Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1782 to
1814. He joined the Old Water-colour Society
on its foundation in 1804, but was expelled in
1807 for exhibiting another man's diawings as his
own, in order to increase his share in the profits of
the exhibition. Among the illustrated works which
he published are :

Scotia Depicta. 1804.

Hibemia Depicta. 1802.

Select views of Bath, Bristol, Malvern, &c. 1805.

Bath illustrated. 1806.

NATTIER, Jean Baptiste, elder son of Jean
Marc Nattier, the elder. He was a painter of
history of small merit. Received into the Academy
in 1712, he became involved in a disgraceful scan-
dal, was committed to the Bastille, and there put an
end to his own life in 1726.

NATTIER, Jean Maec, commonly called Maec
Nattiee, was bom in Paris in 1642. He painted
some excellent portraits, and was the father and
first master of Jean Marc Nattier, the younger.

NATTIER, Jean Maec, son of the last-named
and of Marie Courtois, a distinguished miniaturist,
was born in Paris in 1685. He was instructed by
his father, and afterwards studied at the Academy,
and in the Gallery of the Luxembourg. He dis-
tinguished himself as a portrait painter, in which
capacity he was much employed. The drawings for
the engravings from the pictures painted by Rubens
for Marie de' Medici were by Nattier. About 1716
he accompanied M. Le Port, the minister of Peter
the Great, to Amsterdam, where the Czar then was.
There he painted the Czar, several members of
the Russian court, and a picture of the ' Battle of
Pultawa.' He afterwards began, at the Hague, a
portrait of the 'Empress Catherine,' which was
never finished. In 1718, Nattier was received into
the Paris Academy on {he strength of a ' Perseus
bringing the Medusa's head to the marriage feast
of Phineus.' In 1720, having lost his accumu-
lations through the schemes of Law, he resolved
to confine himself to portraiture, which he prac-
tised with success for the rest of his life. He died
in Paris in 1766. His life, by Madame Torgal, his
daughter, has been published. Among his pictures
we may also name :

Dresden. Galle/ry. Portrait of Marshal Saxe.

Nantes. Gallery. Portrait of the famous dan-

seuse, M. A. Cuppi, called La
„ „ A Lady of Louis XV.'s Court

Paris. Louvre. The Magdalen.

NAUDET, Thomas Charles, a French landscape
draughtsman, and pupil of Hubert Robert. He
flourished between 1774 and 1810.

NAUDI, Angblo, an obscure Italian of the 16th
century, who imitated the style of Paolo Veronese,
and was employed at the court of Philip IV.

NAUMANN, Feiedeich, was bom at Blasewitz,
near Dresden, in 1750, and studied five years
under Casanova at the Academy there. He then
went to Venice, and stayed seven years at Rome,
where he was a disciple of Mengs. He studied
principally the works of Raphael, Guido Reni,
and Titian. The Margrave of Anspach appointed
him his court-painter ; and he was also a member
of the Academy at Berlin. There is by him,
besides 'The Hermit,' and ' The portrait of Mengs '
(engraved byCunego), an altar-piece in the Krerz-
kirche at Dresden. F. Naumann was alive in 1815.

NAUBORGO, Michael, a Bolognese painter,
who, it is believed, was a pupil of Guido Reni.

NAUINX, or Navinx, a landscape painter, who
lived at Hamburg in the 17th century, and who is
often confounded with Naeuwincx or Nauwincl;.
He painted Alpine scenery in his larger works.
In the smaller, more tranquil scenes somewhat in
the style of Waterloo, but his colouring runs into a
bluish green, or into grey. J. M. Weyer painted
figures for him in good keeping with his landscapes.
He died in Hamburg, but the date is uncertain.

NAVA, Ldis he, a Spanish knight of Santiago,
who practised art as an amateur about 1753, and
was a member of the Seville Academy.

NAVARO, Juan, a Spanish engraver, is stated
by Strutt to have resided at Seville about the
year 1698. He engraved several frontispieces for

NAVARRETE. See Fbenandez Navaeeete.

NAVARRO, Feancisco, a Spanish engraver, who
executed the title-page and a large plate of arms,
for a descriptive account of an auto-da-fe held at
Madrid in 1632, and the title-page of a book
called 'The Church Militant,' pubHshed by Fray
Fernando Carmayo y Salgado in 1642. In the
same year he engraved an architectural title-page
with the effigies of Horace, Persius, and Juvenal
arranged like saints in a retablo, for Don Diego
Lopez's ' Dissertation ' on the two latter satirists.

NAVARRO, JnAN Jose, a Spanish admiral who
practised painting and designing, was born in 1687.
He executed some very clever pen-and-ink draw-
ings in the style of Callot.

NAVARRO, Joan Simon, an historical and
flower painter, lived at Madrid about the middle
of the 17th century. A somewhat mediocre
historical picture by him bears the date 1654,
and represents the Virgin, of the size of life,
employed in the workshop of Joseph, who is
sawing a board, while the Infant Jesus is forming
a cross in the midst of a group of angels. As
a painter of flowers he holds a more respectable
rank. In the convent of the Shod Carmelites
at Madrid, are a ' Nativity ' and an ' Epiphany '
by him, which were formerly in the convent
of the same order at Valdemoro.

NAVEZ, FEANgois Joseph, a Belgian historical,
genre, and portrait painter, born at Charleroi in
1787. He first studied under Joseph Francois,
and obtained several prizes at the Brussels and
Ghent Academies. He was thus enabled to com-
plete his studies in Paris under David, with whom,
when exiled from France, he returned to Belgium.
From 1817 to 1822 Navez was at Rome, and snbse-




quently settled at Brussels. There his fame was
already well established, and he was much em-
ployed. During many years he held a foremost
position among Belgian artists, and was Director
of the Brussels Academy. Many pupils passed
through his studio, and honours were freely be-
stowed on him. He died at Brussels in 1869.
Among his works are :

Amsterdam. Jesuits' Ch. Incredulity of St. Thomas.
„ The Holy Family.

^, „ The Marriage of the Virgin.

Brussels. Museum. Hagar and Ishmael In the

„ Athaliah and Joash.

' „ The Judgment of Solomon.

" „ The Kich Man before Christ.

" St. Gudule. The Assumption of the Virgin.

^, „ The Raising of J^azarus.

Haarlem. Pavilion. Eaising the Shunamite's Son.

„ The Meeting of Isaac and Re-

Munich. JVewFinakothek. ' Spinsters ' of Fondi.

NAVOIS, J. S., who lived in the second half of
the 17th century, was a painter of landscapes and
marines in the manner of Bakhuisen. His paint-
ings have often been confounded with the works
of that master.

NAYS, — , was a Flemish landscape painter who
lived towards the end of the 17th century. In
some of his pictures, which are very numerous in
Belgium but of small merit, the figures are painted
by Nicolay.

NAZZARI, Baetolommeo, (or Nazari,) was born
at or near Bergamo in 1699, and was first a scholar
of Vittore Ghislandi and Angelo Trevisano at
Venice. Afterwards he studied at Rome under
Francesco Trevisani, and then settled at Venice.
He was a painter of history and portraits, but
particularly excelled in the latter, in which he
was much employed at the difi'erent courts in
Germany. One of the most esteemed of his his-
torical pictures is a ' Holy Family, with St. Anne,'
at Pontremoli. He died at Venice or Milan in
1758. He etched the portrait of F. M. Molza, at
Modena. Bartolozzi and A. Faldoni have engraved
after him.

NEAGLE, John, an English line engraver, born
in London about 1760. Amongst his plates are :

The Eoyal Procession to St. Paul's. 1789. '

Several plates for the Shakespeare Gallery; after

Wheatley and Smirke.
The illustrations to Murphy's ' Arabic Antiquities of

Spain.' 1816.

NBAL, Elizabeth, a still-life painter of the 18th
century. It is said that she lived in Holland, and
painted fllowers which rivalled those by Seghers.
None of her works, however, can be identified.

NEALE, John Preston, a very eminent English
architectural designer and engraver, was born in
1771. His father is believed to have been a painter
of insects. He himself began his career as a clerk
in the Post OfBce, but he soon left clerical work
for topographical draughtsmanship. He painted a
few works in oil, but his favourite method was to
draw with the pen and finish with washes of water-
colour. In 1818 he published the first portion of
the ' History and Antiquities of the Abbey church
at Westminster,' and in 1823 the second part, form-
ing together two volumes royal quarto, containing
sixty-one beautiful engravings. The literary part,
consisting of notices and Biographical Memoirs of
the Abbots and Deans of that foundation, was
written by E. W. Brayley. Together with the


second portion of this work, he published six
volumes, royal quarto, of ' The Seats of Noblemen
and Gentlemen of England, Wales, Scotland, and
Ireland ; ' and in 1829 a second series in five vols.,
containing, in the whole, seven hundred and thirty-
seven plates. The labour of producing two such
important works in the period would have been
sufficient employment for the most industrious de-
signer ; but Neale was indefatigable. During the
years 1824 and 1825 he published, in conjunction
with Le Keux, ' Views of the most interesting Col-
legiate and Parochial Churches of Great Britain,
including Screens, Fonts, Monuments. &c., with
historical and architectural descriptions, containing
ninety-eight plates, in which the talents of both
artists appear to the greatest advantage. He was a
frequent exhibitor between 1797 and 1844. In the
earlier part of his artistic career he painted many
architectural subjects in oil, with views of their
several localities, in which he exhibited the feeling
and power of a true landscape painter. A larger
number of his works were, however, in water-
colours, and in 1817 and 1818 he exhibited at the
Water-colour Society. But the success that at-
tended his publications induced him to abandon, the
palette altogether, and devote his energies and
skill to a class of work in which he particularly
delighted, and in which, for a long time, he stood
unrivalled. Many detached pieces were designed
and executed by him for the embellishment of
other publications. He died near Ipswich in 1847.
NEALE, Thomas, was an English engraver, who
flourished about the year 1650. He is supposed
to have been a disciple of Hollar. He engraved
after him twenty-four subjects from Holbein's
' Dance of Death,' the first of which is marked,
Paris, 1657. He signed his prints with his name
in full, or with the letters T. N. He etched
several plates of birds after Barlow ; these were
executed at Paris in 1659. It is very probable, too,
that he engraved some of the plates for the eighth
edition of Ogilby's ' ^Esop.'

NEALKES, one of the later painters of ancient
Greece, lived probably at Sicyon about 262 B.C.
He is regarded as the principal representative of
the later Sicyonian school. He is said to have
possessed a lively genius, and an accurate judg-
ment. Being engaged to paint a picture of a
combat between the Persians and Egyptians on
the Nile, and being apprehensive that the river
might be mistaken for the sea, he introduced a
mule drinking on the border of the Nile, and a
crocodile ready to attack it, thus rendering the
scene of the action quite unmistakable I

NEAPOLI, Feancisco, a Spanish historical
painter, was born at Madrid in the 15th century,
and is supposed, from the style of his works, to
have been a scholar of Leonardo de Vinci. In
conjunction with Pablo de Aregio, it is said that
he painted the doors that enclose the great altar of
the cathedral of Valencia. They represent scenes
from the life of the Virgin Mary. This work was
finished in 1506, and for it the artists received
3000 ducats. Neapoli was the founder of the
Valenoian school.

NEBBIA, Cesare, was born at Orvieto about
the year 1536, and was the ablest scholar of Giro-
lamo Muziano, whose style he adopted, and whom
he assisted in the works he executed for Gregory
XIII., in the Vatican and the Capella Gregoriana.
He was himself employed by Gregory's successor,
Sixtiis v., in superintending the works undertaken




by order of that pontiff in the palaces of St. John
Lateran and Monte Cavallo, in the library of the
Vatican, and at the Soala Santa, in which he was
assisted by Giovanni Guerra da Modena. He
painted several pictures for the churches in Rome,
of which the most important are the ' Resurrection,'
in San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli ; some subjects
from the life of the Virgin, painted in fresco, in
the Capella Borghese, in Santa Maria Maggiore ;
and the ' Crowning of the Virgin,' in Santa Maria
de' Monti. He died at Rome about the year 1614.

NEBEA, Galeotto, the author of two altar-pieces
in the church of S. Brigida, at Genoa. He was a
native of Castellaccio, near Alessandria, and the
two pictures in question are dated respectively
1481 and 1484.

NEBOT, B., painted the portrait of Captain
Thomas Coram, the founder of the Foundling Hos-
pital, which was in the possession of D. Nesbit,
and engraved by Brooke in 1751.

NECK, Jan van, was born at Naarden in 1636.
He was the son of a physician, who destined him
for his own profession, but yielded to the marked
disposition his son evinced for art, and placed
him under the tuition of Jacob de Backer, whose
style he followed with great success. Houbraken
speaks of his talents as an historical painter in the
most flattering terms, and particularly commends
a picture by him representing the ' Presentation in
the Temple,' in the French church at Amsterdam.
He was still more successful in painting fabulous
subjects, and was also an eminent portrait painter.
He resided chiefly at Amsterdam, where he died in
1714. The following works by_him have been
engraved :

Alpheus and Arethusa \ h/ A. Blocteling.
The Bath of Diana ; hy the same.

The portrait of the theologian, Groeuweyen ; hy C.

NECKER. See Db Neckek.

NEDEK, PiETEB, born at Amsterdam in 1616,
was a scholar of P. Lastman, and a painter of his-
tory^^^portraits, and landscapes. He died in .1678.

NEE, Denis, a French engraver, was bom in
Paris about the year 1732, and died in 1818. He
was a pupil of J. P. le Bas, has engraved several
plates in the style of that artist, and first brought
himself into notice by a new edition of the ' Recueil
des Peintures antiques ' of Caylus and Mariette.
Among others, he executed several vignettes for
Ovid's Metamorphoses, published in Paris, and en-
graved several landscapes after A. Van de Velde
and other Dutch masters. In conjunction with
Masquelier he engraved ' Les Tableaux pittoresques
de la Suisse ' and ' Le Voyage pittoresque de la
France.' He left some fifty-two plates, including
the following :

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; 'after Gravelot.
Three Views in Martinique; after the Chevalier

d' Epemay. .
Benjamin franklin ; after Charmontel.
A View of the City of Lyons ; after Lallemand.
The Environs of Frascati ; after the same.
A View of Tivoli ; after the same.

NEEFPS, (misspelt Neefs, Neef, and Nefs,)
Jacobus. This Flemish engraver, a member of a
large family of artists, was born early in the 17th
century. He was probably the grandson of the
elder Pieter Neefis, the painter, and distinguished
himself by the plates he engraved after Rubens,
Van Dyck, and the other celebrated painters of
the Flemish school. His works, which are dated

from 1632 to 1646, are principally executed with
the burin. The year of his death is not known.
The following are some of his best plates :


Gaspar Nennius, Bishop of Antwerp; after Gerard

Gio. Tollenario, Jesuit ; after P. Fruytiers.
Frans Snyders, Painter ; after Van Byck.
Anthonis de Tassis, Canon of Antwerp; after the

The Marchioness of Barlemont, Countess d'Egraont;

after the same.
Josse de Hertoghe ; after the same.
Martin Eyckaert, Painter ; after the same.


The Fall of the Angels ; after Bubens.

The Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek ; after the

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and St. John ; after

the same.
St. Augustine ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Thomas ; after the same.
The Judgment of Paris, and the Triumph of Galatea,

called the Ewer of Charles I. ; after the same ; scarce.
Christ and the Six Penitents ; after Gerard Segers.
Job and his "Wife ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of St. Lievin ; after the same.
Christ appearing to Magdalene ; after the same.
Christ brought before Pilate ; after J. Jordaens.
The Satyr, with the Peasant blowing Hot and Cold ;

after the saTtie.
St. Eoch interceduig for the Persons attacked by the

Plague ; after Erasmus Quellinus.

NEEPFS, Pieter, the elder, was born at Ant-
werp in 1677 or 1578. He was the scholar of
Hendrik van Steenwyck the elder. He painted
the interiors of- the churches in Antwerp and its
neighbourhood, often introducing candle-light
effects. His mechanical skill was great, but his
hand was heavier than that of Steenwyck, and his
colour less pleasing. The figures in his pictures
were painted by P. Francken, Van Thulden,
Teniers, and Velvet Breughel. Neeffs died between
1657 and 1661. Many of his best pictures are in
England, but the museums of Paris, Amsterdam,
Rotterdam, Brunswick, Cassel, Munich, Geneva,
Vienna, and St. Petersburg are also rich in his

NEEPFS, Pieter, the younger, the son and
scholar of Pieter Neeffs the elder, was born at
Antwerp in 1601, and died after 1675. He painted
similar subjects to those of his father, but they- are
greatly inferior, both in the neatness of the finish-
ing and the correctness of the perspective. Several
of his paintings are in the possession of the Mar-
quis of Hertford, and others at the Hague, in the
Vienna Academy, and the Liechtenstein Gallery.

NEEL, ScHEELEN. See Molenaer, Corn.

NEELE, Samuel John, an English engraver,
who was born in 1758, and died in 1824. His em-
ployment was principally illustrating antiquarian
works and engraving maps ; but he contrived to
do well for himself in a pecuniary sense.

NEER. See Van dee Nebr.

NEES. See Nes.

NEESSA, Alonzo de, a Spanish painter born in
the neighbourhood of Madrid in 1628. There are
pictures by him in the Monastery of the Observ-
ants in that city. He died in 1668.

NEFP, TiMOTHEUS Carl von, a Russian painter,
born in 1805 at Korkulla, in Esthonia. He studied
at Dresden under Hartmann, and at Rome. In
1826 he returned to Russia and settled at St. Peters-
burg. He became court painter in 1832, and in





1839 a member of the Academy, in which he was
appointed professor in 1865. From 1842 he was
much employed on the decorations of St. Isaac's
Cathedral, and his picture of the patron saint there
is one of his best works. Many members of the
Imperial family sat to him for their portraits. He
died at St. Petersburg in 1877. Some of his works
recall those o£ Leopold Robert. At the Hermitage
there are the following by him :

La Baigneuse. 1858.
Two Girls in a Grotto.


NEGKER (Necker). See De Necker. _

NEGRE, Matthieu van, was an historical and
architectural painter, who lived about 1620 or
1630. In the cathedral of Toumay there is a ' Holy
Family' by him, with a glory of angels, dated
1623. Descanips mentions him, but there are no
particulars of his life.

NEGRE, Nicholas van, an excellent Flemish
portrait painter ; perhaps the son of Matthieu. He
flourished about 1645. Snyderhoef engraved his
portrait of Salmasius in 1641 ; C. van Dalen that of
Spanheim in 1644 ; and there are other plates after
his work.

NEGRI, GiANFRANCEsco, also called Francesco
db' Ritratti, from the excellence of his portraits,
was born at Bologna in 1593. He was instructed
by Odoardo Fialetti at Venice, and was the founder
of an academy of arts, called Degl' Indomiti, in his
own house. He was also a poet, translated parts
of Tasso's works into the Bolognese dialect, and
wroie other books. His elde t son Pietro Negri
painted in the style of his instructor Zanchi. There
is by him in the Gallery at Dresden, ' The Death
of the Empress Agrippina in the presence of
Nero.' He died at Bologna in 1659. His son
Bianco, who was a Canon of St. Petronio, and an
author, also painted.

NEGRI, Pier Martire, was a native of Cremona,
and flourished about the year 1600. According to
Zaist, he was a disciple of Giovanni Battista Trotti,
and distinguished himself as a painter of history
and portraits. He afterwards studied at Rome,
and was received into the Academy of St. Luke.
Pictures by him exist at Cremona and Pavia.

NEGEON, LuoiAN Carlos db, a Spanish genre
painter, who flourished about 1660. He was one
of the founders of the Seville Academy.

NEGRONE, (or NIGRONE,) Pibtro, a native of
Calabria, was bom about the year 1600. Accord-
ing to Dominici, he was a disciple of Giovanni
Antonio d'Amato, and also studied under Marco
Calabrese. At Naples, in the church of Santa
Maria Donna Eomata, are two pictures by him,
representing the 'Adoration of the Magi,' and the
' Scourging of Christ,' painted in the year 1641 ;
also in the church of Santa Agnello a picture re-
presenting the Virgin Mary and Infant Christ in
the clouds, with a glory of angels, and below St.
Catharine, St. Jerome, and St. Onofrio. Negrone
died in 1565. He was sometimes called ' II giovane
Zingaro,' the young gipsy.

NEGRONI. See Neronl

NEGEOPONTE, Fea Antonio an early Venetian,
and contemporary with Jacobello del Fiore. In
the church of San Francesco della Vigna, Venice,
there is a colossal 'Virgin in adoration' by him
which is inscribed " Frater Antonius da Negropon
pinxit," so that Boschini and Sansovino are mis-
taken in calling him Fra Francesco. To Fra
Antonio Crowe and Cavalcaselle also ascribe tenta-


tively a ' Madonna ' at Legnano, in the oratory of
the Disciplina.

NEHER, Joseph, a decorative painter, born at
Buchan in Wurtemburg in 1788. He painted at
Stuttgart, and must not be confounded with an
artist of the same name, the father of Michael

NEHER, Michael, was born at Munich in 1798,
and the son of Joseph Neher, a citizen and painter
of that city, but of a family from Biberach.
Michael received a classical education, and was
instructed in the rudiments of painting by Mitterer,
and in 1813 entered the Academy at Munich.
From 1816 to 1818 he studied nnder Matthias
Klotz, and was then employed by Angelo Quaglio
in his theatrical work. After having worked for
some time as scene-painter at the Court Theatre,
he went to Trent, Milan, and Trieste, and painted
portraits. In 1819 he was encouraged by Hieronj -
mus Hess, at Rome, to devote himself to genre
painting. On his return to Munich in 1823 he
became Conservator of the Art Union. In 1839
he painted several saloons in the Hohenschwangen
Schloss, after sketches of Sohwind, Gasner, and
Schwanthaler. He, however, in 1837 devoted him-
self entirely to architectural painting, and travelled
for improvement on the Rhine, and in Belgium.
He was received an honorary member of the
Academy at Munich in 1876, and died there in the
same year. His best performances are the following
views :

The Cathedral of Magdeburg.

The Minster at Fribourg.

The Town-hall and St. Peter's Church at Lowen.

The Cathedrals at Frankfort, Prague, and Mecblin.

NEHRLICH. See Neely.

NEIDLINGER, (or Nbydlingek,) Michael, a
painter of Niirnberg, and a pupil of G. Strauoh,
and at Amsterdam of J. de Backer, He went into
Italy and lived long at Venice, where he painted
for the Monasterio di Santa Anna ' The Apparition
of Jan Lorenzo Giustiniani ; ' and there are other
pictures by him in that city. Neidlinger died at
Venice in 1700.

NEIJN. See Db Neyn.

NEIJTS, GiLLis. See Neyts.

NELLI, Niccol6, was a native of Venice, and
flourished about the middle or latter half of the
16th century. From the style of his engraving
he is supposed to have been a disciple of Marco
da Ravenna. He engraved an architectural fron-
tispiece, with figures, for a book of plans and
views of cities and fortresses, published in 1568
(it is inscribed Nicolo Nelli Venezianof-), also other
subjects and portraits.

NELLI, Ottaviano di Martino, (or De Martis,)
was the son of Martino Nelli of Gubbio, and
flourished at the commencement of the 15th cen-
tury. In the church of Santa Maria Nuova at
Gubbio is preserved under glass a fresco repre-

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 53 of 201)