Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

. (page 44 of 201)
Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 44 of 201)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


are several of his works in the public buildings of
Rome. He painted the ceiling of one of the
chapels in S. Paolino della Regola ; and several
pictures in the church of SS. Quaranta.

MONREALESE, II. See Novelli, Pieteo.

MONRO, Henry, an English portrait and subject
painter, born in London in 1791. He was the son
163



of Dr. Monro, the well-known patron of water-
colour painters. He entered the schools of tlie
Academy, and exhibited a few pictures, his 'Dis-
grace of Wolsey' obtaining a premium of one
hundred guineas at the British Institution. His
works showed considerable promise, but his career
was cut short by death in 1814.

MONSALBE. See AoniRRB y Monsalbe.
MONSIAU, Nicolas Andre, a French historical
and portrait painter, born in Paris in 1754. He
studied under Peyron, and was elected a member
of the Academy in 1789. Much of his time was
employed in book-illustration. Prom 1787 to 1833
he was a steady exhibitor at the Salon, and a great
number of engravers were employed upon his work.
He died in Paris in 1837. Amongst his works are:
Amicus. Museum. Philoctetes in the island of Lem-

nos. 1791.
St, Denis. Cathedral. St. Denis preaching. 1814
Marseilles. Museum. Iphigenia. 1817.
Versailles. Trianon. Establishment of the Order of

St. Bruno at Paris.
Lille. Museum. Fulvia discovering to Cicero the

Conspiracy of Catiline. 1822.
Orleans. Museum. Magdalen in the Desert.

Versailles. Gallery. Louis XVI. giving instructions to

Perouse. 1817.

MONSIGNORI. See Bonsignori.

MONSIGNORI, Albert, an amateur of Verona,
who cultivated art with some success in the 15tli
century. His son Giholamo, a Franciscan monk,
painted miniatures, and was a good caligraphist.
He was commonly known as Fra Cheeubino.

MONT, Del or Van der. See Delmont.

MONTABERT, Jacques Nicolas Paillot de, a
French historical and portrait painter, born at
Troyes in 1771. He was a pupil of David, and
invented a process of encaustic painting. He is
better known as a writer on art, and published a
complete treatise on painting in ten volumes, and
other works. He died in 1849.

MONTAGNA, Bartolommeo, was born at Orzo
Novi, in Brescia, between the years 1450 and
1460, and commenced painting on his own
account as early as 1483, when he was living
at Vicenza. A ' Madonna and Child between
SS. Sebastian and Roch,' of 1487, in the Locchis
Carrara Gallery, Bergamo ; a ' Madonna between
SS. Monica and Mary Magdalene,' in the Gallery
of Vicenza ; and a ' Virgin and Child between
SS. Anthony and John the Baptist,' in the church
of San Giovanni Harione, and formerly in San
Lorenzo, Vicenza, may all be reckoned among
his early works. In 1490 the records of Vicenza
speak of him as " celeberrimus pictor " ; and it was
probably in that year that he visited Padua, where
he painted the altar-piece at Santa Maria in Vanzo,
representing the 'Virgin and Child between SS.
Peter, John the Baptist, Catherine, and Paul.'
From there he went to Verona, where he had been
asked to decorate the oratory of San Biagio, which
he probably commenced in 1493. These frescoes,
which are now much injured, represent scenes from
that saint's life. The altar-piece he painted for
the church has since been divided : one of its panels,
which represents the Saviour entombed, supported
by angels and saints, and others with SS. John the
Baptist, Benedict, Nazaro, and Celso, are in the
church of S. Nazaro, Verona ; whilst Dr. Bernasconi,
of the same city, has the two remaining, with S.
Biagio and another saint upon them. In 1496
Montagna returned to his house in Vicenza, and
devoted two years to the chapel of the Squarzi



llontagua



PAINTEHS AND ENGRAVERS.



Monte



family at San Michele, where he painted an ' En-
throned Madonna and Child, with SS. Andrew,
Sigiamiind, Monica, and Ursula,' now in the Brera
of Milan. In 1500 he executed the ' Pieta,' now in
the Berlin Gallery ; and in 1502 the Madonna
ordered by Cardinal Zeno for the cathedral of
Vicenza. From this d ate, until his death in October,
1523, he was constantly occupied in painting altar-
pieces and half-length Madonnas. Among the
fairly numerous examples of this master we may



Bergamo,
Berlin.



Museum, Virgin, with SS. Boch and Se-
bastian. 1487.
Gallery. Virgin and Child between SS.
Omobuono, Francis, and Cath-
arine.
London. Nat. Galle^-y. Madonna and Child (No. IWS).
Milan. £rera. Virgin,with Saints and Angels.

1499.
Modena. Marchese Cam- > ^r. . i ^, -, i j j. i , ..r.n '

vori I ^i''S'° ^"'i Child, dated 1503.

Paris. Louvre. Ecce Homo.

Pavia. Ceriosa. Virgin and Child, with SS.

Onofrio, John the Baptist,
and three Angels.

Venice. Academy. Virgin enthroned, with SS.

Jerome and Sebastian.

Vftrona. S. Biagio. Legend of St. Biagio.

Vicenza. Cathedral. Virgin between SS. Magda-

lene and Lucia.
„ Gallery. The Presentation.

MONTAGNA, Benedetto, was the son of Bar-
tolommeo Montagna, and was probably born in
Vicenza, During his father's life he seems to
have worked under him, though showing far less
ability. He became a master in his Guild in 1490.
No paintings signed by him are known previous to
1523, the date of Bartolommeo's death; and of
the dates of his own birth ' or death nothing
certain can be stated further than that he was
living up to 1548. The following paintings of his
exist :

Milan. Brera. Virgin and Child between

SS. Peter, Paul, Francis,
and Anthony of ]?adua.
Modena, Gallery. Virgin and Child, with

Angels and St. John the
Baptist, 1548,
Stuttgart, Musee. Marriage of St, Catharine,

Vicenza. Cathedral. Madonna and Child between

two Saints, 1535,

He also illustrated Cicero's ' de OfBciis ' with wood-
cuts, and he has left fifty-six plates of very
unequal merit, which are executed in the style of
various artists, as :

Vir"d six Angels, } (^» '^^ «^'^ "/ ''">'*-•)
Virgin Adoring the Child, )(/m <Se style of Giovanni
A Holy Family. ( Bellini.)

Orpheus charming the Animals. {In the style of

Giorgione.)
St, Jerome in a landscape.

The Sacrifice of Abraham. 1 (/« the style of A.
A naked Man with an Arrow, j Biirer.)

MONTAGNA, Marco Tullio, according toBag-
lione, was a native of Rome, and flourished in the
pontificate of Clement VIII. He was a disciple of
Federigo Zuccaro, and painted history both in oil
and in fresco. In the church of Santa Cecilia the
ceiling is painted by this master ; and in San
Niccol6 in Caroere is an altar-piece by him, repre-
senting a subject from the life of St. Nicolas.

MONTAGNA, Matt. See Pla'jtenbbrg.

MONTAGNA, Rinaldo della, (or II Montagna,)
a sea and landscape painter, a native of Holland.
He went to Italy when young, and died at Padua



in 1644. His pictures are found at Florence,
Padua, Venice, and Bologna.

MONTAGNANA, Jacopo, was a Paduan, who
entered the Guild in 1469, and, according to Vasari,
was a disciple of Giovanni Bellini.' In 1475 he
painted some frescoes in the town hall of Cividale,
which are not now in existence ; and in 1476, in
competition with Calzetta, Matteo del Pozzo, and
Agnolo Zoto, he executed the frescoes in the
Gattamelata Chapel, in the cathedral of Padua ;
in the latter church he was very constantly em-
ployed in later years. The town hall of Belluno
was decorated by him in 1490 with classic subjects
drawn from the story of the Horatii and Curiatii.
Unfortunately, when rebuilding the hall some
years ago, these frescoes were nearly all destroyed.
Conte Agostino Agosti and Signer Bucchi, botli of
Belluno, have in their possession some of their
fragments. In diflEerent portions of the Episcopal
Palace, Padua, many frescoes by Montagnana still
remain, some of them being dated 1495. In the
church of Santa Maria di Mont' Ortone, near
Padua, are a series of frescoes representing various
subjects drawn from sacred and legendary sources,
executed by this artist in 1497. Many of the
private and public galleries of his native city
possess paintings by him, and a ' Coronation of
the Virgin ' is in the Gallery of Bassano. His works
have often been ascribed to Mantegna. His will
was made in 1499, his death occurring not long
after.

MONTAGNANI, Pieteo Paolo, engraver, was
bom at Rome in 1740. With P. Ducros he en-
graved twenty-four views of Sicily and Malta.

MONTAGNY, Ehe Honoej^, a French historical
painter, born in Paris. He was a pupil of David,
and afterwards studied at Rome. In 1805 he went
as painter to the Queen of Naples, but after the
Restoration of the Bourbons he returned to Paris
where he died some time after 1815.

MONTAGU, D., was a native of France, and
flourished about 1760. He engraved several archi-
tectural subjects and views in Rome.

MONTALTO. See Danedi,

MONTALVO, Bartolomeo, a Spanish painter
of still life, bom at Sangarcia, near Segovia,
in 1769. He was a pupil of Zachary Velazquez,
and was appointed court painter in 1816, He
died in 1846. In the Madrid Gallery there are
four good examples of his art.

MONTANARI, Franoesoo, an historical and
portrait painter, born at Lugo in 1750. He was a
pupil of Gandolfi and Cignaroli. He painted in
many Italian towns, but most of his pictures are
now in bis native district. He died in 1786.

MONTANI, Giuseppe, a landscape painter, born
at Pesaro in 1641. He lived some time at Venice.
He wrote' a history, now lost, of the painters of
Pesaro, and restored pictures. He died after 1678.

MONTANINI, Pietbo, called Petruocio Peru-
GINO, was born at Perugia in 1626. He was first
a scholar of Giro Ferri, but on taking to landscape
painting he left that master, and became a disciple
of Salvator Rosa. There are many of his works in
the private collections at Perugia. He died in 1689.

MONTANO D'AREZZO. See Arezzo.

MONTE, Giovanni da, a native of Crema, who
flourished at Milan about 1580. He is said to
have been a pupil of Titian, but his work had
much in common with that of Polidoro Caravaggio,
whose pupil Aurelio Bnso was in Milan during
Giovanni's youth, and may have influenced him.

167



]S[onte Pulciano



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Monti



Monte painted landscapes as well as histoiioal
subjects.

MONTE PULCIANO, II. See Morosini.

MONTELATICI, Francesco, called II Ceooo
Bravo, was born, according to Orlandi, at Florence
about the year 1600, and was a scholar of Jan
Bilivert. He did not, however, attach himself
entirely to the style of that master, but blended it
with that of Domenioo Cresti, called Passignano.
The name of ' II Cecco Bravo ' was given him on
account of his touchy and quarrelsome disposition.
Of his works at Florence the most remarkable are,
the ' Fall of Lucifer,' in the church of the Teatini ;
and a fine picture of ' St. Niccol6 Vescovo,' in San
Simone. He was invited to Innspruok by the
Archduke Ferdinand, and died there, painter to the
court, in 1661.

MONTEMAU y CUSBNS, Lorenzo, a Sicilian
by birth, had a considerable share in the improve-
ment of Spanish engraving in the 18th century.
After learning engraving at Rome and serving in
the Imperial army during the War of Succession,
he married and settled at Salamanca. There he
established, in partnership with one Agostini, a
manufactory of tin tobacco-boxes, adorned with
devices engraved or worked in relief, wliich be-
coming popular and lucrative, he practised as a
silversmith, receiving many scholars into his house,
and employing ten or twelve artisans and their
families. At one time he was accused of coining
false money, through a mistake as to the nature of
his engraving tools ; and at another was charged
with impiety by the Holy Office, in consequence of
having accidentally broken a wax model of the
Annunciation. Making his escape into Portugal he
died at Almeida, aged sixty-four. Amongst his
engravings was a portrait of Philip V. with the
royal arms.

MONTEMEZZANO, Francesco, was born at
Verona about the year 1555, and was brought up
in the school of Paolo Veronese. His most respect-
able performances are, his picture of the ' Annuncia-
tion,' in the church of the Osservanti alia Vigna, at
Venice ; and ' Christ appearing to the Magdalen,'
in the church of San Giorgio, at Verona. He died
in 1600, in the prime of life.

MONTEN, Heinrioh Maria Dietrich, battle
painter, was born at Diisseldorf in 1799. He
showed from his earliest youth a great love for
accounts of wars and battles, and Homer, Tasso,
and Ariosto were his favourite authors. He first
studied science, and entered the Bonn University
in 1816 ; but in order that he might have some
practical knowledge in military matters, he enlisted
as a volunteer in the Prussian army, and served
for twelve months. At the expiration of this term
he entered the Academy of Arts at Diisseldorf, and
after studying there for two years, removed to
Munich, in order to benefit by the instruction of
Peter Hess. He soon attracted the attention of
Cornelius, then at the head of the painters at
Munich, who entrusted him with the execution of
three of tlie frescoes in the arcade of the Hofgarten ;
namely, the ' Storming of the Turkish Entrench-
ment by the Bavarians, at Belgrade in 1717,' the
' Battles of Arcis sur Aube,' and the ' Granting of
the Bavarian Constitution by Maximilian Joseph
in 1818.' He painted many other large battle-
pieces, in which the Germans figure as the victors ;
and also many smaller pictures. He died at
Munich in 1843. Two of his pictures are in the
Berlin National Gallery.

168



MONTENAT, J., was an engraver on wood,
and, according to Papillon, executed several cuts
from the designs of Simon Vouet. Dumesnil
mentions a print by him of the ' Virgin and Child.'

MONTERO, Lobenzo, born at Seville in 1656,
excelled in architectural decorations, landscapes,
fruit and flowers, which he painted in water-colours.
He was much employed in 1684 at the Retiro, but
his works there have perished. In the chapel of
St. Martha, in the church of St. Jerome at Madrid,
are still to be seen traces of his skill in ornamental
design. He was not equally successful in oil paint-
ing ; the only work worthy of notice, in this way,
being the portrait of Philip V., which is dated
1701, and is now in the convent at Paular. He
died at Madrid in 1710.

MONTERO de ROXAS, Juan de, a Spanish
painter, was bom at Madrid in 1613. He was a
pupil of Pedro de las Cuevas, and studied in Italy.
He died at Madrid in 1688. Of his pictures in
the churches at Madrid, Palomino particularly
commends the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the
church of the Atocha ; the ' Angel appearing
to St. Joseph,' in San Juan de Alarcon ; and the
'Destruction of Pharaoh's Host,' in the sacristy
of the convent de la Merced. He copied and
imitated the pictures of Caravaggio.

MONTESSUY, Jean Franqois, a French his-
torical painter, born at Lyons in 1804. He was a
pupil of Ingres and Hersent. He died in 1876.

MONTEVARCHI, an obscure pupil of Perugino,
born at Montevarchi about 1460. Pictures by him
are to be found at Perugia and Borgo San Sepulcro.

MONTEZUMA, Pedro de, Cqnde de Tula, a
Spanish noble, who enjoyed some repute as an
amateur painter at Madrid. He died about 1670.

MONTFOORT, Antonis van, was a Dutch painter,
born at Montfort in 1532. His real name was Van
Bloklandt, and beseems to have been called Mont-
foort from his possession of an estate near Mont-
fort. He was a pupil of Franz Floris, in whose
style he painted historical pictures. He married
at the age of nineteen, and settled at Delft. In
1572 he went to Italy, and on his return he
settled at Utrecht. He was much employed in
the churches of Holland. In the great church at
Utrecht were three pictures by him, representing
' The Birth of the Virgin Mary,' ' The Annuncia-
tion,' and ' The Assumption.' At Gouda he painted
' The beheading of John the Baptist,' and at Dor-
drecht several pictures of the Passion. He died
at Utrecht in 1683.

MONTFOORT, Pieter Gerard, a Dutch painter,
perhaps an amateur. He worked at Delft early
in the 17th century and was a pupil of Michael
Mierevelt. Van Mander speaks highly of his
powers.

MONTHBLLIBR, Alexandre Jules, an obscure
French painter of still-life and interiors. He was
a pupil of Bouton. He died in 1824.

MONTI, Francesco, called II Bolognese, was
born at Bologna in 1685, and was brought up in
the school of Giovanni GiosefEo dal Sole. On
leaving that master he was taken under the protec-
tion of the Conti Ranuzzi, for whom he painted a
' Rape of the Sabines.' He was afterwards em-
ployed at the court of Turin, wher3 he painted
the ' Triumph of Mordecai.' Of his numerous
works in the churches at Bologna the most esteemed
are, ' Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus,' at the
Osservanti : the ' Virgin in Glory, with St. Barbara
and St. Filippo Neri,' in the Madonna di Galeria ;



Honti



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVEES.



Moore



and the ' Martyrdom of St. Pedele,' at tlie Cappuo-
cini. He died in 1768.

MONTI, Fbancesco, called II Beiscianino dellb
Battaglie, was born at Brescia in 1646, and was
a scholar of Pietro Ricchi and Jacques Courtois (II
Borgognone). He excelled in painting horses and
battles, which he designed in a spirited and masterly
style. There are many of his works at Rome,
Genoa, Venice, Naples, Patrma, and in Germany.
He died at Parma in 1712.

MONTI, Giovanni Battista, according to So-
prani, was the son of a poor mendicant, and was
bom at Genoa about the year 1610. When a boy
he discovered an uncommon disposition for art, by
sketching on the walls of the houses, which being
noticed by a Genoese nobleman, he charitably took
him under his protection, and placed him as a
pupil under Luciano Borzone. His progress under
that master was very rapid, and he became a
respectable painter of history, but still more dis-
tinguished in portraits. He died of the plague in
1667.

MONTI, Giovanni Giacomo, an Italian battle
and ornament painter, born at Bologna in 1621.
He was a pupil of Metelli, and in company with
Bianchi and Caccioli he painted in the villa of the
Duke of Modena. He died in 1692.

MONTI, Innocenzo, a native of Imola, was a
pupil of Cignani. He has left several pictures in
his native district, but he succeeded better in Ger-
many and Poland than in his own country. A ' Cir-
cumcision ' painted for the Jesuits' church at Miran-
dola was the subject of a contemporary poem. It
was painted in ^1690. Innocenzo died about the
end of the 17th century.

MONTICELLI, Andrea, according to Orlandi,
was born at Bologna in 1640, and studied per-
spective under Agostino Mitelli. He designed
some architectural views in imitation of that
master, but he chiefly excelled in painting flowers,
fruit, vases, and other still-life. He died in 1716.

MONTICELLI, Michelangelo, was born at
Bologna in 1670, and was first a scholar of Marc
Antonio Franceschini, but afterwards studied under
Domenico Viani. He excelled in painting land-
scapes and battles. In the midst of a promising
career he had the misfortune to lose his sight.
He died in 1748.

MONTIGNY. See Litteet.

MONTMIEAL, Le Maiquis DE, is said by Basan
to have etched several plates of landscapes from
his own designs, and others after Albert. They
are dated from the year 1720 to 1740.

MONTOEFANO, Giovanni Donato, was a
Milanese artist living in the 15th century, who
painted in 1495 the ' Crucifixion ' which faces Da
Vinci's 'Last Supper' in the refectory of Santa
Maria delle Grazie, Milan. He is said to have been
a pupil of Foppa. Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle
have assigned to this artist the frescoes in the
church of Santa Maria della Eosa, as well as those
of the legend of St. Anthony in one of the chapels
in San Pietro in Gessate, both in Milan. The dates
of Montorfano's birth and death are alike unknown.
He was in all probability identical with the Giov.
Battista Montorfano who helped Foppa to value
some frescoes in the Castello of Porta Giovia be-
tween 1467 and 1476.

MONTPETIT, Akmand Vincent de, a French
painter, was born at Macon in 1713. In his early
days he was a student of jurisprudence and me-
chanics. By the time he reached middle age, he



had lost all his fortune, and thenceforward applied
himself to painting, especially to miniature. Fur
this art he invented a new process, which he called
eludorique. He died in Paris in 1800.

MONVERT, Ldoa, was born at Udine in 1491,
and died in 1629. He was a pupil of Pellegrino,
and painted the altar-piece of the church of Santa
Maria delle Grazie, Udine, which represents the
'Virgin and Child between SS. Roch, Gervase,
Protase, and Sebastian.' He is known likewise to
have painted several banners for churches, although
nothing now remains of his labours. Crowe and
Cavalcaselle quote a number of documents relating
to his family affairs.

MONVOISIN, Raimond Augdste Quinsao, was
born at Bordeaux in 1796, and first studied under
Lacour, and then came to Paris and entered the
studio of Gu^rin, and obtained the second prize for
Rome in 1831. He died at Boulogne-sur-Seine in
1870. His wife, Domenica, nie Festa, painted
also. Among his best pictures may be mentioned :

Jane of Castile at the Death-bed of her Husband. 1834.

The Death of Charles IX. 1835.

Sixtus V. throwing away the Crutch.

Death of Gilbert in the Hotel Dieu. (Nancy.)

MONZA, Fra Antonio da, a minorite, who
flourished about 1500, is the author of some minia-
ture paintings of merit, now in the Albertina Col-
lection, in Vienna — executed in imitation of the
manner of Leonardo da Vinci. The 'Descent of
the Holy Ghost ' is noteworthy alike for colour
and design.

MONZA, NoLFO DA, a painter of Milan who
flourished about 1500. He was a pupil of Bramante.

MONZA, Teoso DA, or Troso di Giovanni
Jacobi, of Milan, the painter of the frescoes bearing
the signature of the Zavattari in the cathedral of
Monza, was born about 1450 at Lomazzo. In 1477
he was at work in- Bergamo with one Scannardi
d'Averara. In 1490 he was commissioned to paint
in the Porta Giovia palace by Lodovico Sforza.
He afterwards decorated the facade of the Men-
dozza palace at Milan with designs much belauded
by Lomazzo. Troso was still alive in 1500.

MOOJAERT. See Moijaet.

MOONS, Lddwig Feanz, historical and stilUlife
painter, was born at Antwerp in 1769. He first
.studied under A. de Quertemont. In 1792 he re-
ceived the first medal of the Academy, after which
he went to DUsseldorf to study the works of the old
masters. In 1798 he went to Dresden, where he
remained till 1805, and then went to St. Petersburg,
returning afterwards to Antwerp, and becoming a
Fellow of the Academy. In 1820 he wentto Italy,
where he stayed three years, returning home
through Switzerland, Munich, and Stuttgard. He
died in 1844. In the Church of St. Jacques,
Antwerp, there is a 'Disciples at Emmaus' by
him.

MOOR, Ant. de. See Mor.

MOOR, Karel de. See De Mooe.

MOORE, Geoege Bolton, an English landscape
painter, born in 1806. He was much employed as
a teacher of drawing at University College, London,
and at the Royal Military Academy. The elabor-
ate perspective of Frith's railway station is said to
be his work. His pictures frequently appeared at
the Royal Academy up to 1859. He published
works on the theory of perspective and colour. He
died in 1876.

MOORE, J. C, who was born at Gainsborough
in 1829, was the son of William Moore, a portrait

169



Moore



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



IVTorace



painter. He became a student in tlie Royal
Acaderny in 1861, and at first devoted iiinjself to
portraiture. He subsequently spent a great part
of liis time in Italy, making sketches of Florence
and Rome and their neighbourhoods. He painted
both in oil and water-colour. He died in 1880.
His Italian scenes were deservedly popular.

MOORE, Jacob, a Scottish landscape painter,
generally known as ' Moore of Rome,' was born at
Edinburgh in 1740. His first instruction in art
was gained in Eunciman's School of Design, but
his style was chiefly formed on the model of
Claude after he went to Italy in 1773. He acquired
considerable reputation, and was much patronized
by Prince Borghese. Several landscapes of an
ambitious character were sent by him between
1784 and 1789 to the Exhibition of the Royal
Academy. Notices of him occur in the works of
Miss Berry and Goethe, who both visited his studio
at Rome. He died in that city in 1793. The fol-
lowing examples of his work may be named :

DorkiDg. -0^|;^J«^ I View in the Campagna.

Eome. Villa Borghese. Vale of Tempe and Metamor-
phosis of Daphne.
Florence. Vffizi. Portrait of himself.

MOORE, Jamus, an English engraver, born before,
the middle of the 18th oentui-y, who was in 1763 a
member of the Free Society of Artists. Amongst



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 44 of 201)