Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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1825. On accompanying Duke Maximilian on his
journey to the Bast, he executed several excellent
genre paintings, some of which are at the Rosen-
stein near Stuttgart.

MAYR, JoHANN Ulrioh, (or Mair,) was bom at
Augsburg in 1630, and died at the same city in
1704. He was an excellent disciple of Rembrandt
and Jakob Jordaens, and was most distinguished as
a painter of portraits, amongst which were Joachim
von Sandrart and a painting on glass of himself.
Of his other works we note :
Augsburg. Anna-kirche. Christ iu Prison.
Vienna. Belvedere. The Apostle Philip reading in

a book.

MAYRHOFER, Johann Nepomhk, flower painter
and lithographer, was born at Obemeukirchen, in
Austria, in 1764. He was instructed by Haslinger
at Linz, and studied afterwards at Munich. He
was an excellent painter of flowers and fruit, as
we may see in his ' Flora Monacensis ' (Munich,
1816—30). He died at Munich in 1832.

MAZELL, Peter, an English engraver who
flourished in the second part of the 18th century,
and worked for Pennant and Boydell, and all the
engravings in Cordiner's ' Ruins and Romantic
Prospects in North Britain' (1792) are by him.

MAZO, Martinez Juan BAutista del. See Del
Mazo Martinez.

MAZOT, — , is mentioned by Strutt as an en-
graver, by whom we have a few indifferent por-
traits ; among others, that of Christian IV., King
of Denmark.

MAZZA, Damiano, was a native of Padua, and
disciple of Titian. He chiefly resided at Venice,
where he painted for the churches ; but his most

celebrated work was his picture of ' Ganymede
taken up by the Eagle,' in the Casa Sonica at
Padua. Mazza died young.

MAZZAEOPPI, Marco, was born at San Ger-
mane, near Naples, about 1570. His principal
works are to be found in the Abbey of Mont
Cassin, near San Germane. He died in 1620.

MAZZIERI, Antonio di Donnino, according to
Vasari, was a native of Florence, and a disciple of
Francia Bigio. He flourished about the year 1520,
and distinguished himself as a painter of land-
scapes and battle-pieces, which were well coloured
and handled with spirit.

MAZZOCCHI. See Doni, Paolo.

MAZZOLA, Fran, and Girol., (Mazzoli, or
Mazzolo.) See Mazzuola.

MAZZOLA, Giuseppe, was born at Valduggia, in
Piedmont, in 1748, He formed himselE at first on
Gaudenzio Ferrari, afterwards on Correggio. By
the assistance of King Victor Amadeus III. of
Savoy, he went to Rome in 1774, and studied the
works of Raphael and Michelangelo. From 1789
to 1797 he was court painter to his patron. In
1802 he established himself at Milan, and became
director of the Gallery there. From 1803 he was
obliged to paint with the left hand. Mazzola died
at Milan iu 1838. Among his best paintings are :

A ' Holy FamUy.' (Brera, Milan.)

The Ascension of Mary.

The portrait of King Amadeus III.

MAZZOLINI, Giov. Bern. See Azzolini.
MAZZOLINI, LoDOVico, called Mazzolini da
Fburara and LoDOVico Ferraresb, was born at
Ferrara about 1481. He was a scholar of Lorenzo
Costa, and may be placed next after Garofalo
among the masters of his native town. His pictures
are even more remarkable than others of their
school for their architectural backgrounds. Three
small examples in the National Gallery show this
tendency in a very marked way. Perhaps Mazzo-
lini's best picture is the first in the list below. He
died in 1530.
Berlin. Museum. Christ and the Doctors. 1524.

„ „ Holy Family.

Bologna. Pinacoteca. The Nativity.

„ „ Go5 the Father.

Dresden. Gallery. Bcoe Homo.

Ferrara. Pinacoteca. Virgin adoring the new-born

Florence. Vfflzi. The Nativity.

„ „ Holy Family.

„ „ The Circumcision.

Hague; Massacre of the Innocents. 1548.

London. Nat. Gal. Virgin, Child, and Saints.
„ „ Holy Family.

„ „ The Woman taken in Adultery.

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family^

„ „ Christ preaching to the Multitude.

MAZZONI, Cesare Giuseppe, was born at
Bologna in 1678, and was a scholar of Lorenzo
Pasinelli, and afterwards of the younger dal Sole.
There are several of his works in the churches
and public edifices at Bologna, which prove him to
'have been a respectable painter of history. He
died in 1763. His best works are :

In San Colombano, Bologna, an altar-piece.

In San Tommaso di Strada Maggiore, a ' Crucifixion.'

In San Giovanni in Monte, a ' St. Peter delivered from

MAZZONI, GiULio, was a native of Piacenza,
but studied at Rome under Daniele da Volterra,
and flourished about the year 1568. He is men-
tioned by Vasari, in the life of that master, as a





painter of considerable merit. His principal work
is the ' Four Evangelists ' in the cathedral at

MAZZONI, Sebastiano, was born at- Florence
about 1615. He removed to Venice, where, after
a life of some local success, he died near the end
of the century.

MAZZDCHELLl, Pietro Francesco, called II
MoBAzzoNE (MoRANzoNB, Or Marazzone), was born
at Morazzone, in the Milanese, in 1571, and is
generally called from the place of his nativity.
He resided at Rome in the early part of his life,
where he painted for the church of Santa Maria
Maddalena al Corso, the 'Assumption of the
Virgin, with the Apostles,' and for San Silvestro
in Capite, the ' Adoration of the Magi.' He after-
wards went to Venice, where he studied the works
of Titian, Tintoretto, and Paolo Veronese, by which
he greatly improved his colour; and on going to
Milan he painted the ' Adoration of the Kings,' for
the church of Sant' Antonio Abate, in a style so
superior to the picture of the same subject he had
painted at Rome, that it appeared to be by a
different hand. At Como, in the church of San
Giovanni, is one of his principal works, representing
'St. Michael discomfiting the rebel Angels.' He
was employed and patronized by the King of
Sardinia, by whom he was knighted. In 1626 he
was invited to Piacenza to paint the great cupola
of the cathedral, which he only lived to commence.
He died the same year, and his work was finished
by Guercino.

MAZZUOLA, Annibale, a native of Siena, was a
painter of history. He passed his life in Rome,
where he died in 1743.

MAZZUOLA, FiLlPPO, was born at Parma in
the latter part of the 15th century, and was some-
times called ' Filippo dall' Erbette,' from a habit he
had of introducing plants into his pictures. He
was the father of Parmigiano. The Gallery of
Parma possesses a ' Virgin and Child, between
SS. Francis and John the Baptist,' painted by him
in 1491 ; at the Palazzo Vescovile, in the same
city, is a ' Baptism of Christ,' dated 1493. In tlie
year 1500 he completed the 'Dead Christ, with the
Virgin, and SS. Magdalene, Catharine, Monica,
AppoUonia, and Barbara,' now in the Naples
Museum. The Brera, Milan, and the Doria Gallery,
Rome, both possess portraits of men by Mazzuola.
His death occurred in 1505. Additional works by
him are :

Berlin. Musmm. Virgin and Child between SS.

Catharine and Chiara. 1502.
„ Saczynald Coll. Bust of Christ. 1504.

MAZZUOLA, Francesco, (Mazzola, MAzznoLi,
Mazzoli, Parmigianino, &c.,) called II Parmigiano,
was the son of Filippo Mazzuola, and was born at
Parma in 1504. His father dying when he was
very young, he was brought up under his uncles,
MioHELE and Pier Ilario Mazzuola, who taught
him what they knew of the art, and curious tales
are told of his precocity. Surrounded by the pro-
ductions of Correggio, he studied them with
attention and success. His earliest works were
entirely in the style of that painter ; among them
we may name a ' St. Bernardo ' at the Osservanti at
Parma, and the 'Holy Family' in the collection of
the Presidente Bertioli. The desire of seeing the
works of Michelangelo and Raphael led him to
Rome when he was twenty years of age, and there
his talents recommended him to the notice of


Clement VII., for whom he painted a picture of
the ' Circumcision ' for the palace of the Vatican.
He improved his taste by the help of Raphael, and
his energy by that of Buonarroti. Vasari reports
that it was said at Rome " that the soul of Raphael
had passed into the person of Parmigiano." Maz-
zuola was high in his patron's favour, and in the
public esteem, when his career was interrupted by
the sacking of Rome in 1527. This event obliged
him to take refuge at Bologna, where he painted
some altar-pieces for the churches, among which
was the ' Virgin and Infant Christ, with St. John,
St. Margaret, and St. Jerome,' in Santa Margherita,
now in the Louvre. The church of San Petronio
possesses a ' St. Roch,' a noble and dignified
performance. On his return to Parma he was
engaged to decorate in fresco the vault of La
Madonna della Steccata, where he painted ' Adam \
and Eve,' and his famous chiaroscuro of 'Moses
breaking the Tables of the Law,' which is one of
the chief productions of the school to which it
belongs. Of his easel pictures one of the best is
the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. Catharine, St.
John, and St. Jerome,' in the Florentine Gallery, of
which there are several repetitions. Another good
picture by him, representing the ' Virgin and Child,
with Mary Magdalene and Angels,' called ' La
Madonna del collo lungo,' is now in the Pitti
Gallery at Florence. Lastly we may name the
' Vision of St. Jerome,' in the National Gallery, as
also among his finest works. Parmigiano was
unfortunately addicted to alchemy, and wasted his
substance and health in the absurd pursuit of the
philosopher's stone. This fatal infatuation occa-
sioned him to neglect, and at last to abandon, the
important works he was engaged on at the Steccata,
and having received several sums of money in
advance, he was prosecuted by the confraternity.
He fled to Casal Maggiore, where he died in 1540 of
a fever, brought on by disappointment and chagrin,
at the age of thirty-six. The following are the
chief works of Parmigiano to which we can point :

Berlin. Baptism of Christ.

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Virgin, Child, and Saints,

„ „ St. Margaret.

„ „ Mary and Martha.

Brussels. Holy Family.

Dresden. Museum. Virgin and Child adored by


„ „ Virgin with the Child holding a

Rose {Madonna della Bosa).

„ „ Ganymede.

Florence. Pitti Pal. La Madonna del collo lungo.

„ TPffizi. His own portrait.

„ „ Holy Family of the Tribune.

Genoa. Museum. Marriage of St. Catharine.

London. Nat. Gallery. The Vision of St. Jerome.

Madrid. Museum. Holy Family.

Modena. Museum. Apollo and Marsyas,

Naples. Museum,. The Annunciation.

„ „ Holy Faraily.

„ „ St. Sebastian.

„ „ Lucretia.

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family, with St. John.

„ „ Holy Family, with SS. Margaret,

Benedict, and Jerome.
Parma. Ch. de la ) Frescoes — Moses, and Adam and

Steccata. j Eve.

„ iS. Annunziata. Baptism of Christ.

„ ,, St. Bernardino.

„ „ Holy Family.

„ „ Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.

Fetershrag. Hermitage. An Entombment.

Rome. The Virgin.

„ St. John the Baptist.

„ Borghese. St. Catharine.




Belvedere. Cupid mending his Bow.

„ „ St. Catharine.

„ ,, Portrait of MalatestaBaglioni(?)

» „ Three male portraits.

As an engrav.er Francesco Mazzuola has been
erroneously supposed to have been the inventor of
etcliing ; but it was practised in Germany a con-
siderable time before him, though he is considered
as the first artist who wielded the point in Italy.
This Js rendered extremely probaible, by the diffi-
culty he appears to have laboured under in the
mechanical part of the execution of some of his
first prints. His plates are scratched in with the
point, and being sometimes not well bitten, are
coarsely retouched with the burin. From his in-
experience in the process, his earliest etchings are
seldom clear or perfect, but some of those executed
in the latter part of his life are better. These de-
fects are, however, amply compensated by the
tasteful arrangement of his subjects, and the spirit
and animation of his design. It is very difficult
to meet with fine impressions of his prints, as the
plates have been much retouched. We have a
number of wood-cuts from his designs, printed in
chiaroscuro, which have been incorrectly said to
have been executed by himself ; but it is now well
known that he only superintended their execution
by Ugo da Carpi, Andrea Andreani, and others,
including Antonio da Trento, who robbed him of
his designs, which were eventually found by Count
Antonio Maria Zanetti in the possession of the Earl
of Arundel in London, and taken to Italy. He
signed his works F. P., F. P. F, F. Farm., &c.,
or with a monogram. We have the following
etchings, by Parmigiano :

Hoses and the Burning Bush ; supposed to have been

his first plate.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes.
Joseph and Potiphar's "Wife.
The Nativity.

The Marriage of St. Catherine.
The Holy Family, with St. John presenting a Basket

of Flowers.
The Holy Family, with Zacharias.
Another Holy Family, with St. John embracing the

Infant Jesus.
The Entombment. Guido has copied this print.
The Resurrection, with several Soldiers.
A Man and a Woman seated iu a landscape.
A Mother instructing her four Daughters.
A Shepherd resting on his Crook.
Diogenes seated near his Tub. There is a chiaroscuro

cut of this by Uyo da Carpi.
St. Peter and St. Paul healing the lame Man ; after

Eaphael ; fine.
A set of thirteen plates of Christ and the Apostles.

MAZZUOLA, GiEOLAMO, whose real name was
Bedolo, but who took the name of his father-in-
law, Pietro Ilario Mazzuoli, was born- at San
Lazzaro, near Parma, in the first half of the 16tli
century. He studied under his cousin Parmigiano,
and became an imitator of his style. Works by
him are to be seen in the Galleries of Berlin,
Dresden, Paris, and Parma. He was still living
at Parma in 1666, but apparently died soon after-
wards. His son Alessandro, who died in 1608,
was a feeble imitator of his father.

MAZZUOLI, Giuseppe, called II Bastardolo,
was born at Ferrara about the j'ear 1525, and was
a fellow-student with Giovanni Francesco Surchi,
in the school of Dosso Dossi. He acquired the
name of II Bastaruolo from the profession of his
father, who was a dealer in grain. His pictures

were in such estimation, that there is scarcely a
public building in his native city which does not
possess some works of his. In the cathedral there
is a fine picture of the ' Virgin and Child, with
Angels'; in San Maurelio an ' Ascension,' one of his
best works ; in the Jesuits' Church, an ' Annuncia-
tion,' and a 'Madonna, with Mary Magdalene and St.
John ' ; but perhaps his best known performance
is a ' St. Barbara and St. Ursula,' with a number of
female figures, in the Conservatorio of St. Barbara.
Giuseppe (he has sometimes been erroneously
called Filippo) was drowned in the Po in 1689.

MEADOWS, Egbert Mitchell, an English en-
graver in the second half of the 18th century,
who published some lectures on engraving. He
worked for Boydell's ' Shakespeare Gallery,' and
there are plates by him after Westall, Hamilton,
Lawrence, &c. He was already dead in 1812.

MECARINO, IL. See Beccafumi.

MECHAU, Jakob Wilhelm, a German painter
and engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1745. He
was for some time a pupil of Bernard Bode and Le
Sueur, at Berlin, and afterwards frequented the
Academy at Leipsic, where he studied under
Casanova. In 1776 he went to Rome, and im-
proved his style by studying the works of Claude
de Lorrain and Philipp Hackert. On his return to
his native city in 1780 he became a member of
the Academy, and after a second visit to Rome
in 1790 he settled at Dresden, where he died in
1808. He painted history and landscapes, in which
he acquired considerable reputation in Germany.
The following are among his works :

View of Castel Gandolfo.

Landscape near the Tiber, with Cincinnatus.

The Flight into Egypt.

He is, however, more generally known as an en-
graver. He etched several plates, some of which
are from his own designs, and engraved a variety
of views in Italy in aquatint. Among others, we
have the following prints by him :

St. Michael vanquishing the Demon ; Mechau fee. aqua

The ilesurrectiou of Lazarus. Median fee. 1761.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. Schut.
A Dance of Nymphs and Fauns ; after Giulio Carpioni.
A set of six Italian Landscapes ; in the style of Swanevelt.

A set of six Views in and near Rome. 1792, 1793.

He signed his prints J. M. /., or M inv. ac de
G. So. {Mechau invenif ac De Geyser sculpsit).

MECKEL, Christian von, was a native of Basle,
in Switzerland, where he was born in 1737. After
studying under various German masters he visited
Paris in 1767, and, eight years later, went to Italy,
where he was received a member of the Academy
at Florence. Subsequently he returned to his
native country and settled at Basle, carrying on
considerable business as a dealer in works of art.
In 1806 he was elected a member of the Academy
at Beriin, where he died in 1815. The following
are among his best plates :

The Eraperor Joseph II. on horseback, reviewing his

troops ; after J. C. Brand.
Frederick II. King of Prussia, on horseback; the

General Elliot, Lord Heathfield.
Caspar Lavater. •

Michel Nostradamus.
His own Portrait.






An old Man mending a Pen ; after Metsu.
Cupid shooting an Arrow ; after Carlo van Loo.
Four Views of the Khiue ; after Brinkmann and

MECHELEN, Jan van, a Fletnish painter who
flourished in the 17th century. He was a pupil of
Sohoof. He was made master of the Guild at
Antwerp in 1609, and he is named for the last
time in 1627-8.

MECHELN. The name of this artist is affixed
to a portrait of Pope Urban VIII., dated 1623.

MECHOPHANES, an ancient Greek painter,
was a disciple of Pausias. His manner, we are
told, was dry and hard, but this defect was in a
great degree compensated by extreme correctness
of desig'i.

MEOKENEN, Israel von, (Mecken, Meck,
Meoheln, Mbestee, Mekbnick, Metro, Mentz,
Van Mechelen, Db Malines, Mechliensis, De
Mayencb, Moguntius, Db Munstee). There were
two artists of this name, father and son, both of
whom lived at Bocholt, wliere they had the right
of citizenship. The father was probably born at
Meclieln, a small village between Zutphen and
Cleves, about 1440. He was a goldsmith and en-
graver, while his son was a painter and engraver.
In Bocholt is a tomb bearing the name of Israel,
and the date March 13, 1503. This is generally
assigned to the son, but Kramm mentions an en-
graving bearing the date 1517. In the annals of
the town of Bocholt there are records of Meokenen
from 1482 to 1498, one of which spealts of Ida as
the wife of Israel. As engravers father and son
probably worked together. It has not been found
practicable to distinguish precisely the prints of
the elder Meckenen from those of his son. M.
Heineken estimates the number of their prints at
about two hundred and fifty. They are usually
signed with the initials I. M. or I. V. M. or Israhel
V. M., or sometimes at length, Israhel van Mehenen
Goldschmit, or Israhel tzu Bxldiolt ; the letters in
the Gothic character. The younger one seems to
have been the painter.

The Britisli Museum possesses a very fine set of
their engravings, which fills three volumes. The
series known as the ' Life of the Virgin ' is con-
sidered their best work. There are also four
drawings in the British Museum :

A Group of six draped Female Figures.
A Man standing with a Book ia his hand.
An Entombment.
A Holy Family.

The following are among their most remarkable
prints :

The Portrait of Israel von Meckenen the elder, with

a beard, and a kind of turban ; signed Israhel von

Meckenen Goldschmit.
The Portraits of Israel von Meckenen the younger and

his "Wife ; inscribed Figuracio faderum Isralielis et

Idm Uxoris, I. V. M.
A set of Prints of the Life of Christ. These, as well as

the two followimj prints, are supposed to be some of the

earliest works of the elder Mecheln.
The Descent of the Holy Ghost.
St. Luke painting the Virgin.

Judith with the Head of Holoferues. In the back-
ground is a battle, with cannons, and other warlike

The Death of the Virgin.
The Virgin standing upon a Crescent, crowned by

The Annunciation ; the Augel holds a Scroll, on which

is inscribed A VE. GRA.

The Virgin seated, in a landscape, embracing the Infant,
and St. Joseph reposing. On the right of the print
is a Grasshopper, on which account it is called the
' Virgin with the Grasshopper.' The same subject has
been engraved by Albrecht Diirer, and copied from
him by Marc Antonio.

The Virgin and Infant surrounded by four Angels. 1480.

The Virgin seated, holding the Infant, with a garden-
wall in the background, inscribed in Gothic letters,
Ave potissima Maria. The same is engraved by

The Feast of Herod ; Herodias with the Head of St. John.

Herod's Cruelty.

Christ bearing His Cross.

The Scoirrging of Christ.

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, M. ; with a light ground.

The Crucifixion ; Israhel, V. M. ; with a dark ground.

St. Georgj and the Dragon ; I. V. M.

St. Jerome seated in a room, pointing to a Skull which
lies on the table. This is considered one of their best
prints. It has been copied by Lucas van L?yden.

St. Anthony tormented by Devils. The same subject is
engraved by Martin Schongauet.

The Death of Lueretia.

A Man and a "Woman walking,- with Death behind a
tree, shaking an hour-glass. This print has been
copied by Albrecht Diirer and others.

Several single Figures of male and female Saints.

A "Woman singing, and a Man playing on the Lute.

A Man playing on the Organ.

Three naked Women, with a Globe hanging above
them. Albrecht Diirer and others have copied this

A Man holding a Skull, inscribed Respicefinem.

A Cup, richly ornamented. The same has been en-
graved by Sehongauer.

A variety of goldsmith's ornaments, and a great number
of other subjects.

MEDA, GiDSEPPE, a Milanese painter, who
flourished at the end of the 16th century. He
seems to have been a pupil of B. Cnmpi, but he
gained more reputation as an architect than as a

MEDICI, PlETRO, was born at Florence in 1586,
and was a scholar of Lodovico Cardi, called Cigoli.
By the instruction of that master, he became a
reputable painter of history, and was the author of
several altar-pieces for the churches at Florence.
He died in 1648.

MEDINA, Andres de, was a painter of Se"ville,
and a disciple of Juan del Castillo. He etched
several sacred subjects, amongst others, in 1663,
the image of our Lady ' de la Soterrana,' in the
church of St. Nicolas at Seville. Medina died in

MEDINA, John, portrait painter, born in 1721.
He was a grandson of Sir J. B. Medina, and prac-
tised in Edinburgh and London. Copying and
picture-cleaning occupied much of his time. He
died at Edinburgh in 1796.

MEDINA, Sir John Baptist, the son of Medina
de I'Asturias, a captain in the Spanish service, was
born at Brussels in 1660. He was a scholar of
Frangois Duchastel, and afterwards improved him-
self by studying the works of Rubens. When he
was twenty-six years of age he came to England,
and for a time painted portraits with some slight
success. He was invited to visit Scotland, under
the patronage of the Earl of Leven, who procured
him many commissions ; and he painted the por-
traits of many of the Scotch nobles. At "Went-
worth Castle there is a large picture of the first
Duke of Argyll, with his two sons, John and Archi-
bald. The portrait of Medina, by himself; was
sent to the Grand Duke of Tuscany by the Duke of
Gordon, and was placed in the Florentine Gallery.
He occasionally painted history and landscapes,




and the plates in a folio edition of ' Paradise Lost '
(1688) were designed by him. Medina was knighted
by the Duke of Queensberry, when Lord High
Commissioner. He died at Edinbm-gh in 1711.
Some of his portraits have been engraved.

MEDINA, MoiSB Casimie, a portrait painter,
was born at San Felipe in 1671, and died at
Valencia in 1748. In early life he painted history,
but without success.

MEDINA T VALBUBNA, Pedro db, was a
painter of Seville about 1620. He was a pupil of
Juan del Castillo, and friend and fellow-pupil of
Murillo, whom he assisted in forming the Academy
of Seville, in which he afterwards tilled various
offices. He painted and gilded several retablos,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 34 of 201)