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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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John the Baptist.

Munich. Gallery. Christ mocked by the Soldiers.

Kantes. Museum. Judith and Holofernes.

Paris. Louvre. Company drinking.

„ „ The Fortune-Teller.

Vienna. Gallery. Card-Players.

„ „ The Denial of St. Peter.

MANGINI, Prosper, a little-known painter of
the 17th century. He was a pupil of Agostino
Metelli, and painted similar subjects.

MANGLARD, Adeibn, a French painter and
engraver, was born at Lyons in 1695. At an
early period of his life he went to Rome, where
he met with considerable encouragement, and
painted several landscapes and sea-pieces for the
Villa Albani, and for the Colonna and Kospigliosi
Palaces. He became a member of the Academy
in Paris in 1736, and subsequently of that of St.
Luke, at Rome, where he died in 1760. Joseph
'Vernet was his scholar. Among his pictures are :

Paris. Louvre. A Shipwreck.

Kome. Pal. Buspoli. Several Paiutings.

Vienna. Belvedere. Agitated Sea at Sunrise.

He engraved forty-four plates, representing similar
subjects to those of his paintings. Tlie best is
' The Widow of Sarepta.'

MANGOKI, Adam db, (Manyocky,) was a Ger-
man portrait painter, born at Szokolya, in Hungary,
in 1674. He was a pupil of Scheitz, and lived at
Dresden, where many of his works still exist.
Among his best pictures we may name :

Portrait of Count Promuitz.
Portrait of Franijois Kakocsy.
Portrait of Augustus the Strong.
Portrait of Count Bielinsky.

MANINI, GaetAno, was born at Milan about
the year 1730. He painted history in the gaudy
and frivolous style of the modern Italian school,
and came to England a little before 1775, in which
year he was an exhibitor with the Chartered Society
of Artists. He died between the years 1780 and

MANINI, GiACOMO Antonio, (or Mannini.) a
painter and engraver of perspective and architec-
tural ornaments, was born at Bologna in 1646, and
died in the same city in 1732. He was a disciple
of Andr6 Monticelli and Domenico Santi. There

is a series of sixteen perspective views by him,
entitled ' Vedute deliziose ' ; they are etched with
great taste.

MANISFELS, FBANgois Joseph, an historical
painter, was born at Tournai in 1742. He was a
pupil of N. Brebar. He died in 1807.

MANNI, Giannicola di Paolo, was born at
Citta della Pieve in the latter half of the 16th
century, and died in 1544. He was a fellow-
pupil under Perugino of Raphael and Lo Spagna.
He died in 1544. There is an 'Annunciation' by
him in the National Gallery, and the Fitzwilliam
Museum at Cambridge has a ' Madonna ' ascribed
to him. Elsewhere the following are preserved :





Gallery. The Crucifixion.
S. Piitro. The Visitation.

Louvre. Baptism of our Lord.
„ Assumption of the Virgin.

„ Adoration of the Magi.

„ Holy Family.

Cambio. Altar-piece and several fres-
coes. 1515-19.
„ Pinacoteca. Paintings of Christ, the Virgin,

and Saints.
„ S. Martina. Virgin, with SS. John and

„ -S Tommaso. The Incredulity of St. Thomas.

MANNIN, James, or (Manning,) a flower
painter, born in France, who settled in Dublin,
where in 1746 he became a master in the Dublin
Society's School, and tauglit several good artists.
He died in 1779.

MANNIN, Mrs., was a miniature painter. She
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1829 to
1832 as Miss Millington, and from 1833 to 1859
under her married name. Among her best works
are the portraits of Sir Henry Havelock, Sir
Felix and Lady Agar, and the cliildren of Sir
George Brooke-Pechell. She died at Brighton in

MANNINI, Jaoopo Antonio, painter and en-
graver, was born at Bologna in 1646. He and
Giambattista Draghi were intrusted by the Duke
of Parma with the decoration of a chapel at Colomo.
From 1706 to 1708 Mannini was at Modena, where
he painted the dome of the church of St. Barnabas.
He engraved several plates. He died in 1732.

MANNL, Jacob, (or M.\nnl,) a German engraver
in mezzotint, was boin at Vienna about the year
1695. In 1720 Christopher Lauch, the inspector
of the Imperial Gallery, which had been augmented
by the collection of the Archduke Leopold, under-
took to have the whole of the pictures engraved,
and Jacob Mannl was employed for that purpose.
The death of the archduke and of the artist pre-
vented the completion of the project, and only
thirty-one plates were finished. These prints are
now become extremely rare. They are as follows :

St. Francis praying ; ajter Bassano.

Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same.

St. Clara kneeling ; after the same.

Christ praying in the Garden ; after Michel- Atjnolo

Tobit restoring Sight to his Father ; after the same.
Susannah and the Elders; after Ann. Cain'acci.
Mary Magdalene penitent, accompanied by an Angel ;

after Correygio.
The Virgin, with the Infant Christ, who is caressing

St. John ; after Van Dyck.
Samson delivered to the Philistines ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew; after Luca

A Philosopher meditating on a Skull ; afte)' the same,
A Geometrician ; after the same.
A Warrior giving his hand to a Man ; after Giorgione.




Jupiter and Mercury, with Baucis and Philemon ; after

Carlo Loth.
Christ taken in the Garden ; a/tej- B. Manfredi.
The Dead Christ, supported by an Angel ; after Palma.
A Dying Magdalene ; after the younye)' Palma.
St. Margaret treading on the riragon ; after Raphael.
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Spai/miletto.
Christ disputing with the Doctors ; after the same.
Susannah at the Bath ; after Tintoretto.
Venus, with Cupid holding a mirror ; after Titian.
Bcce Homo ; half-length ; after the same.
The Virgin, or Mater Dolorosa ; after the same.
The Virgin and Infant ; after the same.
Judith with the Head of Holof ernes ; after A, Varotari.
Judith ; after Carta Verteziano.
A Child holding a Dog ; after Paolo Veronese.
Judith leaving the Tent of Holofernes ; after the same.
Diana and her Nymphs ; after TFilletorts and Jan


Portrait of the Emperor Charles VI.

MANNLICH, JoHANN Christian von, (or Man-
LICH,) was born at Strasburg in 1740 or 1742. He
was instructed by his father, Konrad Mannlich,
and afterwards went to Mannheim and became a
scholar of Zinzenich and VerscliafEelt. Duke
Christian IV., by whom he was patronized, intro-
duced him to Carle van Loo and Francois Boucher
in Paris in 1763, and enabled him to visit the
Academy at Rome in 1767. He went subsequently
to Naples, and stayed there until 1771. After his
return he became court-painter in 1772, as well as
Director of the School of Art at Zweibriichen. He
was a member of the Academies of Diisseldorf,
Mannheim, Paris, and Parma. He died early in

MANNLICH, KoNEAD, was born at Augsburg in
1701. He studied under Johann Kupeczki, at
Vienna, and subsequently visited Hungary. In
after years he was employed at Stuttg-art and at
Zweibriicken. He painted history, portraits, and
animals with considerable success. Several of his
works are in the Gallery at Sohleissheim. He died
at Zweibriicken in 1759.

MANNO, Francesco, an Italian painter and
architect, was born at Palermo in 1754. He began
life as a goldsmith, but afterwards devoted himself
to painting. In 1786 he settled at Rome, and
became the Secretary of the Academy of St. Luke.
He was employed by Pope Pius VI. Among
, his works may be named a portrait of King
Ferdinand I., in the Gallery at Palermo, and several
frescoes in the Quirinal. He died at Rome in 1831.
MANNOZZI (or Manozzi). See San Giovanni.
MANNSFELD. See Mansfeld.
MANRI6UB, Miguel. See Amb^ees.
MANS, Feedeeio H., was a Dutch painter of
the 17th century, who has left numerous pictures
of towns, villages, and coast scenes. He is sup-
posed to have lived at Utrecht. His winter-pieces
are in the manner of Klaas Molenaer. Examples
are to be found at Vienna, Florence, Rotterdam,
Dresden, and Gotha. They are generally of small
dimensions, and signed with his name, and some
are dated as late as 1677.

MANSFELD, Johann Eenst, (or Mannsfeld,)
a German engraver, was born at Prague in 1738.
When he was sixteen years of age he visited
Vienna, where he learned design in the Imperial
Academy, and was instructed in the art of en-
graving by Jakob' Schmutzer, the court painter.
He became a member of the Academy of Vienna,
where he died in 1796. His best plates are small
portraits of eminent Austrians, &c. The following
are the most important :

The Empress Maria Theresa.
The Emperor Joseph II.
Pope Pius V. ; after Hagenawr. 1782.
■Wenceslaus, Prince Kauritz ; after Vinazer.
Francis Anthony, Count Kollowrat ; a/to' the same
Maurice, Count Lacy : after Kollonitz. 1776.
Frederick, Baron Trenck.
Joseph Haydn.
Anthony Stoerk. 1773.
Sir Robert Murray Keith ; after Graff.
Metastasio ; after Steiner.


The Prodigal Son ; after Fiiger.

A "Waterfall on the Danube ; afte}' Wenzely,

The Coronation of the Emperor Leopold ; after iSchutz.

MANSFELD, Johann Georg, (or Mannsfeld,)
born at Vienna in 1772, was instructed by his
father, Johann Ernst Mansfeld, and in the Vien-
nese Academy. He won some distinction both
as a painter and engraver. His works are sigiied
J. G. M. sc. ; Md.fe., or with a monogram. He
died at Vienna in 1817. There are by him :

A series of heads of animals; after Quadal, Gondonio,

The portrait of Prince Kaunitz.

Christ and the Woman of Samaria.

MANSKIRCH, Bernard Gottfried, was born
at Bonn in 1736 He distinguished himself as
a painter of landscapes ; but in the latter part of
his life he became loose and negligent in execution.
He settled at Cologne in the yeai 1790, and died
therein 1817.

MANSKIRCH, Franz Joseph, was born in 1770,
and was instructed by his father, Bernard Gottfried
Manskirch. He distinguished himself as a painter
of landscapes and as an engraver. About 1796 he
resided for a time in England, but was back in
Germany by about 1805. He was at Bonn in 1823,
and afterwards at Frankfort, Berlin, and Dantzic,
where he died in 1827. He was commissioned by
the Empress Josephine to paint a series of scenes
on the Rhine. He etched one landscape.

MANSON, George, was born at Edinburgh in
1850. After he left school he worked for a fev^
months with a punch-cutter, making the dies for
tj'pe, and after that for five years at wood- engrav-
ing, producing water-colour pictures in his leisure
hours. His style of engraving was direct and
artistic, resembling much that of the Bewicks.
When he was twenty-one he set up as a professional
painter, though greatly hampered b.y failing health.
In 1871 he visited London, and in 1873 the con-
tinent for the first time. On his return to Edin-
burgh symptoms of lung disease manifested them-
selves, and early in 1874 he was ordered to the
South, to the Channel Islands. He went to Sark,
and a year later paid a second visit to Paris, where
he began to etch. On his return to England he
settled for a time at Shirley, near Croydon ; but
his health was finally broken, and removing to
Lympstone in Devonshire, he died there early in
1876. His pictures are distinguished by fine colour,
great delicacy of handling, and a tenderness of
sentiment scarcely surpassed by any other painter
of his school. Among the best are :

Milking Time.

The Cottage Door.

What is it?

Waiting for the Boats.


Girl with a Donkey.

The Gipsy Camp.

The Haunted AVell.





MAjSTSUETI, Giovanni, was a Venetian painter
living in the latter part of the 15th and beginning
of the 16th century, and a contemporary and
friend of Lazzaro Bastiani. The registers of San
Giovanni, Venice, tell us that he was lame ; and
by his own authority we learn that he was a pupil
of Giovanni Bellini, and a believer in a miracle of
the Cross, which took place in 1474, and forms
the subject of one of his paintings now in the
Academy of Venice. An early effort of Mansueti's
is the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the Communal
Gallery of Padua. TheAcademy of Venice possesses
also 'St. Mark curing Anianus the Cobbler'; 'St.
Mark preaching to the Populace of Alexandria |;
and a picture said to represent ' Antonio Riccio
congratulated by his friends on his escape from
Shipwreck.' In the Brera, Milan, is a ' St. Mark
Baptizing Anianus,' formerly in the school of San
Marco, Venice. In later years were painted a
' Pieta ' and a ' St. Jerome,' now in the Locchis
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo. The galleries of Berlin,
Venice, and Verona also possess paintings by this
master, and a picture signed Joannes de Mansuetis
pinsit is in the possession of Mr. J. Q. Grace.
Of the dates of his birth and death no exact
information can be had.

MANTEGNA, Andrea, was born in t&e neigh-
bourhood of Padua in 1431. He was the son of
humble parents, since, according to Vasari, he
herded cattle in his youth, and was adopted by
Francesco Squarcione as his foster-child in 1441,
in which year he was entered on the register of
Paduan artists. Prom Squarcione he learned the
first rudiments of his ai't, although it is evident
from his paintings that he had studied the master-
pieces of Bellini, Donatello, and Lippi. Mantegna
commenced to show his talents at a very early age.
He painted a ' Virgin and Child ' for the high altar
of Santa Sofia, Padua, when only seventeen years
old. His earliest known fresco is that of ' SS.
Bernardino and Anthony supporting the Sacred
Monogram,' above the high portal of Sant' Antonio
of Padua. It was painted in 1452. The Brera,
Milan, possesses an altar-piece with St. Luke and
other Saints, which was painted in 1454 for Santa
Giustina, and shows his earlier style as a worker
in tempera. There is, too, in the Museum of Naples,
a St. Eufemia, painted apparently from a marble
statue, which bears the same date. Aoogrding to
Vasari, Andrea first commenced to work in the
Eremitani Chapel, Padua, after 1448. It is believed
that Mantegna finished the frescoes representing
'The Call of SS. James and John by Christ,' and
' St. James exorcising the Devils,' which Pizzo'o's
sudden and violent death prevented his completing.
Those entirely executed by Andrea are ' St. James
baptizing Hermogenes ' ; 'St. James before Herod ' ;
' St. James, on his way to Martyrdom, blessing a
Convert ' ; ' The Martyrdom of St. James ' ; ' The
Martyrdom of St. Christopher ' ; and ' The Removal
of the Body of St. Christopher.' These were exe-
cuted in the years 1453-59. About this period
Mantegna married Niocolosia, the daughter of
Jacopo Bellini, which was probably one cause of
the estrangement which had been gradually grow-
ing up between Squarcione and himself ; for there
had always existed a certain antagonistic rivalry
between the schools of the Bellinis and of Squar-
cione. To these years may be referred the fine
altar-piece (No. 274) in the National Gallery, which
may be looked upon as an example of the purest
art of Mantegna. By some connoisseurs it is placed


as early as 1456. Attracted by the renown that
Andrea was now gaining by his works, the Marquis
Lodovico Gonzaga made liberal overtures to him
at the close of 1456, and Andrea consented*to go
to Mantua as soon as he should have finished the
commissions entrusted to him by the Protonotary
of Verona and others. That dignitary had ordered
an altar-piece for the churcli of San Zeno, to consist
of a life-size ' Virgin and Child, attended by Angels,
with eight Saints ' ; and a predella with three sub-
jects, viz., ' The Agony in the Garden ' ; ' The Cruci-
fixion ' ; and ' The Ascension.' This altar-piece was
long in the church, but is now partly dispersed.
The main picture is still in place in San Zeno, but
the ' Crucifixion ' is in the Louvre, and the remain-
ing two panels in the Museum of Tours. In the
year (1459) which saw the completion of this altar-
piece, Andrea executed a subject for the Podesta of
Padua, which Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcasselle be-
lieve to be the ' Agony in the Garden ' now in the
possession of Mr. Baring. In its background there
is a view of Padua, with the city gate and the
church of the Eremitani. It is probable that
Mantegna entered the service of the Gonzagas
about 1463, for in that year he was residing at
Goito, where that family had a castle, and where
he painted many pictures and frescoes,, now either
lost or dispersed. In the UflBzi there is a triptych
that once belonged to a chapel of the Gonzagas ;
it represents the Adoration of the Magi, the
Circumcision, and the Resurrection. To this
same period belong the ' Virgin and Child ' ; ' The
Presentation ' ; and a portrait of Matteo Bozzo,
Abbot of Fiesole, all now in the Berhn Gallery ;
also the ' St. George in Armour,' in the Academy
of Venice ' ; arid the ' St. Sebastian ' at the Belve-
dere, Vienna. About 1468 Andrea settled down
at Mantua with his family. The frescoes executed
by him in the Castle of Mantua, in the rooms
known as 'the Camera degli Spoai,' and 'the
Schalcheria,' are still preserved. In the first-named
are a series of episodes taken from the life of
Lodovico, containing portraits of himself, his wife,
and the different members of his family and house-
hold ; the ceiling is decorated in monochroine with
various mythological subjects, and eight medallions
of the Roman Emperors ; these frescoes are dated
1474. Those in the Schalcheria are of about ten
years later, and chiefly consist of hunting scenes
and portraits of the Emperors. Besides these
works for his patron, these years saw the production
of 'The Dead Christ wept over by the three Maries,'
now in the Brera, Milan ; and ' The Death of the
Virgin ' (painted about 1470), now in the Museum
of Madrid. In 1476 Lodovico gave Mantegna a
site for a villa, whereupon the artist began one of
great beauty, both in design and decoration. It
still remains, but its ornament has long since been
destroyed. In the year 1478 the Marquis died,
leaving his possessions to his son Federigo.'who
honourably fulfilled bis father's engagements to the
painter, and continued to protect him on his own be-
half. In 1480 the artist declitied to paint a portrait
of the Duchess of Milan, the Marquis Federigo him-
self writing the letter of refusal. In 1483 Lorenzo
de' Medici visited Mantegna's workshop, and ex-
pressed his admiration for all he saw there ; and a
year afterwards Giovanni della Rovere, Governor
of Rome, wrote to the Bishop of Mantua, a brother
of the Marquis, asking him to use his interest with
Andrea to induce the painter to send him a picture.
This was refused on the plea that Andrea had no




time to spare, being hard pressed to finish a room
the Marquis wished to occupy that summer. Before
the summer was over, however, Federigo died
leaving his estates to his son, Francesco II., then a
mere youth. Dreading lest he should not obtain
from the new Marquis such favour and patron-
age as he had won from Lodovico and Federigo,
Mantegna wrote letters to his former patrons and
friends, among others to Lorenzo de' Medici, begging
aid and assistance, and explnining his heavy losses
and present necessities. Happily, however, for
Mantegna, his position at the Mantuan Court was
not permanently shaken, while orders fromi his
ancient patrons helped to lift him out of difficulty.
Among other commissions then received he exe-
cuted onefor a 'Madonna and Saints' fortheDuohess
of Ferrara. This picture Messrs. Crowe and Caval-
casselle believe to be the ' Madonna and Child, with
SS. Joseph, Anna, and John the Baptist,' formerly
in the possession of Sir Charles Eastlake, and
now in the Dresden Gallery. Signor Morelli places
it, however, between 1497 and 1606. Between 1485
and 1492 Andrea painted the famous 'Triumphs
of Caesar,' now at Hampton Court. They were
originally designed for the decoration of the
theatre erected iu the Castle of Mantua in 1501,
when the Adelphi of Terence and the Comedies
of Plautus were performed. These frescoes, nine
in number, are now much injured. They belonged
to Charles the First, and at the sale of his collection
were bought in by Cromwell for £1000. In 1488
Mantegna was knighted and sent to Rome by the
Marquis Francesco Gonzaga. Innocent VIII. de-
sired him to decorate the Belvedere chapel, which
he had just erected for his own private use in the
Vatican. These decorations took the artist two
years to complete. He afterwards painted a ' Ma-
donna and Child ' for Francesco de' Medici, which
is now in the Uffizi ; and the ' Man of Sorrows,'
now at Copenhagen. In the summer of 1490 the
painter returned to Mantua, and again worked on
the 'Triumph of Cassar,' which he finished between
1490-92. From this date his pictures begin to
strongly betray the hands of assistants. Among
these were his two sons, Francesco and Lodovico,
and also, if we may trust Vasari, Francesco Bon-
signori and Gian-Francesco Carotto. In 1495
Mantegna painted, by order of the Marquis Fran-
cesco, an altar-piece for the church of S. Maria
della Vittoria, Mantua, which had been erected by
the Marquis to commemorate the battle of Fornovo.
This picture is now in the Louvre. It represents
the Marquis, in full armour, kneeling at the feet of
the Virgin and Child, who is attended by the arch-
angels, and the saints Longinus, Andrew, John
the Baptist, and Elizabeth. Andrea was also an
engraver, and among other works, engraved his
own ' Triumphs of Csesar.' Impressions are now
very scarce. In 1499 he furnished a design for a
statue of Virgil, which was to have been placed in
some public square in Mantua ; the sketch is now
in Paris. In his old age Mantegna again fell into
difficulties, partly through his own indiscretion
and extravagance, partly through the ungenerous
treatment he met with from the Gonzaga family.
His last strength was given to the elaboration of a
' Masque of Comus ' for the Marcluoness Isabella of
Mantua, to whom he sold a portion of his collection
of antiques. He died in the autumn of 1 506, aged 75.
Among his best works we may quote the following :

Berlin. Museum. Portrait (of Matbeo Bosco, Abbot

of Fiesole);




Museum. Presentation iu the Temple
Gallery. Holy Family.

Vffi.zi. Madonna and Child.
» i; A Triptych — Adoration of the

■c, , ,. . „ „ Magi, Presentation, Ascension.

Franklort. Gallery. St. Mark
Hampton Court. The Triumph of Julius C^sar.

{Nine cartoons on linen.)
London. Nat. Gallery. Virgin and Child enthroned.
» » The Triumph of Scipio.

» )> Two allegorical female figures

(? Temperance and Chastity).
» ,) Samson and Delilah.

Madrid. Museum. Death of the Virgin. ^

Mantua. Castello. Frescoes.

Milan. Itrera. St. Luke and Saints.

,, ", II . The Dead Christ and Maries.

^^'"'^ Itrll^l^-oe s.
Paris. Louvre. Madonna della Vittoria.

II „ Parnassus.

)i I, Wisdom victorious over the

Tours. Museum. Christ on the Mount of Olives.

II _ „ The Ascension.

Turin. Gallery. Madonna and Saints.

Venice. Academy. St. George.

Verona. San Zeno. Madonna and Saints.

Vienna. Gallery. St. Sebastian.

Of his engravings we may mention :
Battle of the Sea-gods.
Dancing Muses of the Parnassus.
Descent from the Cross.
Hercules and Antseus.
Portraits of Lodovico and Barbara Gonzaga.
St. Andrew, St. Longinus, and the Risen Christ.
St. Sebastian.
Scourging of Christ.
Triumphs of Juhus Caesar.
Virgin of the Grotto.

MANTEGNA, Bernardino, son and pupil of
Andrea Mantegna, horn in 1490, assisted his father,
and at sixteen gained a certain reputation. Fran-
cesco, another son, was working in 1494 for
Francesco de Gonzago, and after his father's death
he finished some of his pictures. It has sometimes
been asserted, but on very slight grounds, that he
was the first master of Correggio. Two small
pictures in the National Gallery are ascribed with
some probability to Francesco. He was still living
in 1517. Lodovico, the youngest son of Andrea
Mantegna, died in 1509.

MANTEGNA, Carlo del, a pupil and relation
of Mantegna, assisted his sons in finishing their
father's pictures. In 1514 he had a school at Genoa.

MANTOVANO, Adamo, Diani, Giovanni Bat-
TiSTA. See Scclptore.

MANTOVANO, (or Mantuano,) Giorgio and
Teodoro ; see Ghisi. Andrea ; see Andreani.

MANTOVANO.Rinaldo, was born at Mantua, and
was one of the more distinguished scholars of Giulio
Romano. In the church of Sant' Agnese at Mantua
is a fine picture by him of the ' Virgin and Infant,
with SS. Agostino and Girolamo,' composed and
designed with a grandeur so much beyond his age,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 27 of 201)