano, was born at Genoa about
1635. He was a pupil of Valeric Castello. He
spent five years at Home, after' which he returned



Kagrnus



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



mair



to his own country, and wns employed in the
painting of altar-pieces. His death is stated by
biographers to have occurred in 1665, but it must
have taken place much later in the century.

MAGNUS, Eduabd, portrait and genre painter,
was born at Berlin in 1799. After spending some
time in the study of medicine, architecture, and
philosophy, he at last devoted himself to painting,
and entered the studio of Sohlesinger. He ex-
hibited for tha first time in 1826, after which he
travelled in France, Italy, Spain, and England. In
1837 he became a member, and in 1844 a professor,
of the Berlin Academy. He obtained much re-
cognition from the State, and died at Berlin in
1872. Among his best pictures we may mention :

A portrait of Jenny Lind.

A portrait group of the Eoyal Family of Prussia.

A portrait of Mendelssohn.

And two genre pictures in the Berlin National Gallery.

MAGNUS, Otto. See Stackelbebg.

MAGRI (or Del Magro). See Gihaldi.

MAGUIRE, Adelaide A., an English subject
painter, born in 1852. Her works, which were
chiefly scenes of childhood, were exhibited at the
Society of Lady Artists (of which she was a
member) and at the Royal Academy. She died,
unmarried, in 1876.

MAHMUD. See Yahia ben Mahjsiud.

MAHSELKIRCHER, Gabeiel, of Munich, who
flourished about the year 1470, is the author of
two early pictures in the Schleissheim Gallery.
They represent ' Christ bearing the Cross,' and the
' Crucifixion.'

MAHUE, Guilladme, was born at Brussels in
1517, and died at the same city in 1569. He was
a portrait painter of great repute in his time ; but
his pictures are rare, and we have no particulars
of his life.

MAILLE-SAINT-PRIX, Louis- Antoine, was
born in Paris in 1796, and instructed by Bidault,
Hersent, and Picot. He was an excellent painter
of landscapes, and several wall-paintings by him
are in the church of Etiolles. Among his best
works may be mentioned :

A View of the Pont de Breuil.

The Euins of St. Jean de I'lle.

The Valley of Oorbeil.

The Interior of a House at Damascus.

A Cataract on the Nile.

MAILLET, Bertband, a French historical
painter, a native of Lorraine. In 1457 he was at
work in the Ducal Palace at Nancy. He died in
1481.

MAILLET, Joseph, engraver, was a native of
France, and worked in Paris in the last quarter of
the 18th century. He engraved several plates
which showed great promise, but died young, in
1788.

MAINARDI, Andrea, called II Chiaveghino,
was a native of Cremona, and flourished from 1590
till 1613. He was brought np in the school of
Bernardino Campi, and was one of his ablest
disciples. In conjunction with his nephew, Marc
Antonio Mainardi, he executed several consider-
able works at Cremona. One of his best pictures
is the ' Marriage of St. Anna,' in the church of the
Eremitani.

MAINARDI, Lattanzio, called ' Lattanzio of
Bologna,' an Italian painter, born at Bologna, who
flourished in the latter part of the 16th century. He
wa« a pupil of the Carracci, but afterwards went
to Rome, where he was employed by Pope Sixtus V.



in the decoration of several churches. He lived
too fast, and died at Viterho at the age of twenty-
seven.

MAINARDI, Sebastiano di Baetolo, was born
at San Gimignano in the 15th century, and, accord-
ing to Pecori, died about 1515. He was the pupil,
favourite assistant, and brother-in-law of Domenico
Ghirlandaio. He painted the fresco of ' St. Thomas
receiving the Girdle of the Virgin,' in the Baroncelli
Chapel at Santa Croce, Florence ; and a life-sized
fresco, ' Virgin and Child in glory,' in a taber-
nacle in the Via San Giovanni, at Gimignano.
Other works by Mainardi are :
Berlin. A Madonna.

„ Portrait of a Young Man.

Paris. Louvre, Virgin and Child. (Pictures

nearly or quite identical at
Florence, Naples, and Saa
Gimignano.)
Rome. Mus4e Cristiano. A Nativity.
San Gimignano. Col- ) Glorified Virgin adored by six
leyiale. j Saints.
„ jS. Agostino. The Four Doctors of the Church.

1500.
„ „ Sta. Lucia between SS. Gimig-

nano and Nicholas of Pari.
„ Pal. Comun. Two Madonnas.

MAINERO, Giovanni Battista, was born at
Genoa about the year 1610, and was a disciple of
Luciano Borzone. At an early age he distinguished
himself by the production of some good historical
pictures of a small size ; but in after years lie
was chiefly employed in portraiture. He died of
the pliigue in 1657.

MAIR, Alexander, (or Matr,) a German en-
graver on wood and on copper, was born at
Augsburg, probably about 1659. He was living
up to 1620. We have by this artist some book-
plates and frontispieces, executed with the graver
in a masterly style. He engraved the frontispiece
to Velser's 'Dissertation on the Antiquities of
Augsburg,' published in 1696," and that of the
' Uranometria,' by John Bayer, dated 1603. He
usually marked his plates with his name or
initials, or with a monogram. Among them there
are :

copper-plates.

Johann Welser of Augsburg.
St. Sebastian.

A frontispiece, with arms leaning against two columns ;
excellent and very rare.

WOODCUTS ascribed TO HIM.

A plan of Augsburg. , , , ,,

A print with the portraits of the Emperor Eudolph II.,

King Philip II. of Spain, Archduke Ferdinand, and

Archduke Charles of Austria.

MAIR, JOH. Ule. See Mayr.

MAIR, La. See La Mair.

MAIR, NicoLAUS Alexander, an old_ Ger]nan
painter and engraver, who was working from
1492 to 1614, was a native of Landshut, probably
the town so named in Lower Bavaria. From the
likeness in his style of engraving to that of Martm
Schongauer it has been conjectured (hat he was
taught by the latter, but others believe Wohlgemuth
to have been his master. He is said to nave been
the inventor of the process of engravmg known
as chiaroscuro. Among others we have the fol-
lowing prints by him, signed with his name or a
monogram :

David and Goliath.

The Nativity.

Christ Bearing the Cross.

yo



Maison-Neuve



A BIOGEAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



Maleuvre



The Virgin and Child.

St. Anne.

The Wise Men's Offering.

Samson carrying off the Gates of Gaza.

Samson and DeHlah.

The Martyrdom of St. Sehastian.

A Man talking to a Woman, with a Dog snarling at a

Monkey.
Death and the three loving couples.
The Story of Three Brothers.
The Balcony.
Holy Family : in chiaroscuro.

MAISON-NEUVE, a modern French engraver,
mentioned by Basan. He engraved the French
Parnassus, from a bronze, and several portraits,
among which is that of Jacques Theodore Klein.
MAITBE EOUX. See De' Rossi, Rosso.
MAJA, Giovanni Stefano, an Italian historical
and portrait painter. He was born at Genoa in
1672, and was a pupil of Solimena. He died in
1747.
MAJO, Juan de. See Veemeijen.
MAJOLI, Clements, (or Majola,) was born at
Ferrara about the year 1625, and studied at Rome
under Pietro da Cortona. He was a reputable
painter of history, and some of his pictures in the
churches of Rome and Ferrara, especially the
latter, are meritorious productions. In the church
of San Paolo, at Ferrara, is a picture of ' St. Maria
Maddalena de' Pazzi'; and in San Giuseppe, 'St.
Niccolb da Tolentino, supported by an Angel.'
MAJOLUS. See Maglioli.
MAJOR, Isaac, a German painter and engraver,
was born at Frankfort about the year 1576. Early
in his life he went to Prague, where he became a
scholar of Rolandt Savery, at that time painter to
Rodolph II. He was also instructed by Giles
Sadeler, in whose style he engraved several plates.
Major died in poverty at Vienna in 1630. We
have by this artist the following :
A set of six Landscapes, Views in Bohemia; after

P. Stephani.
A set of nine romantic Views, signed : Isaac Major fee.
A very large Landscape, with the figure of St, Jerome ;
aftej^ Rolandt Savery. Isaac Majm' scul. I^iemus.
1622.
The Emperor Eudolph 11. in a Triumphal Car, with



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