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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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MULLER, JoHANN Jakob, called 'Miiller of
Riga,' was born at Riga in 1765. He was first a
preacher, but afterwards studied painting at
Dresden under Klengel and at Rome, and particu-
larly the manner in which Claude Lorraine treated
distances in his works. After having in 1817
visited Italy for a second time, he settled at Stutt-

firt, where he became court painter to King
riedrioh, and died in 1831. There are by him
several views of Pompeii (two of them in posses-



sion of the King of Bavaria), and a ' Landscape near
Salerno,' in the Gallery at Stuttgart.

MIJlLER, Joh. Karl. See Mdllener.

MiJLLER, Joh. Pet. See Molitor.

MULLER, JoHANN Sebastian, (or Miller,) a
German engraver, was born at Nuremberg about
the year 1720. He came with his brother to
England in 1744, resided in London in 1760, and
engraved several plates for the collection of Boy-
dell ; he is generally known in this country under
the name of Miller. We have, among others, the
following prints by him :

The Holy Family ; after Federigo Baroccio.

Another Holy Family ; after Murillo.

Nero depositing the Ashes of Britannicus; aftfr Le



A Landscape, with Apollo and Marsyas ; after Claude.
A Moonlight ; after Van der Neer.
Two Views in Eome ; after Giov. Paolo Panini.
The plates tor Newton's Edition of ' Milton ; ' after
Ha^Tnan.

MULLER, John Peter, a Danish landscape
painter, born in 1783. He had a good reputation
in his native country. Many of his subjects are
scenes in Sweden and Norway, and have been
engraved and lithographed. He died in 1854. In
the Royal Gallery at Copenhagen there are two
of his landscapes, a ' View of the Wetterhorn,'
and a 'Forest Road near Elsinore.'

MtJLLER, MoBiTZ. See Steinla.

MULLER, MoRi'J'z Karl Friedrich, called ' Fire
Miiller,' from his occasional fondness for artificial
illuminations, was a painter of portraits, history,
and genre, who was born at Dresden in 1807, and
studied art at the Academy there under Matthai.
In 1829 he went to Zittau, where there are some
of his altar-pieces, and in 1830 to Mimich, where he
died in 1865. He was a member of the Academy
at Dresden. Some of his best paintings are :

The sulky Boy. [Berlin National Gallery.)

Consecration of a Church.

Christmas Eve.

Lovers at the Fireside of a Shepherd's Cottage.

The Tyrolese marching out under Haspinger.

Return Home of a Wounded Soldier in the Tyrol.

[Munich Pinakotheh.)
Country Wedding. (The same.)
The Imprisonment of Andrew Hoter.
Camp Scene.

MULLER, PiETEO. See Molyn.

MULLER, Salomon, was probably of the same
family as Hermann and Jan Miiller, and flour-
ished about the year 1610. From the style of his
engraving, it is probable he was brought up in the
school of the Wierixes. He engraved a set of
small prints of sacred subjects, which, as they are
without the name of the painter, are probably
from his own designs.

MtJLLER, ViCTQR, was born at Frankfort in
1829, and studied at the Stadel Institute in that
city. In 1849 he went to Antwerp, and afterwards
to Paris, where he continued his studies under
Couture. On his return to Frankfort in 1838,
he brought himself into notice by the 'Forest
Nymphs,' ' Diana and Endymion,' and ' Hero and
Leander.' In 1865 he went to Munich, where he
died in 1871 ; there he chiefly painted portraits
and scenes in, the life of Hartmuth of Kronenberg.
Among his other paintings the most important are :

Faust and Wagner.

Hamlet and the Grave-digger.

Ophelia.

Borneo and Juliet.

185



Mftller



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Mulready



MULLER, "William James, an English land-
scape and figure painter, was born at Bristol in
1812 ; his father, of German extraction, was cura-
tor of the Bristol Museum, and from him he ac-
quired a taste for science, especially botany and
natural history. He was at first designed for an
engineer, but his predilection for art soon made
itself manifest. Erom J. B. Pyne he received the
primary instructions in painting ; and in 1833 he
for the first time exhibited at the Royal Academy,
his picture being ' The Destruction of Old London
Bridge — Morning ? ' Soon after he made the tour
of Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, studying from
nature, and hence his works bear the impress of
originality in a greater degree than those of most
modern landscape painters. On his return to his
native city he pursued his profession, but with
very partial success. In 1838 he visited Greece
and Egypt, enriching his portfolio with a large
number of sketches of the most interesting objects.
About the end of 1839 he settled in London, where
his pictures found ready purchasers. Two years
afterwards he published ' Picturesque Sketches of
the Age of Francis I.,' which extended his fame
beyond his own country. He next, in 1841, at his
own expense, joined the expedition to Lyoia, pro-
jected by the government, and from the valuable
sketches he made there, produced the pictures
which were exhibited at the Royal Academy and
British Institution during the last three years of
his life. Of the treatment his work received at
both places he complained with bitterness, and,
it must be admitted, with justice. In 1836-7-8
he also sent pictures to the Suffolk Street Ex-
hibitions. In 1845 Miiller left London for
Bristol for the benefit of his health ; but his
strength gradually failed, and he died on the 8th
September of that year of disease of the heart.
At the sale of his oil pictures, finished and un-
finished, and of the series of sketches made by him
in Lycia (which took place in the following year),
competition to possess them was extreme ; the
sketches sold at prices varying from £20 to £60
for each, and the total amount of the three days'
sale was about £4600. These were not factitious
prices, for the dealers reaped a rich harvest by the
purchases they made at the sale. In 1875 his
Memoir was brought out, by the pen of N. N. Soley,
and his works have greatly increased in value
since. Miiller is very scantily represented in
public collections. In the National Gallery there
are a fine Welsh landscape and a clever Lycian
sketch, both in oil. In the South Kensington
Museum there are eight of his water-colour draw-
ings.

MULLINARI. See Mdlinaei.

MULREADY, "William, the son of a leather-
breeches maker, was born at Ennis, County Clare,
Ireland, on the 1st of April, 1786. "When "William
was about eighteen months old the family removed
to Dublin, and after remaining there about four
years came to London, where they settled near
Leicester Square. After picking up as much of art
as he could gather from old books and prints, and
from an artist named Graham, Mulready was per-
mitted to study in the studio of Banks, the sculptor,
aod in October 1800 he became a student, of the
Royal Academy. Two years later he obtained the
silver palette of the Society of Arts. From the
age of fifteen Mulready was no longer dependent
upon his parents for subsistence. It is not exactly
known how he managed to support himself at first :

186



but, according to Marcliffe, he drew illustrations
for books, and perhaps tried his hand at scene
painting, as he used to say in after-life, " I drew
on a very large scale when I was young." Teach-
ing drawing, which he continued throughout his
life, was also another resource in his early days ;
he became tutor to several persons of note, one of
whom was Miss Isabella Milbanke, afterwards
Lady Byron. In 1803, when scarcely more than
seventeen years of age, he married the elder sister
of John "Varley, the famous water-colour painter,
whose pupil he is generally supposed to have been ;
and before he was nineteen he became a father.
The lady, who was a year older than her husband,
was also an artist, and exhibited several paintings
at the Royal Academy Exhibitions. The union,
however, was a very unhappy one, and occasioned
much of the trouble of the artist's life, for after
they had been married barely six years they separ-
ated, and never afterwards resided together. In
1804, when only eighteen, Mulready exhibited
three pictures at the Royal Academy, two views
of Kirkstall, and a cottage at Knaresborough in
Yorkshire. In 1807 the artist's first figure picture,
' Old Kaspar,' appeared at the Academy, and was
succeeded in the following year by ' The Rattle : '
from the extreme finish of these works, it is evi-
dent that Mulready carefully studied the Dutch
School, and to a great extent imitated it. In 1809,
stimulated no doubt by the success which "Wilkie
had achieved by the production of his 'Blind
Fiddler' and 'Rent-Day,' Mulready executed his
first large work, ' The Carpenter's Shop,' which he
sent to the British Institution to compete for the
prizes offered by that Society, and two years later
painted another picture, ' The Barber's Shop,' in
the same style. In 1815 he was elected an Asso-
ciate of the Royal Academy ; and in the beginning
of the next year, before the Academy Exhibition
was opened, he obtained the full honours of a
member. Thus his name never appeared in the
Catalogue under the lesser title; such a rapid
rise had never before, nor has since, occurred
in the Academy. 'The Fight Interrupted' was
exhibited this year, and fully justified the Aca-
demy's choice. This work, considered to be the
most perfect picture in his first manner, is now
in the Sheepshanks Collection, at the South Ken-
sington Museum. Prom this time Mulready no
longer imitated the Dutch School, or endeavoured
to rival "Wilkie in his style, but grad^ially changed
to a manner peculiar to himself. He produced
between the years 1820 and 1836, some of his
most humorous pictures, chiefly of boy life and
village incidents. It was not, however, until after
1838, when Mulready Was more than fifty years
of age, that he produced those works of fine
colour, and consummate refinement and variety of
execution in which his art culminated : ' The
Sonnet,' ' Train up a Child,' ' The "Whistonian Con-
troversy.' Mulready was ever a faithful member
of the Academy, ever pteferriilg his professioffal
duties to his private and personal interests ; from
the time he first became a student until withili two
days of his death he was a constant attendant at
the Life School, not only as a willing " visitor,"
giving advice to the young students, but also
as a diligent worker, producing there many of
those excellent life-studies for which he was dis-
tinguished. He was one of the founders and most
active members of the Society for the Management
and Distribution of the Artists' Fund, of which he



Multz



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Illunoz



held the office of President as early as 1815 ; and
it may be mentioned to his honour that he sur-
rendered the right to engrave and sell prints of
'The Wolf and the Lamb ' to the fund: this act
of charity realized the sum of one thousand pounds.
During his last years Mulready lived a very se-
cluded life at his residence in Linden Grove,
Bays water. On the morning of the 7 th of July,
1863, he died of heart disease, and was buried
in Kensal Green Cemetery. In the following
year there was a loan collection of his works
in the South Kensington Museum. His illustra-
tions to an edition of the 'Vicar of Wakefield,'
published in 1843, were very successful, and led
to his being employed to paint several of the
subjects — e. g. the ' Whistonian Controversy,'
' Choosing the Wedding Grown,' &c. The following
are his principal works :

Hampstead Heath. 1806. {In the South Kensington

Museum.)
Still life. 1809. {The same.)

Fair Time. Eoy. Acad. 1809. {In the National Gallery.)
The Roadside lun. 1811.
The Mall, Kensington Gravel Pits. 1812. {In the South

Kensington Museum.)
Near the Mall, Kensington Gravel Pits. 1813. {The

same.)
Punch. 1813.
Idle Boys. 1815.

A Snow Scene. {In the National Gallery.)
The Fight Intekeupted. Key. Acad. 1816. {In the

South Kensinyton Museum.)
The Gaeeless Messengee. 1821.
The Oonvalescbnt. 1822. {Jones Collection, S. Ken-
sington Museum.)
The Widow. 1824.
The Origin of a Painter. 1826.
The Cousin, 1827.
The Sailing Match. Roy. Acad. 1831. {In the South

Kensington Museum.)
Portrait of John Sheepshanks. 1832. {I%e same.)
The First Voyage. 1833.
The Last In. Roy. Acad. 1835. (in the NMional

Gallery.)
Giving a Bite. Eoy. Acad. 1836. {In the South Ken-
sington Museum.)
The Tot Seller. Eoy. Acad. 1837. {The same.)
Brother and Sister. Eoy. Acad. 1837. (The same.)
The Seven Ages. Eoy. Acad. 1838. [The same.)
The Sonnet (a masterpiece). Eoy. Acad. 1839. {The

same.)
Open toue Modth and Shot tode Eyes. Eoy. Acad.

1839. [Tlie same.)
First.Love. Eoy. Acad. 1840. {The same.)
CeossingtheFobd. Roy. Acad. 1842. {In the National

Gallery.)
Blackheath Park. Eoy. Acad. 1852. {The same.)
The Intercepted BiUet. Eoy. Acad. 1844. {The same.)
The "Whistonian Conteoveest. Eoy. Acad. 1844.
Choosing the "Wedding Gown (a masterpiece). Eoy.

Acad. 1846. {In the South Kensington MuDeum.)
Burehell and Sophia. Eoy. Acad. 1847.
The "Wolf and the Lamb. 1847. {In the Queen's

Collection.)
The Butt (shooting a cherry). Eoy. Acad. 1848. {In

the South Kensington Museum,.)
An Interior with portrait of Mr. Sheepshanks (sketch).

(The same.)
The Young Brother. Eoy. Acad. 1857. {The same.)
Bathers ; an unfinished Cartoon. {Nat. Gfd. of Scotland.)

JMULTZ, Andreas Paul, painter and engraver,
a native of Oberschonfeld, was at Nuremberg from
about 1650 to 1680. We have by him a considerable
number of early portraits in mezzotint; among them:

Eudolphus Buchner.

J. G. Beil.

Stephan Behaim.

Friedrich Behaim.
He generally signed with the full initials A. P.M.



MULVANY, George, son of the above, was born
in Dublin in 1809, and studied in the Academy
there. In 1832 he became an Associate, and suc-
ceeded his father as keeper ; was afterwards director
of the National Gallery in Dublin. He exhibited
at the Royal Academy at London in 1836 and 1839.
He died in Dublin, 6th February, 1869. Among
his works are :

The White Man cast on the Eed Man's shore.
The Peasant's Grave, &c.

MULVANY, Thomas James, an Irish landscape
painter. He contributed to the Dublin Exhibition
in 1809, and was one of the members of the Royal
Hibernian Academy, when it was incorporated in
1823, and keeper in 1841. He died about 1845-6.
The 'Life of James Gandon,' the architect, was
edited by him.

MUNARI, Pbllegrino. See Arbtusi.

MUNCH, Jacob, an obscure German painter,
who flourished between 1776 and 1839.

MUND, Elisb, (or Elizabetha). SeeCoENTGEN.

MUNIER, Jean, a, French engraver on wood,
resided at 'Toulouse about the year 1553. He ex-
ecuted several woodcuts in conjunction with Jean
Perrin. Among others, we have by these artists
the prints for a small octavo volume of emblems,
entitled ' La Morosophie de Guillaume de la Perriere
Tolsain, contenant cent Emblemes,' published at
Lyons in 1553.

MUNN, James, probably a relative of Paul Sandby
Munn, exhibited water-colour landscapes with the
Incorporated and the Free Societies, between 1767
and 1773.

MUNN, Paul Sandby, an English water-colour
landscape painter, born in 1773. He exhibited at
the Royal Academy from 1798 to 1805, and from
1805 to 1815 at the Water-colour Society, of which
he was an Associate. He died at Margate in 1845.
Three of his water-colour drawings are at South
Kensington.

MUNNICKHUIJSEN, Jan, a Flemish engraver,
flourished about the year 1680. We have several
plates by him, executed with the burin ; among
them, the following portraits :

Hendrik Dirksen Spiegel, Bureomaster ; after Limlurg.

Frans Burmann, Professor of Theology ; after 0. Maas.

Hendrik van der Graft.

Cornelis van Tromp, Admiral of Holland ; after D. van
der Flaas.

Pieter van Staveren, of Amsterdam ; after W. Mi'eris.

Pieter Zureudonk, Eector of the Latin School at Am-
sterdam.

He also engraved an upright plate of two boys,
emblematical of Autumn and Winter, after Gerard
de Lairesse.

MUNNIKS, Hendrik, a Dutch painter of por-
traits and history, who flourished at Utrecht in
1627. In that year he was regent of the hospital
of St. Job, Utrecht, and united with some of his
fellow-artists to found a new Academy of St. Luke.
He was still working there in 1640. In 1644 a
certain Hendrik Munnekens was inscribed in the
Society of Painters, at the Hague, who may have
been identical with Munniks. He is described
as having painted, in 1643, a ' Venus ' which the
Prince of Orange bought for 120 florins. About
1620 he had presented a picture to the Hospital of
St. Job.

MUNOZ, EvAKiSTO, born at Valencia, 1671,
studied painting under Juan Conchilles Falco.
Without much artistic merit, his productions

187



Sdunoz



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



Mures



pleased the public taste, his popularity being en-
hanced by his social talents. While at Majorca he
married the widow of an Algerian captive who
subsequently proved to be still alive. A second
marriage was nullified under nearly the same cir-
cumstances. Enlisting in a cavalry regiment, he
still exercised his pencil. Quitting the ranks on a
third marriage, he settled at Valencia, establishing
a school of painting there which produced some
good artists. He died in 1737. His principal
works were in the Dominican and Augustine con-
vents, and an altar-piece of SS. Raphael and
Mathias in the cathedral. For the Franciscans at
Palmajie painted their communion chapel.

MUNOZ, Jeb(3himo, a Spanish portrait painter,
who flourished about 1630. He was a knight of
Sant lago.

MUSOZ, N., a Spanish painter, who was at work
at Lorca and at Carthagena about 1696.

MUSfOZ, Sebastian, was born at Navalcarnero
in 1654, and was a disciple of Claudio Coello. In
1680 he visited Italy, and studied six years in the
school of Carlo Maratti. On hia return to Spain,
he first settled at Saragossa, in 1684, where in
conjunction with Coello he executed some con-
siderable frescoes in the collegiate church De la
Manteria. He went to Madrid before 1686, and
in 1688 was made painter to the king. He was
employed in the royal palaces, where he painted a
series of frescoes of the history of Cupid and
Psyche, and of Angelica and Medora, as well as
the portraits of Queen Maria Luisa and other im-
portant personages. He painted in a flimsy style.
He died at Madrid, in consequence of a fall from
a scafEoId, in 1690. Other works by him are :

Madrid. Gallery. His own portrait.

„ Infant D. Seb. \ A martyrdom of St. Sebastian
Gabriel's, j (painted for the Sacristy del
Carmen descalzo).
„ S. Salvador. A series of eight scenes from the

life of St. Bloy.

MUNTINCK, Gerard, a Dutch engraver, was
born at Groningen, and flourished about the year
' 1640. He engraved several portraits.

MUNTZ, J. II., a landscape painter much em-
ployed by Horace Walpole. He published a book
on painting in encaustic in 1760, and exhibited a
landscape in encaustic at Spring Gardens in 1762.
He exhibited for the last time in 1763. He is said
to have married a servant of Lord Orf ord's, and to
have lost his patronage somewhat suddenly.

MUOLTSCHER, Hans, was an early painter of
Ulm in Swabia, of whom there are no particulars
recorded. Ottley mentions an altar-piece by him,
with the date 1436, which was in the Truchsessian
Gallery of Pictures. Lord Lindsay conceives that
he was the parent of the succession of painters at
Ulm.

MURA, Francesco de, called Franceschiello,
was born at Naples about 1700. He studied under
Domenico Piola. At ten years of age he copied in
a manner that surprised Solimena a picture by that
master, whose best pupil he afterwards became.
His works are very numerous at Naples, but his
chief work was the decoration of the palace at
Turin with frescoes representing scenes from the
life of Achilles and from the Olympic games. He
also painted portraits of several members of the
Savoy family.

MURA. See La Muea.

MURAND, Emanuel, (or Meurant,) was born
at Amsterdam in 1622, and was the scholar of

188



Philips Wouwerman, though he did not adopt the
same subjects as those painted by his master.
Instead of horse-fairs and hunts, he painted views
of towns and of ruined buildings in Holland. He
visited France, and resided some time in Paris,
where his works were greatly admired for the
delicacy of their handling. On his return to
Holland, he settled at Leeuwarden, in Friesland,
where he died in 1700. His pictures are not
frequently to be met with, and are very highly
finished. There remain of them :
Amsterdam. Museum. An old Fann-house.
Copenhagen. Museum. Two similar subjects.

MURANO, Antonio da. See Vivaeini.

MURANO, Bartolommeo da. See Vivarini.

MURANO, Giov. da. See Alemanno.

MURANO, Natalino ua, according to Ridolfi,
was a disciple of Titian, and flourished about the
year 1658. He painted historical subjects of an
easel size, but was more celebrated as a portrait
painter. He died young. Lanzi saw at Udine
' A Magdalen,' signed and dated 1568, by this
master.

MURANO, QniRico da, was a painter of the 16th
century, and probably a pupil of Giovanni da
Murano (Alemanno). Lanzi says that a picture of
the Virgin seated, at whose feet was a veiled female
figure, was signed "Quiricius de Murano," and in
the possession of Sig. Sasso. It was not dated.
He is the author of an altar-piece with St. Lucy
and incidents from her life, once in the possession
of Cardinal Silvestri at Rovigo. The Academy
of Venice possesses a Virgin adoring the Child,
attributed to him, and several churches in the same
city have altar-pieces by him. No dates can be
given of his birth or death.

MURATORI, Domenico Maria, was born at
Vendrana in the Bolognese state about 1661, and
was a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli. He resided
chiefly at Rome, where he was much employed
for the churches and public edifices ; he is one
of those artists who long continued faithful fol-
lowers of the style of the Carracci. In the church
of the SS. Apostoli, the principal altar-piece is by
him, representing the Martyrdom of St. Philip and
St. James. His talents were sufBcient to procure
him a commission to paint one of the prophets
in the Basilica of San Giovanni Laterano. At Pisa,
in the cathedral, there is a fine picture by him
representing St. Ranieri working a Miracle. He
died in 1749. J. J. Frezza, J. Rossi, and others
have engraved after him. He has left two or
three etchings, — ' S. Francesco de Paula,' ' Poesy,'
after Pasinelli, and a ' Holy Family,' after Catarini
(1685).

MURATORI, Teresa, (or Scannabecchi,) was
born at Bologna in 1662. She was the daughter
of a physician, and at a very early age discovered
a genius for drawing and music. She was first
instructed in design by Emilio TarufB, was after-'
wards a scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli, and lastly
studied under Giovanni GiosefEo dal Sole. She
executed several works for the churches it Bologna,
of which the most deserving of notice are, ' St.
Benedetto resuscitating a dead Child,' in the church
of San Stef ano ; the ' Annunciation,' in SS. Trinita ;
and the ' Incredulity of St. Thomas,' in La Madonna
di Galeria. She died in 1708.

MURER, Chr. See Maueee.

MURES, Alonso, was bom at Badajoz before
the year 1700, and practised his art in that city
till his death in or about 1761, chiefly under the



Murillo



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Murillo



patronage of Bishop Malaquilla. Nothing is
known of his early life ; he left several sons,
likewise painters. Cean Bermudez praises his
works in the Franciscan, Augustine, and Carmelite
convents, especially a picture of St. Francis de
Paula in the church of the Observant fathers.

MURILLO, BARTOLOMifi BsTi^BAN, was born at
Seville, probably in the last days of December

1617, as he was baptized on the 1st of January,

1618. His father was Gaspar Eet^ban Murillo, a
mechanic, and his mother Maria Perez. He lost
both his parents before he was ten years old, and
was left to the care of an uncle by marriage. Soon
afterwards he was apprenticed to his relation, Juan
del Castillo, who taught him the elementary details
of an artist's education, and gave him instruction
in drawing. In 1640 del Castillo left Seville, and
Murillo, who was then two-and-twenty, had to
struggle for existence. The first subjects he
painted were country people and beggar boys, in
which he displayed an accurate attention to nature,
and a charming simplicity of character peculiar
to himself. His pictures of this description are
vigorously coloured, though without the softness
which afterwards distinguished his works. At
this time it was customary for young artists to
expose their pictures for sale at the Feria, or
weekly market, and many of his earliest were



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