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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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and being dexterous in water-colours, he executed
in 1673-4 many flags for the royal fleet of New
Spain. The year of his deatli is unknown.

MEDLAND, Thomas, an English engraver in
the latter part of the 18th and the beginning of
the 19th centuries. He was chiefly engaged on
landscape and topography, and occasionally ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy up to 1822. In his
latter years he taught drawing at the East India
College, Hertford. Of his works we may name :

' Views iu Cumberland and "Westmoreland.' 1789.
' Cities and Castles of England.' 1791.
' Eobinson Crusoe,' illustrated by Stothard. 1798.
' Select Views in London and Westminster.' 1800.
Barrow's 'Embassy of Lord Macartney to China.'

Sir W. Cell's ' Topography of Troy.' 1804.
' Egyptian Monuments in the British Museum.' 1805.

MEDLEY, Samuel, a painter, was born at Liver-
pool in 1769. He was a follower of Reynolds and
Gainsborough. In 1811 he had to abandon art by
medical advice. He died in 1857. Some of his
works were exhibited in the Royal Academy. He
painted the picture representing the Medical Society
of London in Session ; Dr. Lettsora speaking, and
Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, in the back-
ground, whicli now hangs in the Society's Rooms
in Chandos St., Cavendish Square.

MEDOLLA. See Meldolla.

MEE, (Mrs.) Anne, an English miniature painter,
born in the last half of the 18th century. She was
the daughter of John Foldsone, a painter, who died
young, and through an unfortunate marriage had
to work to support her family. Her works appeared
at the Academy from 1815 to 1836. She obtained
a good practice,.and had many commissions from
George IV. She died, very old, in 1851.

MEEN, Makgaeet, an English flower painter in
water-colours in the second half of the 18th cen-
tury. Her works appeared at the Academy from
1776 to 1785. There is a flower-piece by her,
dated 1806, at the South Kensington Museum.
Her work shows considerable vigour and ability.

MEEL, Jan. See Mibl.

MEELE, Matthiaus, a portrait painter, born
at the Hague in 1664, was for some time in England,
and practised under Sir Peter Lely. On his return
to tiie Hague he was appointed one of the prin-
cipals of the Academy, and died there in 1714.

MEER, Van dee, (Meeee, Meirb, Meeren,)
Babend, (Beenhaed,) Cathaeina, Jacob, Jan 'the
elder ' (of Haarlem), Johannes (of Utrecht), and
N., see Van dee Mebr ; Jan (of Delft), see Vee
Meer; Geeaed and Jan ' the younger' (of Ghent
and of Haarlem), see Van dee Meiee.

MEEREN. See Van dee Meeren.

MEERKERK, Dirk van, painter, was bom at

K 2

Gouda in 1702. He studied in Italy, and after-
wards went to France, where he entered the service
of the Bishop of Nantes.

MEERSCH. See Van dee Meeesch.
MEERT, Pieter, (or Meeete,) was born at
Brussels in 1619, for we are told in the Gulden
Cabinet of De Bie, that he was forty-two when
that was published, in 1661. Meert had a consider-
able reputation as a portrait painter, imitating the
style of Van Dyck. He died at Brussels in 1669.
In the Museum at Brussels there is a fine group
of portraits by him. Others of his works are in
the halls of the city guilds. A ' Sea Captain with
his Wife sitting on the Seashore,' in the Berlin
Museum, is perhaps the best of his known works.

MEBRTENS, Abeaham, (Mebete and Meeten,)
a painter, born at Middlebourg in 1757. He painted
birds, flowers, and landscapes, and was one of the
original founders of the Academy of his native
town. He died in 1823.

MEGAN, R. or P., a German landscape painter,
who flourished at Vienna in the 16th century. The
Belvedere possesses several landscapes by him.

MEGEN, Pieter Wilhelm van, engraver, was
born at the Hague in 1750. He studied under
Schoumann and Duboulnois, and in 1772 went to
Paris, where he worked for two years under Le Bas
and J. G. Wille. He died in 1785.
MEGLIO. See Coppi.

MEHEUX, Jacob, was a native of Holland, and
flourished about the year 1680. He engraved some
plates in mezzotint, among which is a copy of the
print of the ' Ratcatcher,' by Cornells Visscher.

MEHEUX, Feancis, an English engraver, born
at Dover in 1644. He practised in mezzotint as
well as with the graver.

MEHEUX, John, an English painter of the 18th
century, after whom William Blake engraved
' Clorinda ' and ' Robin Hood.'
MEHLEM. See Melem.

MEHUS, LlEVEN, (or Meus,) was born at Oude-
narde in 1630. The troubles which soon afterwards
took place there obliged his family to leave Flan-
ders, and they settled at Milan, where he received
some instruction from the Flemish artist named
Carlo, then resident in that city. At an early age
he visited Florence, where he was placed under the
tuition of Pietro da Cortona, who was at that time
employed by the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. in
the Palazzo Pitti. After a time he left Florence
secretly, and entering the army of Christine of
Sa\'oy, he served tliree years as a soldier. On his
return to Florence lie was again taken under the
protection of the Duke, and, later on, was employed
by the Marquis Gerini to ornament his palace, in
conjunction with Ciro Ferri, who had been his
fellow-student under Pietro da Cortona. Here he
painted his ' Bacchus and Ariadne.' Although ho
was more engaged on the palaces than the churches,
he was chosen to paint the dome of La Pace, in
which he acquitted himself with credit. He was
afterwards employed in the Pal.izzo Pitti, where
he painted a ' Sacrifice of Abraham.' The auto-
graph portrait of Mehus is in the. collection of
Painters in the Florentine Gallery. He died at
Florence in 1691.

MEI, BeeKardino, was a native of Siena, and
flourished from the year 1636 till 1676. It is not
known under whom he studied, but the Padre della
Valle, who had seen several of his works, says his
style sometimes resembles that of the Carraoci, and
sometimes of Guercino. There are some of his





pictures in the churches at Siena. One of his best
performances is a ceiling in fresco, an 'Aurora,'
in the Casa Bandinelli. He died at Rome.

MBICHONER, Johann Nepomuok, was bom at
Engen in Austria in 1739. He studied at the
Academy at Vienna, and afterwards went to Ulm.
He established himself as a portrait painter at
Sollingen, where he died in 1815.

MEIGEL, Christoph, was a German engraver,
who resided at Nuremberg, where he engraved and
published a folio volume of prints in 1730, repre-
senting the follies of people of all professions.

MEIGHAN, R., was an English engraver and
bookseller, who flourished in the early part of
the 17th century, and carried on business in St.
Dunstau's Churchyard.

MEIL, Johann Hbinrioh, brother of Johann
Wilhelm Meil, was born at Gotha in 1729. After
spending twenty years at Leipsio he removed to
Berlin in 1774, and became a member of the
Academy of Arts. He furnished designs for the
fables of La Fontaine and Gellert, the poems of
Burger, &o. He died in 1803.

MEIL, Johann Wilhelm, a German designer and
engraver, was born at Altenbourg in 1733. He
first studied the sciences, but on visiting Berlin he
conceived a strong preference for art, and zealously
took to the practice of drawing and painting and
the use of the graver. He was for the most
part his own instructor, and engraved 667 vignettes
and book ornaments, from his own designs, also
numerous other plates, in a neat, spirited style, in
which he appears to have been emulous of imitating
the works of Delia Bella. He was highly esteemed
in the theatre at Berlin for his knowledge of cos-
tumes. Tlie design ' A Sailor Drinking ' exists in
a wood-cut by J. F. Unger. His works are signed
with J. W. M., J. W. M. inv, or a monogram.
In 1791 he was rector, and in 1798 vice-director, of
the Academy at Berlin. He died there in 1805.
Among a variety of other prints we have the
following by him :

A set of eight small plates of Heads and Caricatures ;

Four of Quack-doctors and Ballad-singers; in the

manner of Dietrich.
A set of ten Vignettes for the Poem of ' Joseph,' by

Twelve Allegorical Vignettes.
Hercules playing on the Lyre.
A set of four Landscapes, with figures.
Fifty-two subjects, entitled ' Speotaculum Naturae et

Arfcium ' ; published at Berlin in 1765.
The portraits of the most learned men and artists.


MEIRERPECK, M. Wolfgang, was a German
draughtsman and engraver on wood, who flourished
about the year 1550. In conjunction with G. Liberal
he designed and executed the wood-cuts for the
' Commentaries of Matthiolus on Dioscorides,'
published at Venice in Latin in 1548, and in
Germany in the Bohemian language in 1560.

MEIS, B., is mentioned by Strutt as the etcher
of a plate representing a poet writing.

MEISSEN, Agnes von. See Agnes.

MEISSONIER, Juste Aur^lEj painter, sculptor,
architect, and goldsmith, was born at Turin in
1675. He went to Paris, where he carried on his
different professions, but it was chiefly as a gold-
smith and decorator that he gained his reputation.
He died in Paris in 1750.

MEISTER, Simon, born at Coblenz in 1803, was
a disciple of H. Vernet. He established himself


at Cologne in 1833, and distinguished himself as a
painter of battles, animals, and portraits, which
are carried out vnth vigour, but with some loose-
ness of hand. He died at Cologne in 1844. Tlie
Wallraf Reichartz Museum at Cologne contains by
him :

The Portrait of King William IV. of Prussia, as Crown

Prince {lithographed by J, B. HUtzer).
Lions Fighting.

He generally signed with his full name, but also
with a monogram. His brother Nicolas Meisi'EB
was also a painter, and assisted him in his work.

MEITENS. See Mttbns.

MEIXNER, Lddwig, was bom at Munich in
1828, and instructed by Stange. He travelled in
Sweden, and distinguished himself as a painter of
sea and shore pieces, both in oil and water-colour.
He died at Graz in 1872. Among his best works
are :

Lake Constance with a cloudy sky. ,

A Moonlight Night on the Swedish shore.

Landscape with the Moon rising.

Sketch on the Untersberg.

Vohring, near Munich.

Sketch from the English Garden at Munich.


MEL, Giovanni da, was the son of Antonio
Rosso, and was living at Cadore and Belluno in
the 16th century. His earliest picture is dated
1521 ; he was still at Belluno in 1648. The dates
of his birth and death are both uncertain. Messrs.
Crowe and Cavalcasselle assign to Giovanni the
frescoes in the choir of San Lorenzo at Selva di
Cadore, which are dated 1544. '

MELA, Antonio, was a native of Verona, bom
in 1700. He was a pupil of Prunati, and with him
painted several historical pictures. He also painted
altar-pieces. He died in 1742.

MELAN. See Mellan.

MELANI, Giuseppe and Francesco, born at
Pisa about 1680. These brothers were n.atives of
Pisa. Giuseppe, a scholar of Camillo Gabrielli,
was a reputable painter of history, as is evident
from his large picture in oil of tJie ' Death of S.
Ranieri,' in the cathedral at Pisa. His chief merit
is in fresco painting, in which he never appears to
more advantage than when he paints the figures
in the architectural views of his brother Francesco,
which are modelled on the style of Pietro da
Cortona. Francesco was esteemed one of the
ablest painters of perspective of his time. The
best-known performance of the brothers is the
vault of San Matteo at Pisa. Francesco died in
1742 ; Giuseppe in 1747.

MELANO. See Jacobini, Giov.

MELANTHIDS, (or Melanthus,) a pupil of
Pamphilus and Apelles, is said by Pliny to have
painted in only four colours. He is also men-
tioned by Plutarch and Quintilian. His school
was frequented by numerous disciples, and he
wrote some treatises on art.

MELANZIO was a local painter of Montefalco,
and one of Perugino's pupils. Of his biith and
death nothing is known. He was a fourth-rate
artist, of whose paintings examples may be seen
in the cathedral at Montefalco, and in the monas-
tery of Subiaco.

MELAR, Adrian, was a Flemish engraver, who
resided at Antwerp about the year 1650. He
attempted to imitate the style of Paul Pontius,
but with very little success. We have several
portraits by him, among which are Charles I. of




Spain, and Frederick III. of Denmark. He alao
engraved a plate representing ' St. Michael over-
coming the Evil Spirit,' after Rubens.

MELBOGI. See Gossaeet.

MELBYE, D. H. Anton, a Danish marine painter,
born at Copenhagen in 1818. He vjras originally a
shipwright, then became a musician, and finally
devoted himself to painting, studying under Eckers-
herg at Diisseldorf. In 1840 lie first exliibited three
pictures at Chnrlottenburg, and gained the patron-
age of Christian VI. He migrated in 1847 to
Paris, where he attracted the notice of Louis
Philippe, and in 1853 made his way to Constanti-
nople, where he was employed by the Sultan.
Returning to Prance he gained the favour of
Napoleon III., from whom he received the Legion
of Honour in 1854. He died in Paris in 1875.
Among his works are :

Copenhagen. Gallery. The Eddystone Lighthouse.
„ „ Sea-fight between Danes and

Swedes in 1677 at Kioga,
Stockholm. National \ The French Steamer ' Le For-
Gallery. J fait.' 1866.

MELCHIOR, Heineich Anton, son of Johann
Peter Melohior the architect, studied first at the
Academy of Munich, and afterwards went to
Berlin, where he won the Academy prize with
his allegory of the peace between France and
Prussia. He died young in 1796.

MELCHIOR, WiLHBLM, born at Nymphenburg
in 1813. was an excellent painter of animals and
of hunting parties. One of his best pictures
represents a cat, which has crept up to a plate
of fish, gripped by the head in the claws of a crab.
Other pictures are in the new Pinacothek at
Munich. Melohior died at Munich in 1860. His
brother Josef, who was born in 1810, had some
repute as a painter of horses.

MELCHIORI, Giovanni Paolo, was born at
Rome in 1664, and was brought up in the school
of Carlo Maratti. He painted historical subjects,
and was employed for some of the public edifices
at Rome. His most esteemed work is his picture
of the prophet Ezekiel, in the Lateran Church.
He was living in 1718.

MELCHIORI, Melchioe, an obscure painter of
history, who was born at Castelfranco in 1641. He
worked at Venice and Castelfranco, and died in

MELDEMANN, Nicolaus, flourished at Nurem-
berg in 1529-32, and was a card painter and wood

MBLDER, Gebaed, was bom at Amsterdam in
1693. He showed an early inclination for art, and
when a boy neglected the usual amusements of
his age to devote his time to drawing. He
acquired some miniatures by Rosalba Carriera,
and by copying and imitating them, he arrived
at great proficiency in that branch of painting.
His productions are landscapes (sea-coasts and
mountaihs) in water-oolour and Indian ink. He
also drew the portraits of many of the principal
persons of his time, and was especially noted for
his miniatures in enamel, both original and after
Dou and Van der Werff. He died at Utrecht in

MELDOLLA, Andeea, (or Medcla,) called II
ScHiAVONE, was bom at Sebenico, in Dalmatia, in
1522. He painted portraits, history and historical

genre, and decorative compositions, in a style
which bears strong traces of the influence of
Titian, Tintoretto, and Giorgione. It is said that
by Titian Meldolla was rescued from obscurity,
and put in a way to reach the success of his later
years. He was a good colourist and a man of
considerable imagination, but his works suffer
froni hasty composition and weak drawing. One
of his best pictures is the ' Birth of Jupiter ' in the
possession of the Earl of Wemyss. Schiavone
d.ied in 1582. The following list includes the more
accessible of his good works :









Old Pinacothek.









The Parable of the Unrighteous

The Parable of the Vineyard.

Mountain Landscape.

Forest Landscape.

A Dead Christ, with an Angel
and St. Joseph of Arimathea.

Madonna and Child, and St.

Adoration of the Sh^herds.

Man's Portrait.

Supper at Emmaus (?)


St. John the Baptist.

The Circumcision.


Christ before Pilate.

A Holy Conversation.

Holy Family, with St. John and

St. Catherine.
Adoration of the Shepherds.
Christ before Caiaphas.
Apollo and Daphne.
Dentatus and the Samnites.
Five Allegorical Compositions.

MELDOLLA, Andeea, an Italian designer and
engraver, who flourished between 1640 and 1550.
There has been much discussion respecting his
works, but very little has been accurately ascer-
tained of his history. Until a recent period the
etchings now allowed to be by him were attributed
to Andrea Meldolla, called Schiavone ; or to Fran-
cesco Mazzuola (Parmigiano), because the greater
number of them are evidently from pictures or
drawings by that painter. Zani claims the honour
of making the discovery that Meldolla was a
different artist from Schiavone or Parmigiano.
He establishes the fact that Meldolla was the en-
graver of the print of ' Heliodorus driven from
the Temple,' from a drawing by Parmigiano after
the painting by Raphael. He had heard in the
course of his researches respecting this master,
that an impression was in the possession of Count
Antonio Reniondini, which had the inscription
Andrea Sdavonus Meldola fecit. To ascertain the
fact he wrote to the Count, who replied, "It is
true that I possess the cited print of ' Heliodorus,'
but without the Sdavonus." Andrea's monogram
or other signature is often so slightly put in that
it is difficult to find. But sometimes the word
' Meldolla ' is very distinct, and in a few instances
'Andrea' also. The following list, with details
now omitted, was supplied by the late Messrs.
Smith to a former edition of this work. Down
to No. 87 it is arranged in the order of Bartsch.
It is now generally believed that the plates on
which Meldolla etched were of pewter, which will
account for the scratches and corrosions that appear
on the later impressions, and for the frequent
alterations made in the treatment of the subject
and the accessories.





{The figures in brackets give the number of states,
when more than one, for eachplate^

1. Jacob's Ladder.

2. Moses saved from the Nile (4).

3. God appearing to Moses (3).

4. Moses showing the Quails to the Israelites. First

state, a pure etching before the monogram ; second,
retouched all over.

5. The Annunciation.

6. The Nativity.

7. The three Kings (2).

8. The three Kings (2).

9. The Flight into Egypt

10. Presentation in the Temple (4).

11. Presentation in the Temple.

12. The Circumcision.

13. The Circumcision (3).

14. Jesus with the Woman on the Steps.

15. Christ healing the Sick.

16. Christ healing the Lepers.

17. The Entombment (4).

18. The Entombment (3).

19. The Entombment (2).

20. The miraculous Draught of Fishes (2).

21. St. Peter and St. John curing the Lame Man (3).

22. St. Paul preaching at Athens.

23. The Pentecost, or the Descent of the Holy Ghost (2).

24. The Saviour.

25. St. Peter.

26. St. Andrew.

27. St. James the Great.

28. St. John.
St. Phihp.
St. Bartholomew.
St. Matthew.

St. Thomas. Two variations.
St. James the Less. Profile.
St. Simon.
St. Judas Thaddeus.

36. St. Mathias.

37. St. Paul.,

38. The Saviour (2).

39. St. Peter.

39.* St. Peter. A repetition of the pre ceding.

40. St. Andrew.

41. St. James the Great.

42. St. John (3).

43. St. Philip (3).

44. St. Bartholomew.

44.* St. Bartholomew ; the same in design as the pre-
ceding, hut reversed.

45. St. Matthew (3).

46. St. Thomas.

46.* St. Thomas ; the same design as the preceding, Ivt


Full-face figure.

47. St. James the Less.

48. St. Simon (2).

49. St. Judas Thaddeus*(2).

50. An anonymous Saint, as described by Bartsch.
60.* A Saint walking to the right, but having his head

inclined towards the left.
50.** Replica with variations of the last.

51. The Saviour, a repetition of No. 38, but with varia-

52. St. Andrew, a repetition of No. 40, the reverse way.

53. St. James the Great.

54. A Madonna (2).

55. The Christian Eeligion triumphant over Heresy (3).

56. The Marriage of St. Catharine (2).

57. The Virgin (2).

58. The Virgin surrounded by several Saints.

59. A similar design, but reversed (3).

60. A similar subject to the last.

61. The Holy Family (3).

62. The Infant Jesus in the Cradle surrounded by

Saints (2).

63. The Infant Jesus and St. John embracing in the
presence of several Saints (3).

64. Different Saints present at the Homage paid by St.

John to the Infant Jesus (2).

65. Saints adoring the Infant Jesus in His Cradle (2).

66. The Present of Flowers.

67. Heliodorus driven from the Temple ; after Ra-
phael (2).


68. Bellona. A back figure turned towards the right.

69. Diana.

70. The Coronation of Pegasus.

71. Mercury (2).

72. Hercules, Deianira, and Nessus.

73. Mars and Cupid.

74. Ganymede and Hebe (2).

75. Venus after Bathing.

76. Bellona (2) ; signed ^A/





Bellona (2).

Minerva and the Muses.
The Judgment of Paris (4).

The Eape of Helen (6) ; signei Andeea Mbldolui

Virtue victorious over Vice.
A Prophet ; full length.
A "Woman carrying a Vase (2).
The same print as described No. 74.
A Woman accompanied by a Child.
A Woman writing.
Eleazar at the Well.
The Adoration of the Shepherds.
The Adoration of the Kings, a grand composition of
sixteen figures.
The Holy Family.
Marriage of St. Catherine.
The Holy Family.
Christ and His Disciples; signed with the monogram


95. Christ healing the Lepers.

96. Boy bending a Bow.

97. Mars.

98. Return of the Prodigal Son (3) ; second state with

the monogram


third, with monogram


altered, thus :

Mercury (2).

Apollo and Daphne.

Apollo and Daphne (2).


Judith (3).

St. James the Great (?).

St. Paul.

Nymphs Bathing (2).

Cupid, a whole-length figure walking.

Bellona, whole-length figure looking towards the


Bellona ; the same design as the preceding, tut


Virgin and Child with St. John.

Apollo and Python.


Bellona, in profile, walking towards the left.

Female Figure walking.

Five Figures, in the centre a young woman.

Faith ; signed with the monogram /r\/l

Quos Ego. Neptune appeasing the storm ; copj/ of
the centre compartment of the celebrated print by
Marc Antonio.

St. Christopher.

Woman pouring Water from a Vase. (British

MELEAGBR. See Mommees.

MELEM, JoHANN VON, (or Mehlem,) painted in
Cologne during the first half of the 16th century.
It has been supposed that he was a native of the
village of Mehlem, near Bonn, and, from an in-
scription on his autograph portrait in the Munich
Gallery, that his birth took place in the year 1493.
He viras a pupil of Jan van Scorel. His only
authentic work is the portrait above alluded to.

MELEUN, Comte de. was a French amateur
engraver, mentioned by Basan. He lived about
the year 1760, and etched several small plates
after Berchem, Callot, and other masters.










MELGAREJO, Fray Gebonimo, an Augustine
friar and painter of Granada, who flourished about
the middle of the 17th century, left in his convent
two pictures of which Cean Bermudez praises the
composition. The first represents four monks of
the order and sundry ecclesiastics, carrying the
bones of their patron saint in solemn procession.

MELINGUE, Etienne Maein, born at Caen in
1808, was an actor, sculptor, and painter. He died
at Veulles in Calvados in 1876.

MELINI, Caklo Domemico, (or Mellini,) was
an Italian engraver, born at Turin about the year
1745, but chiefly resident in Paris, where he became
a pupil of Beauvarlet. We have several plates by
him, among which are the following :

Portrait of the King of Sardinia.

The Children of the Prince of Turenne ; after Drouais.

La belle Source ; after Nattier.

The Education of Cupid ; after Lagrenee.

Morning, a landscape ; after Loutherhoarg.

MELISSI, Agostino, was a native of Florence,
and flourished about the year 1675. According to
Baldinucci he was much employed by the Grand

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