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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Duke in painting cartoons for tapestr3', from the
designs of Andrea del Sarto. He also painted
several pictures of his own composition ; among
which the above-mentioned author commends his
' Peter denying Christ,' in the Palazzo Qaburri.

MELLAN, Claude, (or Melan,) an eminent
French draughtsman and engraver, bom at Abbe-
ville about 1601. His disposition for art discover-
ing itself at an early age, he was sent to Paris,
where he studied under Simon Vouet. An inclina-
tion for engraving induced him to attempt the
management of the burin, which he soon handled
with extraordinary facility. He executed several
plates from the busts and statues in the Giustiniani
Collection. The greater part of his work at Rome
is in the usual manner, with the strokes crossed a
second and a third time, as the strength of the
shadows require. After his return to Paris he
adopted a novel and singular method of working,
with single parallel lines, without any cross strokes
over them, variety of light and shade being rendered
by variations in the thickness of the lines. By
this method he acquired considerable celebiity,
but his permanent success is, of course, to be attri-
buted to the dexterity with which he handled his
tools, rather than to the peculiarity of his process.
His 'Eebekah,' after Tintoretto, is full of colour;
it is evidently engraved from the work of a great
colourist; yet it is only in some of the accessories
that cross lines are introduced. . Mellan lived to
the advanced age of ninety, and died in Paris in
1688. The following are his best prints :

PORTRAITS.

Urban VIII. ; after Bernini. 1631.

Cardinal Bentivoglio.

The Marquis Giustiniani.

Anne of Austria, Queen of France.

Henry, Duke of Montmorency.

The Cardinal, Duke de Hichelieu.

The Cardinal de Mazariu.

Francis de Villemontfe, Bishop of St. Malo. 1661.

Peter Seguier, Chancellor of France.

Nicolas Cififteteau, Bishop of Marseilles; after Du

Moustier.
The Cardinal du Perron ; after Herbin.
Tictor le Bouthillier, Archbishop of Tours. 1658.
' Nicolas Claude Fabri de Peiresc ; one of his finest

portraits.
Charles de Crequis Lesdigueres, Marshal of France.

1633.



Pietro Gassendi, Professor of Mabhematics.
Louisa Maria de Gonzaga, Queen of Poland. 1645
His own Portrait. 1635.

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS.

Lob and his Daughters. Rome, 1629.

Samson and Delilah.

Moses and the Burning Bush. 1663.

The Miracle of the Manna.

The Annunciation ; inscribed Ecce Tlrqo conciviet

1666. '^ '

The Virgin, with the Infant Jesus on her knee. 1659
The Holy Family. Rome, 1635.
Christ praying in the Garden ; a night-piece ; fine.
Christ seized by the Soldiers ; inscribed Fater, ignosce

illis, S[c.
St. John, with Magdalene embracing the Cross. Rome.
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, Magdalene, and St.

John.
The Entombment, with an inscription, Terra mota est.
The Resurrection ; inscribed Fer se resurgens. 16S3.
The Sudarium of St. Veronica ; executed by a single

spiral line, begun at the extremity of the nose, and

continued unbroken, but with variations in its

thickness over the whole face and background.
Sb. Peter Nolasque, supported by two Angels. One

of the finest and rarest of Mellan's prints.
Four large plates from the Life of St. Bruno.
St. Bruno praying in the Desert.
St. Francis praying. 1638 ; very fine.
Several other Saints in acts of Devotion.
Mary Magdalene expiring, supported by Angels.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

Herodias with the Head of St. John ; after S. Vouet.

Roman Charity ; after the same.

The Death of Lucretia ; after the same.

St. Catherine kneeling, with an Angel presenting the

palm of martyrdom ; after the same.
Rebekah meeting the Servant of Abraham ; after Tin'

toretto ; considered his finest plate.

His plates from the Giustiniani Collection are 322
in number. They were published in two folio
volumes at Rome in 1640. Mellan also executed
a number of plates from antique marbles in the
French royal palaces. Mellan sigJied his works
G. M. G. {Gallus) ; Gl. Mell. ; Mel. p. et sc. ; Md.
scul. Eomae, &o., or a monogram.

MELLIN, Charles, (Meslin,) painter of Lor-
raine, was a pupil of Vouet, and afterwards went
to Rome, where he spent the greater part of his
life. He was called Lorenese. He painted his-
torical and mythological works, and flourished
between 1636 and 1693.

MELLING, Anton Ignaz, born at Carlsruhe in
1763, was instructed in art by his uncle, Joseph
Melling, at Strasburg, and afterwards visited Italy,
Egypt, and Smyrna. On his return in 1803 he
became landscape painter to the Empress Josephine,
and subsequently painter to Louis XVIII., and a
member of the Legion of Honour. He died in
Paris in 1831. Among his published works are :

'Voyage pittoresque dans les Pyr&fes fran9aises.'

' Voyage pittoresque de Constantinople et des liives du
Bosphore.'
In conjunction with his daughter, Madame Adelb
Clergbt, who was also an artist, he produced an
' Entry of Louis XIII. into Paris,' and a ' Dis-
tribution of the Colours to the National Guards.'

MELLING, Joseph, studied in Paris under Van-
loo, and afterwards went to Strasburg. In 1777
he became court painter at Carlsruhe, where he
died at the end of the century.

HELLISH, Thomas, an English marine painter,
who practised about the middle of the 18th century.

MELLUEL. See Malwel.

135



Melone



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Memliuc



MELONE, Altobelio, a distinguished contem-
porary of Bocoaccino, was living at Cremona in
the beginning of the 16th century. He painted
seven frescoes from the lives of Christ and the
Virgin in the cathedral of Cremona in 1517. The
organ shutters at San Michele, in the same town,
which represent the Virgin and Gabriel, and SS.
Anthony and Paul the Hermit, are by this artist.
He was also a portrait painter, and examples of
his work may be found in the public galleries of
Stuttgart, Bergamo, Naples, Venice, and Milan.
The National Gallery possesses an excellent though
somewhat bizarre picture of ' Christ and the Two
Disciples going to Emmaus' by him. Panni, in
his account of the pictures in Cremona, describes
a picture in the cathedral divided into two subjects,
' The Slaughter of the Innocents ' and ' The Flight
into Egypt,' which was signed Altobellus de Me-
lonibus P. MDXVII. Vasari, too, in his life of
Garofalo, mentions Melone as superior to most of
the Lombard painters of his time. He is praised
also by Baldinucoi, Zaist, and Grasselli.

MELONI, Antonio, a native of Mantua, who
went to Rome in 1656 and worked in the school
of Trevisani. He painted historical subjects, and
died about 1700.

MELONI, Francesco Antonio, an Italian painter
and engraver, was born at Bologna in 1676. He
was instructed by P. A. Paderna, J. Monti, and
Marc Antonio Franceschini ; but not succeeding tD
his wishes as a painter, he etched some plates after
the designs of Franceschini, which encouraged
him to devote himself entirely to engraving. He
died at Vienna in 1713. His works are signed
F.A.M. del. et inv., F.A.M.F., &c. Among others
we have the following by him :

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after C. dgnani.
Aurora ; from a ceiling painted at I'orli ; hy the same.
Diana and Endymion ; after Franceschini.

MELONI, Maeco, of Carpi, is the author of a
'Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, Bernard,
Francis, and Jerome,' dated 1504, in the Gallery
of Modena.

MELONI, PiETEO Antonio, born at Iraola in
1761, was a pupil of Dardane and Gottarelli. He
painted historical subjects, and was on the house-
hold of Pope Pius VI. He founded an Academy
at Ancona, and died in 1836.

MELOTIUS, M. DE. See Palmezzano.

MELOZZO DA FORLI. See Dbgli Ambrosi.

MELZER, JoHANN Gottlieb, was born in
Prussia about 1680, and after remaining some
time in his own country he went to Hamburg,
where he distinguished himself as a portrait
painter, and where he died about 1730.

MELZI, Francesco, II Conte, the pupil and
friend of Leonardo da Vinci, was born at Milan
about 1491. He was of noble birth, and practised
the art of painting as a delightful employment
rather than as a profession. No really authentic
work by him has come down to us, but many are
ascribed to him in various galleries and private
collections. The ' Vertumnus and Pomona ' at
Berlin has more to be said for it, perhaps, than
any other, although ' Lermolieff' will not accept
it as a Melzi. Melzi followed Leonardo to France,
and attended him at his death, and succeeded to
the whole of his drawings, instruments, books,
and manuscripts. He furnished Vaeari and Lo-
mazzo with notes on Leonardo's life, and it is to
him that posterity is indebted for the preservation

136



of the valuable collection of the master's writings.
He died in 1568. ny

MEMLINC, Hans, was born about 1430—14^0,
perhaps at Memling, near Aschaffenberg, in Ger-
many, or at Memelynck, in Holland. He was
probably settled at Bruges in 1471, certainly in
1478. In May 1480 he was in possession of
house property in the street now called Sint Jooris
Straet. In the town accounts of 1480 he appears
among the 247 burgesses who advanced money
towards the carrying on of the war between the
Emperor and the King of France. Memlinc was
married ; his wife's Christian name was Anne,
and she bore him three children, two boys and a
girl, John, Nicolas, and 'Nielkin,' which may have
been short for Cornelia. Anne was already dead
on the 10th September, 1487, and Hans followed
her, as Mr. Weale has ascertained from the
orphan registers of the town, between the 1st
June, 1492, and the 10th December, 1495. Vasari
says Memlinc was the scholar of Roger van der
Weyden, and in the collection of pictures in the
possession of Margaret of Austria, once at Mechlin,
there was a triptych of which the centre was by
Roger and the wings by Hans. The names of
two of Memlinc 's pupils have been ascertained :
Hannekin Verhanneman, son of Nicolas, and Pas-
scier van der Meersch, son of Passcier. The roman-
tic tale first told by Descamps, which narrates how
Memlinc fought as a soldier in the battle of Nancy,
and returned grievously wounded to Bruges, to be
nursed by the sisters of the Hospital of St. John,
finds too little support before the year in which
Descamps wrote (1713) to be accepted now. Mr. '
Weale, however, found in a MS. of the 17th century ;
a statement to the effect that Memlinc painted one
of his pictures for the Hospital out of gratitude for
the services rendered to him by its members. For
harmonious frankness of colour and purity of ex-
pression, Memlinc must be put at the head of the
old Flemish painters. The following list of his
works is divided into two classes, the first con-
taining all those of which authenticity is undoubted,
in their approximate chronological order :

CLASS I.

France. Ckantilly. Diptych ('Cruoifixion'and 'Joan

of France at a Prayer-desk ' ).
1460 (?).
Triptych. 1471 (?).
1 Large Altar-piece. (Triptych.)
J 1479.
The Light of the World (called
in catalogue ' The seven Joys
of the Virgin '). 1480.
Bruges. Sosjyiial. Small triptych with donor (J.

Fioreins).
Brussels. Gallery. Portraits of 'William Moreel and

of his Wife, Barbara Vlaen-
derbTch. M80.
Bruges. Hospital, Portrait of their daughter Mary

(called the ' Sibyl Sambetha 'j.
1480.
Large Altar-piece from the
church of St. James. 1484.
Diptych for Martin Nieuwen-

hove. 1487.
Portrait of a Man praying.

1487.
Chasse of St. Ursula. 1489.
{Much injured and repainted.]
Virgin and Child.
A 'Light of the World.' (ffimt-
lar to that at Munich.)
Bruges. Hospital. Triptych painted for Adrian

Keins.



England Chiswick House.
Bruges. Hospital of St.

John.
Munich. Old Finacothek.



»


Academy.


11


Hospital.


Florence.


Ufzi.


Bruges.


Hospital.


London.
Turin.


Nat. Gallery.
Gallery.



Memmi
Paris.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Antwerp.



Louvre. Virgin Entbroned.

{The dates of these last four
are uncertain.)

CLASS II.

Museum. Portrait of an old Monk.

„ Portrait of a member of the De

Croy family.
„ „ Diptych ('Virgin,' and a por-

trait of Chretien de Hondt).

Dantzig. Church of the} The liast Judgment. 1467 (?).

Tiryin. J (The doubts as to Memlinc's

authorship which some icriters

have cast on this picture do

not seem to he well founded.)

Florence. TTffid, Virgin Enthroned. (Triptych.)

London. Ifat. Gallery. St. John the Baptist and St.
Lawrence. [The doubts ex-
pressed as to these two panels
seem to be ill founded.)

Lubeck. Cathedral. The Crucifixion ; a triptych.

(The largest production of the
school^ but only partly from
the handfif Memtinc.)

Madrid. Museum, Triptych (' Adoration of the

Magi,' 'Presentation in the
Temple,' and the ' Nativity ').
(Much injured^ and parts only
by Memlinc''s own hand.)

Munich. Old Pinacothek. St. John the Baptist. (Signed
H. V. D. Goes, 1472, but the
signature is a forgery.)

[See 'Early Flemisli Painters,' by Crowe and
Cavalcaselle (p. 251, ed. of 1879); and 'Hans
Memling,' by W. H. James Weale (Arundel Society,
1865).] W.A.

MEMMI. ■ See Martini.

MENA, Felipe Gil de, was a Spanish painter,
born at Valladolid in 1600. He studied under
Vanderhamen at Madrid, and was himself a teacher.
At his death, in 1 674, he left a large collection of
prints and models, valued at 3000 ducats. His
most curious work, representing an ' Auto-da-F^ at
Valladolid,' was painted for the Inquisition. His
portraits of the painter Diaz and his wife resemble
Pantoja in style. In 1444 he painted a series on
the life of St. Francis for the convent of that saint,
and some of the pictures are now in the Museum
at Valladolid.

MENABUOI, GiusTO di Giovanni de', called
Padovano, or Justus op Padua, was born at
Florence in. the earlier half of the 14th century.
He was a follower of Giotto, and studied the
works which that master had executed in Padua,
of which city Giusto was made a citizen in 1375.
He is supposed to have executed several- frescoes
in Padua, but those in the baptistery of the
cathedral, and in the chapel of St. Luke, in the
church of Sant' Antonio, which were formerly
ascribed to him, are now declared to be the work
of two unimportant painters, who were probably
jiis pupils — Giovanni and Antonio da Padova. The
only autheaticated picture by him is a small trip-
tych in the National Gallery ; it represents in the
centre, the 'Coronation of the Virgin,' with various
saints. On the interior sides of the wings are the
' Birth ' and • Crucifixion of our Lord,' and the
' Annunciation. ' On the exterior wings are various
scenes in the life of the Virgin before her marriage.
The picture, which was formerly in the Wallerstein
Collection, and was presented to the National
Gallery by the Queen, is signed on the back ' Justus
pinxit in archa,' and dated in the front mccclxvii.
Giusto died in the year 1400.

MENAGEOT, FRAN901S Guillaume, (or Mesna-
GEOT,) an historical painter, was born of French



IVCenendez

parents in London in 1744. He worked succes-
sively under Augustin, Deshayes, Boucher, and
Vien. He distmguished himself by his classic
compositions, and became in 1780 a member, and
" ,lor,°?.^ °^ ""^^^ professors of the Academy, and
Tj.: T director of the French School at Rome.
After having spent eight years at Vioenza he
returned to France in 1809, and became a member
of the Institute, dying in Paris in 1816. Among
the best of his works are':

Nebuchadnezzar ordering Kedekiah's sons to be put to
death. ^

The Death of Leonardo da Vinci.

Industry stopping the flight of Time. (Louvre )

Mars and Venus. (St. Petersburg.)

Polyxenus taking leave of Hecuba.

Astyanax torn from the arms of his Mother.

Cleopatra at the Tomb of Marc Antony.

Diana and Venus.

Dagobert giving orders for the construction of the
Church of St. Denis.

MENAGEOT, Eobebt, an engraver, was bom
in Paris in 1748. He was for some time a pupil
of Boucher, and at first practised painting, but he
afterwards devoted himself entirely to engraving.
We have several plates by him, executed in the
dotted manner, some of which were engraved for
Boydell during a residence in London. Among
others we have the following prints by him :

Friendship ; a circular print ; after Correggia.
Innocence ; the companion ; Mena<)eot fecit.
The Virgin and Infant, with St. Elizabeth ; after Guido.
An African Woman ; after Loutherbourg.

MENANT, P., a French engraver, flourished in
Paris about the year 1715. In conjunction with
Raymond, Ponbonne, Scotin, and others, he exe-
cuted part of the plates of the ' Views of the
Palace and Gardens at Versailles.'

MENAROLA, Cheistoforo, an Italian painter,
who flourished at Vioenza in 1727. He was a
pupil of Volpato, and painted historical subjects.
In the churches of Vicenza several of his pictures
are to be seen.

MENAROLA, Crest ano, was a painter of Bas-
sano, who produced gigantic figures in the style
of Michelangelo, and composed in the manner of
Paolo Veronese. He died in 1640.

MENDEZ, DE Haro Sotomayor Guzman Ber-
nardo Inca, a native of Cordoba, is mentioned by
Bermudez as working in 1790 in pen-and-ink.

MENDEZ, Juan, was a Spanish engraver who
flourished at Seville, and in 1627 executed an
architectural frontispiece, with Ionic columns and
several figures, designed by one Juan de Herrera
for Rodrigo Caro's edition pf the 'Apocryphal
Chronicle ' of Flavins Lucius Dexter.

MENDOZA, ESTEBAN Hurtado de, a Spanish
painter who lived at Seville in 1680. He painted
religious subjects, and his pictures are to be found
in the principal buildings of Seville. He was a
Knight of the Order of St. James of Campostello.

MENEGHINO (or Meniohino). See Ambbogi.

MENENDEZ, Anna, daughter and pupil of
Francisco Menendez, was born at Naples in 1714.
She painted miniatures and ^ scenes from ' Don
Quixote.' In 1759 she was made a fellow of the
Academy. Her sister Clara, a portrait painter,
was born at Naples in 1712, and died at Madrid in
1734.

MENENDEZ, Francisco Antonio, was born at
Oviedo in 1682, and at an early age joined his
brother Miguel at Madrid. He proceeded to Italy

137



Meuendez



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Hengs



in 1699, visiting Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, and
Naples. On his return in 1717 he devoted himself
to miniature painting, achieving great success
in portraits of the royal family. In 1726 he
addressed a memorial to the king on the scheme
for establishing an Academy of Art, but died
before the realization of his hopes by the crea-
tion of the Academy of St. Ferdinand in 1752.
A votive picture of a ' Storm ' by Menendez adorns
the high altar of our Lady of Atocha.

MENENDEZ, ' Jos:fi Agostino, son of Francisco
Menendez, was born at Madrid, 1724. He resided
at Cadiz, and practised miniature painting.

MENENDEZ, Luis, also a son of Francisco
Menendez, was born at Naples in 1716, and studied
painting under his father, and afterwards at Rome.
At Naples he presented two pictures to King
Charles, who appointed him painter- in-ordinary.
Returning to Madrid, he was emploj'ed by Ferdi-
nand VI. to illuminate the choir books of the
royal chapel. In 1773 he painted a ' Holy Family,'
in miniature, for the portable oratory of the Prin-
cess of the Asturias. Although he painted several
large devotional pictures, his favourite subjects
were of a lower genre. As many as forty-four
of his less ambitious works used to hang in the
king's apartments at Aranjuez. Many good speci-
mens are in the Royal and National Museums at
Madrid, and in the latter collection is a portrait of
iiimself, painted in a smooth and agreeable manner.
He died at Madrid in 1780. In nearly all his
pictures we find a dish of large Andalusian olives.

MENENDEZ, Miguel Jacinto, was born at
Oviedo in 1679, and studied painting at Madrid.
He was appointed painter to Philip V. in 1712.
Amongst his principal pictures were two for the
cloister of the Shod Carmelites, a 'Magdalene' in
the Recolete convent, and an 'Apostle' in the
church of San Gil. His sketches for two com-
positions for the church of San Felipe Real were
afterwards made use of by his friend Andres de la
Calleja. A drawing by Menendez representing St.
Isidore in pontifical robes, on horseback, slaying
Moors, was tolerably engraved by Juan Bernab6
Palomino.

MENESES, OsoEio Fkancisoo, born at Seville
in 1630, was a pupil of Murillo's. He was
president of the Seville Academy, for which he
painted a 'Conception.' In tlie church of St.
Martin, at Madrid, is an ' Elijah.' He died at
Seville in 1705.

MENGELBURG, Egidius. painter, was born at
Cologne in 1770. In 1783 he studied at the
Academy of Diisseldorf, returning to Cologne in
1787. From 1790 to 1800 he was engaged in
painting portraits and copying pictures in the
Diisseldorf Gallery. From 1800 to 1806 he resided
at Elberfeld, and returned to Cologne in 1821,
where he died in 1848.

MENGAZZINO. See Santi, Dombnico.

MENGOZZI-COLONNA, Gibolamo, was born at
Ferrara in 1688. He studied under A. Ferrari, and
resided chiefly at Venice, where he painted in
churches and palaces. He died in 1772.

MENGS, Ana. See Caemona.

MENGS, Anton Rafael, was born at Aussig, in
Bohemia, in 1728. His father, Ismael Mengs, in-
structed him in the first rudiments of drawing, and
having removed to Dresden whilst his son was
young, young Mengs had an opportunity of im-
proving himself, by studying the works of the
best masters in that celebrated Gallery. When he

138



was thirteen years of age his father took him to
Rome, in 1741, where he was employed in copying,
in miniature, some of the works of Raphael, for
Augustus IlL, Elector of Saxony and King of
Poland, which were sent to Dresden, and much
admired. Mengs remained three years at Rome,
where he studied under Marco Benefial and Seb.
Conca, and on his return to Saxony was appointed
one of the painters to the King-Elector, with a salary,
and was permitted by his royal patron to visit Rome
a second time, where he resided four years, and
exhibited a large picture of the ' Holy Family '
of his own composition, which gained him great
reputation. He married at Rome (his bride being
a beautiful peasant girl, Margaretha Quazzi, who
had sat to him as a model), and was desirous of
fixing his residence in that capital, but his father
would not permit him to indulge his inclination,
and he was compelled to return to Saxony, where
he arrived in 1749. He remained three years at
Dresden, where the tyranny of his father rendered
his situation so distressing, that he found his
health and spirits impaired, and he requested and
received the king's permission to return to Rome.
He was soon afterwards reduced to very embar-
rassed circumstances, by the discontinuance of his
salary, which was stopped from the embarrassment
of the king's finances occasioned by the war. He
was working in Rome, at very low prices, when he
was employed by the Duke of Northumberland to
paint a copy of the celebrated ' School of Athens,'
by Raphael. In 1754 he undertook the direction
of the newly-established Art Academy in the
Capitol. In 1787 he was engaged to paint the
ceiling of the church of St. Busebius, and soon
afterwards he executed his fresco of ' Mount Par-
nassus,' in the Villa Albani, which has been finely
engraved by Rafael Morghen. In an excursion he
made to Naples, to execute a commission for the
Elector of Saxony, he became known to the king,
afterwards Charles III. of Spain, who, on his suc-
cession to the throne, invited Mengs to Madrid,
with the offer of a very considerable appointment
This proposal was not refused, and he arrived at
the Spanish court in 1761. His first undertaking
was the ceiling of the king's antechamber, repre-
senting the Graces ; and afterwards that of the
queen's apartment, where he painted one of his
most celebrated works, the ' Aurora,' a grand and
beautiful composition. He was elected a member
of the Academy of Madrid. The climate of Spain
not agreeing with his constitution, he was per-
mitted by the king to return to Rome, for the
re-establishment of his health. On his arrival he
was employed by Clement XIV. in the Vatican,
where he painted two pictures in the Camera de'
Papini. Mengs remained three years at Rome,
and on his return to Madrid in 1773 was re-
ceived with great kindness by his royal protector.
It was soon after his return that he undertook the
ceiling of the great saloon in the palace, on which
he painted the ' Apotheosis of Trajan.' The fresco
paintings of Mengs are greatly superior to his
pictures in oil. Of the latter, perhaps the best
is his picture of the 'Nativity,' in the royal col-



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 36 of 201)