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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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life of St. Peter and eight

Saints.
London. Nat. Gallery. St. John the Evangelist lifted

up into Heaven.
LANDOLT, Salomon, a German battle, land-
scape, and sporting painter, was bom at Zurich in
1741. He entered the military profession, and
studied painting in Paris with Le Paon. In 1776
he went to Berlin and raised for Frederick II. a



corps of Swiss troops. In 1784 he went to Eglisen
on the banks of the Rhine in command of a body
of volunteers, and in 1799 he was fighting with
the Archduke Charles. In 1803 he returned to
Zurich, and was made a member of the Council.
He died at Andelfingen in 1818.

LANDON, Chaeles Paul, a French liistorical
painter, was bom at Nonant (Orne) in 1760. He
was a pupil of Vincent and of Regnault, and
obtained the ' grand prix ' in 1792. In 1816 he
was appointed Curator of the Louvre Gallery, and
also became a corresponding member of the Insti-
tute. He died in Paris in 1826. Amongst his
chief pictures are :

Dsedalus and Icarus. 1799.
Leda. 1806. (^Louvre.)
Venus and Gupid. 1810.
Paul and Virginia. 1812.

He is, however, better known as a writer on art :
his contributions to literature amounting to more
than a hundred volumes. His chief works are :

' Annales du Muste,' 42 vols. 1800—22.

' Vies et OEuvres des Peintres les plus cSlebres,' 25 vols.

1803—17.
' Galerie Historique des Hommes les plus cSlebres,' 13

vols. 1805—11.
' Grandes Vues pittoresques de la Grece, et -de la Sicile,

et des Sepb CoUines de Rome.' 1813.
' Numismatiqae du Voyage du jeune Anaoharsis.' 1818.
' Choir de Tableaux et Statues des plus celebres Mus&s

et Cabinets strangers,' 2 vols. 1819 — 21.

LANDRIANI, Paolo, born at Milan in 1737,
was a painter and architect, who studied imder
Gonzaga. He was employed at the Soala theatre,
and became reputed as a decorator. He followed
especially the principles of Bibiena, Bernardin, and
Galleavi. Perego and Sanquirioo were his pupils.
He died at Milan in 1839.

LANDRIANI, Paolo Camillo, called Duchino,
was bom at Milan about 1570. He was a scholar
of Ottavio Semini, and painted history with con-
siderable success. There are several altar-pieces
by him in the churches at Milan, of which that
of 'The Passion' is dated in 1602. One of his
best performances is his picture of ' The Nativity,'
in the church of Sant' Ambrogio. He died at Milan
in 1619.

LANDRY, PlEEKE, a French engraver, was born
in Paris about the year 1630, and died there in
1701. He was much employed by the booksellers,
and engraved a variety of frontispieces, portraits,
and other subjects. His best prints are his por-
traits, some of which possess considerable merit.
Among other plates, the following are by him :

poeteaits.

Louis XrV. of France ; after J. Frangois.

Lonis de Bourbon, Prmce of Conti ; after Gribelin.

Charles de Bourbon, Bishop of Soissons. 1660.

Abel Brunier, Physician to the Duke of Orleans. 1661.

Charles Brulart, Marquis of Genlis.

Bustache de La Salle ; after C. Le Felre.

Antoine Godeau, an ecclesiastic ; after Ardissm.

Francois Lescuyer.

SUBJECTS.
St. Jerome.
The Virgin and Child.

Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; after Alhani.
The Head of St. John the Bapt.st; after Annibale
^ Carracd.

LANDSEER, Chaeles, a subject painter, was
bom in 1799. He received his early instruction
from his father, John Landseer, the engraver, and

11



Laudseer



A BIOGBAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Landeeer



from Haydon. In 1816 he entered the schools of
the Royal Academy, where he first exhibited in
1828. He went to Portugal with Lord Stuart de
Rothesay, and also to Rio de Janeiro, where he
made a large number of sketches. He was elected
an Associate of the Academy in 1837, and an
academician in 1846. Prom 1851 to 1874 he
conducted the instruction in the antique school of
the Academy, as Keeper. He died in London
in 1879, leaving £10,000 to the Royal Academy
for the foundation of ' Landseer Scholarships.'
Amongst his chief works are :

London. Nat. Gallery. Clarissa Harlowe in the Spong-
ing House. 1833.

„ „ The Sacking of Basing House.

1836. (Lent to the Corporation
0/ Sheffield.)

, „ Bloodhound Bitch and Pups.

1839. (Lent to the Walker
Art Gallery, Liverpool.)

„ „ The Pillaging of a Jew's House.

1839. {Lent to the Corporation
of Ihindee.)

„ South Kensinflon \ The Temptation of Andrew
Museum. j Marvell. 1841.

„ „ Sterne's ' Maria.'

„ „ The Hermit. 1841.

LANDSEER, Sir Edwin Henby, the eminent
animal painter, was the youngest son of John
Landseer, A.R.A., and was born at 83, Queen Anne
Street East, London, on the 7th of March, 1802.
His artistic education was begun by his father at a
very early age, but not before his innate genius
had shown itself in sketching and drawing, and the
boy was sent into the fields to sketch from nature
sheep, goats, and donkeys. ^ In the South Kensing-
ton Museum are nine drawings, executed at a very
early period of his life, some of them having been
made when he was but five years old. He also
produced several etchings. His first appearance in
public occurred in 1815, when on the walls of the
Royal Academy Exhibition appeared a ' Portrait
of a Mule,' and ' Portraits of a Pointer Bitch and
Puppy.' In the same year he was advised by
Haydon to study the Elgin Marbles, and to dissect
animals, though he does not seem to have studied
under him, as did his brothers Thomas and Charles.
In 1817 he exhibited the portrait of 'Brutua,'
having in the preceding year entered the Royal
Academy as a student. In 1818 he exhibited
' Fighting Dogs getting Wind,' at the Exhibition of
the Society of Painters in Oil and Water-Colours ;
and at the Academy a 'Portrait of a Donkey.'
In 1819, at the British Institution was 'The Cat
disturbed ; ' in 1820, ' Alpine Mastiffs reanimating a
distressed Traveller ; ' and in 1821, ' The Seizure of
a, Boar,' and 'Pointers To-ho.' In 1822 he re-
ceived a premium of £150 from the directors of
the British Institution for 'The Larder invaded.'
In 1824 he exhibited the ' Cat's Paw,' and in the
same year he paid his first visit to the Highlands
in company with Leslie. They visited Glasgow,
Loch Lomond, Loch Katrine, and Loch Earn, and
paid a visit to Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford. In
1826 ' Taking a Buck,' and ' The Widow,' were his
contributions to the Academy, and ' The Poacher '
to the British Institution. In 1826 appeared 'The
Dog and the Shadow ; ' and in the same year he
became an Associate of the Royal Academy, being
then twenty-four, the earliest age at which the
laws of that institution admitted of his election.
In 1827 were exhibited ' The Chief's Return from
Deer-stalking,' 'The Monkey who had seen the
12



World,' now the property of Lord Northbrook, and
'Chevy Chase.' In 1829 he produced 'The High-
land Whiskey-Still,' the property of the Duke
of Wellington, and 'A Fireside-Party.' In 1831
he was elected a Royal Academician, and in the
same year he exhibited at the British Institution
' High Life ' and ' Low Life,' of which latter Ruskin
says, "it is the intensest rendering of vulgarity
absolute and utter with which I am acquainted.''
In this year appeared also ' Poachers deer-stalking ; '
and ' Too Hot.' In 1832 was exhibited ' Spaniels
of King Charies's Breed,' or ' The Cavalier's Pets,'
and in 1833 ' The Harvest in the Highlands,' and
'Jack iu Ofiace.' In 1834 appeared 'Suspense,'
'The Highland Shepherd Dog rescuing a Sheep
from a Snow-drift ; ' ' Bolton Abbey in the Olden
Time,' the property of the Duke of Devortshire,
and 'Highland Breakfast.' In 1835 came 'The
Highland Drovers' Departure,' 'A Sleeping
Bloodhound,' and 'Comical Dogs.' 'The Sports-
man's Annual' was published in 1836, with illus-
trations by Edwin Landseer, A. Cooper, and C.
Hancock. In 1837 came ' The Highland Shep-
herd's Chief Mourner,' which Ruskin in his
'Modern Painters' praises so highly, and 'The
Shepherd's Grave.' The portraits of the Mar-
quis of Stafford and Lady Evelyn Gower, one
of Landseer's best portrait pictures, appeared in
1838, together with ' There's Life in the old Dog
yet,' and ' A distinguished Member of the Humane
Society.' 'Dignity and Impudence,' with the title
' Dogs,' was first shown at the British Institution
in 1839, in which year was exhibited also 'Van
Amburgh and his Animals,' now in the Royal
Collection at Osborne House. In 1840 ' The Lion
Dog from Malta,' 'Laying down the Law,' and
' Roebuck and Rough Hounds,' appeared at the
Academy. 'Otter and Salmon,' in 1842, was the
fruit of one of those visits to the Highlaada
which had become annual. In' the same year
were exhibited the ' Highland Shepherd's Home ; '
' Pair of Brazilian Monkeys ; ' ' Breeze,' a re-
triever; 'Bos,' a greyhound belonging to Prince
Albert; and 'The Sanctuary.' In 1844 he ex-
hibited ' The Otter speared,' ' Coming Events cast
their' Shadows before,' sometimes called 'The
Challenge,' and 'Shoeing.' 'Peace' and 'War'
appeared in 1846, as did also 'The Stag at Bay.'
' The Drive,' produced in 1847, was a hunting-
piece, representing the shooting of deer in a pass
of Glenorchy Forest. The pictures of 1848 were
' A Random Shot,' one of the most pathetic of
Landseer's works ; ' The old Cover Hack ; ' Alex-
ander and Diogenes ; and the 'Sketch of my Father.'
These were accompanied by a series of etchings by
C. G. Lewis, styled ' The Mothers,' from drawings
made by Landseer in 1837. In this year also he
received a commission to paint three subjects con-
nected with the chase for the Peers' Refreshment
Room in the new Houses of Parliament, but the
matter came to nothing, as the House of Commons
refused to vote the money. In 1849 Landseer paid
his first visit to Belgium to collect materials for
the ' Dialogue at Waterloo,' which appeared in
1850, in which year he was knighted. ' The Mon-
arch of the Glen,' ' The Last Run of the Season,'
and ' Titania and Bottom,' were the chief pictures
of 1851. To 1853 belong ' The Combat,' ' Night and
Morning,' and ' Children of the Mist.' In 1856 he
contributed ' Saved ' to the Academy Exhibition. In
1857 came 'Scene in Braemar,' a magnificent stag ;
' Rough and Ready,' a portrait of a favourite mare ;



Xandseer



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Iiandseer



and ' Uncle Tom and his Wife for Bale.' In 1868
appeared ' The Maid and the Magpie ; ' and ' Deer
browsing,' an immense cartoon in coloured chalks.
In the British Institution of the same year were
'Twa Dogs,' and a portrait of Sir Walter Scott.
The year 1 860 produced ' A Flood in the Highlands ; '
1861, ' The Taming of the Shrew ; ' and 1864, ' Man
proposes, God disposes,' an Arctic incident, sug-
gested by the finding of the relics of Sir John
Franklin. In 1865 was exhibited ' The Connoisseurs '
(his own portrait) ; in 1867, ' Her Majesty at
Osborne ; ' and in 1869 his last great picture, ' The
Swannery invaded by Sea BagTes.' In 1869 the
Lions at the four corners of the Nelson Monument
were uncovered. On the death of Sir Charles
Eastlake Landseer declined the Presidency of the
Royal Academy, and in 1865 he received the large
gold medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition. His
later years were clouded by fits of depression, and
he died at St. John's Wood, London, on the 1st
of October, 1873, and was buried in St. Paul's
Cathedral. The Winter Exhibition of the Royal
Academy in 1874 was entirely devoted to his
works, when 461 pictures, drawings, and sketches
were exhibited, besides many touched proofs of
engravings after his works. A complete catalogue
of Landseer's works and of the engravings after
them has been compiled by Algernon Graves.
Chief among the engravers are his brother Thomas
Landseer, Charles George Lewis, Charles Heath,
Robert Graves, John Burnet, William Finden,
Samuel Cousins, Francis Holl, James Stephenson,
John Outrim, and Thomas L. Atkinson. A uniform
series of small engravings in mezzotint has been
in course of publication since 1880 by Messrs.
Henry Graves and Co.

The following are the principal pictures by him
in public and private collections :

Cbatsworth. House. Bolton Abbey in tie Olden

Time.
„ „ Laying down the Law. 1840.

Edinburgh. Nat. Gallery. Rent Day in tbe Wilderness.
London. Nat. Gallery. Low Life— High Life. 1831.
„ „ Highland Music. 1830.

„ „ The Hunted Stag. 1833.

„ „ Peace. 1846.

,. „ War. 1846.

%., „ „ Spaniels of King Charles's

Breed.
„ „ The Sleeping Bloodhound.

„ „ Dignity and Impudence.

„ „ The Defeat of Comus. {Sketch.)

„ „ Shoeing.

„ „ Highland Dogs.

.,» ,, Alexander and Diogenes.

„ „ The Maid and the Magpie.

■t „ A Dialogue at Waterloo. {Lent

to the National Gallery,
Duhlin.)

" ''""''ii^fl^HighlandBreatfast.
„ „ The Highland Drovers' De-

parture.
„ „ The Dog and the Shadow.

„ „ A Fireside Party.

„ „ There's no place like Home.

„ „ The Twa Dogs.

„ „ A Jack in Office.

„ „ The Old Shepherd's Chief

Mourner.
„ „ Tethered Bams.

„ „ Sancho Panza and Dapple.

„ „ The Angler's Guard.

A Naughty Child.
„ „ Suspense.

„ „ Comical Dogs.

„ „ The Eagle's Nest.



London. Sovth Kensing- \ Young Boebuck and Bough
ton Museum. J Hounds.
„ National Portrait ) „. ,„ ,, „ j.j.
Gallery, j Sir Walter Scott.

„ „ John Allen, M.D.

„ Buckingham Palace. The Defeat of Comus, (Fresco.)

„ Apsley House. The Highland Whiskey-Still.

„ „ Van Amburgh and his Animals.

Osborne. House. Van Amburgh and his Animals,

Windsor. Castle. Bos.

„ „ The Sanctuary.

,, „ Dash, Hector, Nero, and Lorie.

LANDSEER, Gkoeqe, the only son of Thomas
Landseer, was born about 1834. When about
twenty years of age he went to India, and whilst
there he painted a great many portraits of
Rajahs and other distinguished natives, and also
made a large series of water-colour drawings of
views in Cashmere and the hill country, which he
brought hack with him on his return to England
about 1870, after which date he was an invalid and
did little or no work. He died in London in 1878.

LANDSEER, Henry, a landscape painter, was a
brother of John Landseer, and a frequent contributor
to the Exhibitions, especially to that of the Society
of British Artists. His name appears at the British
Institution Exhibitions of 1821, 1822, and 1823.

LANDSEER, Jessica, a daughter of John Land-
seer, who died at Folkestone in 1880, also used
the painter's brush and the etching-needle. She
etched a few designs after her brother Edwin.

LANDSEER, John, a line-engraver, was born
at Lincoln in 1769. He was the son of a jeweller,
and was apprenticed to William Byrne, the land-
scape engraver. The earliest works on which he was
engaged were the illustrations afterDeLoutherbourg
for Macklin's Bible, and Bowyer's ' History of
England.' These were followed in 1795 by Moore's
' Twenty-five Views in the Southern Part of Scot-
land.' He devoted considerable attention to a
series of engravings of animals after the great
masters, which were afterwards published in a
collected form. In 1806 he delivered a course of
lectures on engraving at the Royal Institution,
and in 1802 he was elected an Associate Engraver
of the Royal Academy. He had previously
attacked the Academy on account of the total
exclusion of engravers from its honours, and his
election did not prevent his continuing to urge
their claims to full membership. Antiquarian
pursuits had a great attraction for him, and he
published ' Observations on the Engraved Gems
from Babylon' (1817), and ' Sabsean Researches'
(1833). He continued to exhibit at the Academy up
to 1861. He died in London in 1852, and was buried
at-Highgate Cemetery. Two of his sons, Edwin and
Charles, became Royal Academicians, and a third,
Thomas Landseer, followed in his father's foot-
steps, and became an eminent engraver.

LANDSEER, Thomas, the eldest son of John
Landseer, was born in London in 1795, and was
brought up by his father to the profession of an
engraver ; he also studied, with his brother Charles,
under Haydon, by whose instruction he made chalk
drawings from the cartoons of Raphael. His first
engraving on copper was, it is said, a ' Study of
the Head of a Sibyl,' after Haydon, which ap-
peared in 1816; and from that time he continued
to engrave diligently through a long life, the labours
of which were somewhat tardily recognized by the
Royal Academy in 1868, when he was elected an
Associate Engraver. He died in London in 1880.
Thomas Landseer's engravings are for the most

13



Iiandtslieer



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Iianffanco



part from the works of Ms brother Edwin, and it
is no disparagement to the latter to say that his
pictures owe much of their popularity and' public
appreciation to the faithful and sympathetic ren-
dering which they have received at the hands of
the engraver. The following are after Sir Edwin
Landseer:

A Bull ; an etching. 1811.

To-Ho ; an etching. 1823.

Ratcatchers. 1823.

Brutus. 1824.

Neptune. 1824.

Intruding Puppies. 1827.

The Sleeping Bloodhound. 1837.

Odio {the head only engraved). 1839.

A Forest Joust (o portion of the picture 'None but the

Brave deserve the Fair'). 1839.
A Distinguished Member of the Eoyal Humane Society.

1839.
Dignity and Impudence. 1841.
Eos. 1843.

Lion Dog from Malta. 1843.
Laying down the Law. 1843.
Not caught yet. 1845.
The Combat ; an etching. 1845.
The Stag at Bay. 1848.
Alexander and Diogenes. 1852.
The Monarch of the Glen. 1852.
Dear Puss. 1854.
Children of the Mist. 1856.
Doubtful Crumbs. 1862.
Man proposes, God disposes. 1867.
The Sanctuary. 1869.
The Challenge. 1872.
Deer Family. 1873.
Indian Tent, Mare and Foal. 1875.
The Font. 1875.

Besides these must be mentioned his engraving
of the ' Horse Fair,' after Rosa Bonheur ; ' Ten
Etchings illustrative of Coleridge's ' Devil's Walk,'
1831 ; ' Monkeyana,' 1827 ; and ' Characteristic
Sketches of Animals,' 1832.

LANDTSHEER, Jan de, a Flemish painter, born
at Baesrode in 1760, was a pupil of the Antwerp
Academy in 1779. He painted portraits, and his-
torical and genre subjects. At Brussels is a picture
of ' Venus clipping the Wings of Love ; ' and at
Haarlem 'Two Cliildren seated.' He died in 1828.

LANDULFO, Pompbo, a Neapolitan painter,
was born about the year 1515. According to
Dominici, he was of ancient family, and showing
an early disposition for art, was placed under
the care of Gian Bernardo Lama, where he dis-
covered a superior genius, and whilst he was yet
very young', painted an altar-piece for the church
of San Matteo, at Naples, representing the ' Virgin
with the Infant Jesus in the clouds, surrounded by
angels.' He afterwards painted a fine picture for
the church of La Pieta, of the ' Holy Family, with
St. Francis, St. Catharine, and St. Lucia.' He died
at Naples in 1590.

LANE, John Bryant, an historical painter, was
born in Cornwall towards the end of the 18th
century. Originally intended for the medical pro-
fession, he was enabled to study art through the
patronage of Lord de Dunstanville. He exhibited
some pretentious works at the Royal Academy from
1808 to 1813, and then went to Rome, where during
the next fifteen years he was chiefly employed on
an ambitious picture, ' The Vision of Joseph,' which
proved a failure. He last exhibited at the Academy
from 1831 to 1884.

LANE, Richard James, an engraver, was born
in 1800. His mother was a niece of Gainsborough,
and his father a prebendary of Hereford. At the

14



age of sixteen he was apprenticed to Charles
Heath, under whom he made good progress, but
owing to the decadence of line engraving, he
devoted himself to lithography, which he practised
with much success. Among his works were a
series of sketches by Gainsborough, followed by
•' Imitations of British Artists,' and ' Sketches by
Sir Thomas Lawrence.' He was appointed litho-
grapher to the Queen, for whom he executed many
portraits after Winterhalter and Chalon. In 1827
he was elected an Associate Engraver of the Royal
Academy. He died at Kensington in 1872.

LANE, Samuel, a portrait painter, was bom at
King's Lynn in 1780. From his childhood he was
deaf and almost dumb. His instructors in art were
Parington and Sir Thomas Lawrence. The fidelity
of his likenesses procured him a large practice, and he
contributed many portraits to the Royal Academy
from 1804 to 1857. He retired in 1853 to Ipswich,
where he died in 1859. Amongst his works are :
G. Crompe. 1813. (Cloth-ioorkers' Hall, London.)
Thomas Claxkson. ( Wisbeach Town Hall.)
Lord De Saumarez. 1838. {United Service Club,

London.)
John Kaye, Bishop of Lincoln. (EiseKohne Palace.)
Lord George Bentinck. {King's Lynn Town Hall.)

LANE, Solomon de. See Db Lane.

LANE, Theodore, a, subject painter, was born
at Isleworth in 1800. He originally studied en-
graving, which he early quitted for portrait paint-
ing, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1816.
His forte, however, was in humorous subjects, and
he was attaining some position when his death
occurred in 1828 through falling through a skylight
in Gray's Inn Road, London. His best works are :

The Christmas Present. 182T.

The Gouty Angler. 1828. {National Gallery ; but lent

to the Corporation of Stockport.)
Disturbed by the Nightmare. (1828.)

LANE, William, a portrait painter, was born
in 1746. He for some years practised as a
gem engraver, but afterwards devoted himself
to portraits in crayons. He had a large circle of
sitters, and exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1785 to 1815. He died at Hammersmith in 1819.

LANEN, Van dee. See Van deb Lanen.

LANET'TI, Antonio, a painter, was a native of
Bugnatt). He was a pupil of Gaudenzio, and had
a reputation in Ferrara. He died about 1530.

LANEDVILLE, Jean Louis, a French portrait
painter, was a native of Paris, and a pupil of
David. He exhibited at the ' Exposition de la
Jeunesse ' in 1783 and 1789, and at the Salon from
1791 to 1817. He died in 1826.

LANFRANCO, Giovanni, called Cavalieke "
Giovanni di Stefano, was born at Parma, on the
same day with Domenichino, in 1581. His parents
placed him, when a boy, as page to the Count
Scotti at Piacenza. While in the service of that
nobleman he was perceived drawing with a piece of
charcoal the frieze of one of the apartments ; and
the Count, desirous of encouraging his apparent
disposition for art. introduced him to Agostino
Carracoi, who was at that time employed by the
Duke Ranuccio at Ferrara. The young pupil
made rapid progress under so able an instructor,
and before he was sixteen he painted a picture of
the 'Virgin and several Saints,' which was deemed
worthy of being placed in the church of Sant'
Agostino at Piacenza. By the advice of Agostino
Carracci, he studied with particular attention the
works of Correggio ; but though he attained to



Ijanfranco



PAINTERS AND ENaRAVERS.



Lang:



some approach to his model in the grandeur of
his conceptions and the bold variety of his fore-
shortening, he could not imitate the tender beauty
of his expression and the graceful turn of his
forms, the peculiar characteristics of the works of
Correggio. Lanfranco was twenty years old when
death deprived him of the lessons of Agostino.
He then went to Rome, and became a student under
Annibale Carracoi, who employed him in the Far-'
nese Gallery, and in the church of St. Giacomo,
where he executed some frescoes from Annibale's
designs. The works of Raphael were also the
objects of his attentive admiration. In conjunc-
tion with his compatriot and fellow-student, Sisto
Badalocohio, he etched the history of the Bible,
from Raphael's Loggie in the Vatican, which they
dedicated to Annibale. After the death of that
master, Lanfranco was employed by Cardinal
Sannese in some works, which first brought him
into public notice at Rome, and he increased his
reputation by his fresco paintings in the chapel of
Buon Giovanni in the church of Sant' Agostino,
the principal picture representing the ' Assumption
of the Virgin.' He was taken under the protection
of Paul v., who employed him in his chapel in
Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the great saloon at
the Quirinal, where he painted 'Moses striking
the Rock,' 'Abraham sacrificing Isaac,' and 'The
Flight into Egypt.' It was about this time that,
by the death of Cardinal Montalto, the patron of
Doraenichino, he procured, through intrigue, the
commission to paint the cupola of Sant' Andrea
della Valle, which had been promised to Domeni-
chino, who had previously painted the four angles.
However one may lament that the work was not
coiapleted by that master, it is but justice to



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