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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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pictures are weak in drawing, but many of them
are very fine in colour.

NEWTON, James, an engraver, resided in Lon-
don about the year 1778. He was the son of an
engraver, Edwaed Newton, of whom nothing is
known. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :


Sidney Parkinson, Draughtsman on board of the En-
deavour, Capt. Cook.

■William Newton, Clerk of the "Works at Greenwich

Edward Sargeant, Secretary to the Protestant Associa-
tion in 1780.

Two Views in Italy ; after Marco Ricci.
A Landscape, with Cattle passing a River ; after Claude.
The Herdsman, a pastoral Landscape ; after Zuccarelli.

NEWTON, Mary (Mrs. Charles T.). She was
the daughter of Joseph Severn, the artist and
H.M. Consul at Rome, and studied figure painting
under Mr. G. Richmond, R.A. Her earlier works
are in crayons and water-colours, her later in oils.
Her contributions to the exhibitions of the Royal
Academy include pictures named ' Chess,' dated
1855; 'Summer' and 'Winter,' 1864; and the
portrait of herself in 1863. She married, in 1861,
Mr. 0. T. Newton, superintendent of Greek and
Roman Antiquities at the British Museum, and
turned her attention to painting from the sculp-
tures, vases, &c., in that institution. In that branch
of art she attained remarkable skill. Mrs. Newton
was born in 1832, and died in January, 1866.

NEWTON, Richard, a caricaturist, and painter
in miniature. His works generally represent con-
vivial scenes. ' The Blue Devils,' 1795, drawn and
etched by himself, is perhaps his best production.
He died in London when only 21, the 9th December,

NEWTON, Sir William John, Kt., was the son
of James Newton the engraver, and was horn in
London in 1785. He was a successful painter in
miniature, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in
1808, and subsequently. He was miniature painter
to Queen Adelaide, and was knighted in 1837. He
I died in London the 22nd January, 1869.




NEYN. See De Neyn.

NEYTS, iEGiDios or Gillis, a Flemish painter,
who flourished at Antwerp from about 1647, in
which year he, was named a master of the Painters'
Guild, to 1690. He was a disciple of Lucas van
Leyden, but next to nothing is known of his life.
In the Dresden Gallery there are two pictures
by him, a 'Mountain Landscape with Figures,'
signed ^. NeyUj. 1681 ; and a 'Mountain Land-
scape with Ruins,' signed G. Neyts f. He has left
the following etchings :

The ■Wooden Bridge.
Man and Dog.
View of Lille.
A Peasant's Cottage.

Besides the above signatures he also made use of
the annexed monogram : \j^

NICAISE, a French painter, who flourished at
Cambrai in 1448. He was commissioned by the
Duke of Burgundy to write the verses and paint
the scenery for an ' Histoire morale sur la Danse
Macabre,' which was performed in 1449 before the
Ducal court.

NICAISE, Jean, a French miniaturist, who
worked in 1376-6, for Jeanne, Duchesse de Brabant.

NICANOR, a painter of Paros, who flourished
411 B.C. He is mentioned by Pliny.

NIGC0L6 Di SEGNA, is thought to have been
the son of Segna di Buenaventura, and is the
author of a ' Crucifix,' signed and dated 1345, in
the Academy of Siena.

NIOCOLET. See Nicolet.

NICCOLINO (or Messee Niccol6). See Dell'

NICC0L6. See Semitecolo.



NICC0l6, Gelasio di, was an unimportant Fer-
rarese painter of the 13th century, who imitated
the style of Giotto.

NICC0L6 DA BOLOGNA. See Bologna.

NICC0L6 da VERONA. See Verona.

NICC0L6 da FOLIGNO. See Libbratore.

NICC0L6 DI PIETRO. See Gebini.

NICERON, Jean FRANgois, a French monk, who
painted the walls of his convent in fresco, in 1643.

NICHOLLS, Sutton, an English engraver, re-
sided in London early in the 18th century. He was
chiefly employed by the booksellers, for whom
he executed a considerable number of plates. His
best prints are slight etchings of shells, and other
trifling subjects ; when he made use of the burin,
his productions were ■< ery poor. In 1725 he pub-
lished 'Prospects of the most considerable Buildings
about London ; ' he also engraved the metropolitan
views for Stowe's ' Survey.'

NICHOLS, Joseph, an English painter, who is
remembered by two pictures painted in 1738, ' A
View of the Fountain in the Temple,' and ' The
Stocks' Market in the City.' The latter is an ex-
cellent work, and was for some time attributed to

NICHOLSON, Alfred, an English landscape
painter in water-colours, born at Whitby in 1788.
He was the son of Francis Nicholson, and passed
his early years in the navy. Devoting himself to
art, he went to Ireland in 1818, and spent some
years in sketching there. He settled in London
as a teacher of drawing about 1818. The greater
VOL. II. p

part of 1821 and 1822 were spent by him in
sketching tours, He died in London in 1833.

NICHOLSON, Francis, an English landscape
painter in water-colours, born at Pickering in
Yorkshire in 1753. His art instruction was con-
fined to a few lessons from an artist at Scarborough.
He settled at Whitby in 1783, where he married,
and practised painting animals, birds, &c., and
taught. In 1792 he went to Knaresborough, Ripon,
Weybridge, finally settling in London. He had
exhibited for the fiist time at the Royal Academy
in 1789, and in 1804 he became one of the original
members of the Water-colour Society, where he
exhibited till 1815. In his later yeajs he devoted
his time to lithography, made above 800 drawings
on stone, and did much to advance that art.
After he retired from the practice of his art, he
amused himself with experiments on colours, &c.
In 1820 he published 'The Practice of Drawing
and Painting Landscape from Nature.' He died
in London in 1844. There are several of his water-
colour drawings at the Kensington Museum.

NICHOLSON, Isaac, an English wood engraver,
born at Melmerby, Cumberland, in 1789. He was
one of Bewick's apprentices, and imbibed a large
share of his master's style. He died in 1848.
Specimens of his work will be found in :

Sharp's ' History of the Eebellion.'

Flower and Grover's ' Visitation of Durham.' 1820.

' Robinson Crusoe.'

Watts's ' Hymns,' &o., &c.

NICHOLSON, James, glass painter, was one of
the four who contracted to executeeighteen windows
for King's College Chapel, Cambridge, in the reign
of Henry VIII.

NICHOLSON, William, a. portrait painter and
etcher, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. He
first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1813.
About 1820 he removed to Edinburgh, where he
obtained a good practice, and had a great share in
the foundation of the Royal Scottish Academy, of
which he was an original member, and afterwards
secretary. His forte was in water-colour portraits,
and he also etched a series of portraits. He died at
Edinburgh in 1844. There is a portrait by him
of ' Grecian ' Williams in the Scottish National
Gallery. In 1816 he painted the portrait of W.
Bewick; which was exhibited at the Academy. A
series of his portraits was published with short
Biographical Notices.

NICIAS, an ancient Greek painter, mostly in
encaustic, was a native of Athens, and flourished
from 348 to 308 before Christ. He was instructed
by Antidotus, and his works were distinguished
for their excellent light and shade. Praxiteles,
whose statues he painted, declared that those
were the best upon which Nicias had rendered as-
sistance. He particularly insisted upon nobility in
the choice of subjects for pictures. He painted
women with great success, as well as dogs I One
of his admired works represented ' Ulysses invok-
ing the Shades of the Dead,' from the Odyssey.
For this picture, Attains, King of Pergamus, offered
him sixty talents, but such was the patriotism of
the painter, that he refused the ofier, and presented
the picture to his country. The liberality of his
fellow-citizens had, however, enabled him thus to
indulge his patriotism, as he had become extremely
rich by the bountiful remuneration he received for
his works. In the time of Pliny, a picture of Bacchus,
by Nicias, was preserved in the 'Temple of Concord
at Borne.





NICKELS. See Nikkelen,
NICOLAI. See Swanenburg.
NICOLAI, a. D. C, resided at Vienna in 1720.
Conjointly with A. J. Prenner, lie executed part of
the plates from the pictures in the Grand Gallery at
Vienna, which were published in four sets in folio.
NICOLAS, Adrien, a painter of the French
school, who was by birth a Belgian. He was
born at Antwerp early in the 16th century,
but, migrating to France in his youth, was
naturalized by Francis I. He established himself
at Orleans, where he died at an advanced age.

NICOLAS, Louis, a French miniaturist of the
13th century. He was at work in Paris in 1293.

NICOLAS LE LoRRAiN, a painter on glass, who

wa's employed in the ducal palace at Nancy in 1515.

NICOLAS LB PicARD, a French painter and

native of Amiens, who was at work at Avignon,

in the church of St. Agricol, in the year 1509.

NICOLAUS, a native of Friuli, who was at
work at Gemona in 1332. He painted the f agade
of the cathedral, and a martyrdom which he
signed thus: — Mcccxxxii. Magister Nicolaus
PiNTOE MB FECIT. To him some writers have
ascribed a large picture of the ' Presentation in
the Temple,' in the cathedral of Vengone.

NICOLAY, Frbre, was a Jesuit, and pupil of
Rubens. He excelled in making copies of pictures
by Rubens and Van Dyck. He also painted small
figures in the landscapes of Nayo.

NICOLAY, Jan Hendrik, was bom at Leeu-
warden in 1766. He was the son of a, carriage
painter, and for a time followed the same trade.
He was also a great ornithologist, and delighted
in painting dead birds. He was a frequent ex-
hibitor at Amsterdam, and his works are much
esteemed in Holland. He died in 1826.

NICOLET, Benedict Alphonsiits, or Bernhard
Anton, (Nicollet, Nikolet, &c.,) was a Swiss en-
graver, born at St. Immier, in the bishopric of
Basle, in 1740. He went, when he was young,
to Paris, where his first performances, after study-
ing under Poilly and Cochin, were some plates,
engraved in conjunction with Longueil, after the
marines of Vernet. He also engraved four of the
plates which embellish the ' Voyage Pittoresque
du Royaume de Naples,' by the Abbe de St. Non.
He died in 1807. The following are esteemed his
best prints :

Noel Hall6, Painter to the King. 1775 ; after Cochin.
Thomas Le Sueur, Professor of Mathematics at Bome ;

after the same.
Francois de Paul Jacquier, Professor of Mathematics ;
after the same.

St. Apollonia ; after the picture by Giiido ; in the Or-
leans Collection.
Milo of Crotona ; after Giorgione ; the same.
Susannah and the Elders ; after ttesliais.
A View of Naples ; after Vernet.
A Shipwreck ; c^ter the same.

A View of the Interior of the Church of San Gennaro
at Naples, at the moment when the miracle of St.
JaiiTiarius occurs ; after Debrets ; etched by Mart'ni
and Germxdn, and finished with the graver hy Nicolet.

NICOLETTO. See Cassana.


of Lorenzo Costa, who is said to have made an
attack on his master with a knife, in revenge for
a supposed caricature in one of Costa's pictures.

NICOMACHUS, a painter of about 400 B.C.,

was a native of Thebes, and the brother of Arist-
eides. He was instructed by his father Aristiaaus.
Of all the painters of antiquity, he was the most
remarkable for the extraordinary facility of his
pencil, a promptness which did not, however,
diminish the beauty of his productions ; and Plutarch
compares the readiness with which he worked to
that of Homer in the composition of his verses.
Aristratus, the tyrant of Sicyon, having engaged
hira to decorate with his paintings a monument he
intended to consecrate to the memory of the poet
Telestus, a particular day was fixed when it was
expected to be finished. The period had nearly
elapsed before the painter had commenced his
work, when Aristratus, irritated by his apparent
neglect, threatened to punish him severely ; but
Nicomachus satisfactorily accomplished his under-
taking within the limit of time. Among his prin-
cipal works was a picture of the ' Rape of
Proserpine,' which was for a long time preserved
in the Capitol at Rome. At the time of his death
he left imperfect a picture of Helen.

NICOPHANES, a painter of the school of
Sioyon, who is reckoned by Pliny among the most
eminent of his time. He lived about 316 B.C.,
and studied under Pausias. He was called ' The
Courtesan Painter,' for his models were usually
members of the class of hetairce.

NICOTERA, Marcantonio, a painter of the
school of Naples, scholar of P. Crisnolo, flourished
about 1690-1600. In the church of S. Nicola alia
Dogana at Naples, there is a picture by him
' representing ' The Virgin and Child, St. Jerome,
and St. Blaise.' The title-page of 0. Boldoni's
' Epigraphica,' Augusto Perusia 1600, signed M
NIC M. and containing the portrait of Cosmo de'
Medici, is said to be by him.

NIEMANN, Edmund John, a landscape painter
of German extraction, born at Islington in 1813.
In his early years he was employed at Lloyds,
where he remained till 1839. He then devoted
himself to art, settling in High Wycombe, in the
neighbourhood of which he found many subjects
for his brush. His works first appeared at the
Royal Academy in 1844. About 1850 he spent
a few years in London, through his connection
with the short-lived National Institution, of which
he was Secretary and Trustee. He then lived in
England Lane, near Hampstead, on a site now
swarming with artists. He died of apoplexy at
Brixton in 1876. A collection of forty-one of his
works was exhibited at Nottingham Castle in 1878.
Specimens of his art are to be seen in the Kensing-
ton Museum and the Liverpool Gallery.

NIEULANDT, Adriaen van, painter, was born
at Antwerp in 1590. It has often been said that
the date of this painter's birth is unknown; but
underneath a portrait of Nieulandt, published in
1649, we find this inscription : " A very good
painter of small figures and landscapes ; he has
also painted many scenes from the Old Testament ;
he is a native of Antwerp ; he began as an artist
at Amsterdam under Pieter Isaacsz and Franz
Badens, and is still established in that city. He
is fifty-nine years of age." Adriaen was possibly
the brother of William van Nieulandt, who acquired
a reputation as a playwright. Adriaen passed most
of his life at Amsterdam, but from the picture
mentioned below as in the Brussels Gallery, he
seems to have revisited his native town at least
once. The date of his death is unknown, but he
was still living in 1657. Works :




Brunswick. Gallery. Diana and nymphs in a land- |

„ „ Dia'ia and Callisto.

„ „ Landscape with Hunters.

„ Still-life.

Brussels. Gallery. A carnival scene at Antwerp.

„ ^^ (Skaters on the ice in the town

ditch.) At Madrid a replica
of this picture, with some
variations, is ascribed to
Denis van Alsloot.
Copenhagen. Gallery. Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.
„ „ Triumph of Bacchus.

NIEULANT, Jan, born at Antwerp in 1569,
painted historical pictures and landscapes, of small
dimensions, often on marble. He died in 1628.

NIEULANT, WiLLEM van, (or Nieuwland,)
was born at Antwerp in 1584. After being in-
structed in the first principles of art by Jacob
Savery, he went to Rome, where he became the
scholar of Paul Bril, under whom he studied three
years, and for some time followed the style of that
master ; but he afterwards adopted one more bold
and expeditious. On his return to Holland he
established himself at Amsterdam, where he was
much employed in painting views of the ruins of
ancient architecture in the vicinity of Rome, from
the designs he had made during his residence in
Italy. He was still alive in 1635. The following
paintings remain from his hand :
Antwerp. Museum. View of the Campo Vaccino at
Rome. 1611. (A replica is in the
Vienna Belvedere.)
Copenhagen, „ Roman Cattle-Market.

Willem van Nieulant etched about sixty plates of
landscapes and ruins, from his own designs, and
from those of Paul Bril ; they are occasionally
strengthened by the burin. Among others, we have
the following by him :

A Landscape, with ruins, and figures representing the
Good Samaritan; P. Bril inv. G. Nieulant fecit.

A Mountainous Landscape, with Tobit and the Angel ;
the same.

Two Views of the Sea Coast ; the same.

Three Views of Euins in and near Rome ; Gtiil. Nieu-

A large Print representing three Bridges on the Tiber,
and a part of the City of Rome; in three sheets,
inscribed, Guilielmus van Nieulunt fecit et excud.
A rdverpia. 1600.

NIEUWENHUIZEN, Hendeik, born at Breda
in 1747, copied with the pen with most surprising
accuracy several engravings and etchings after
Callot and Rembrandt.

NIEUWERBORCH, Pibtee van, an obscure
Flemish painter, who was inscribed on the Guild at
Bruges in 1480.

NIKKEL^N, ISAAK VAN, (or Nickele,) archi-
tectural painter, was born at Haarlem in the 17th
century. He entered the guild in that city in
1660. In the Six Collection, at Amsterdam, there
is an ' Interior of a Gothic church at Haarlem ' by
him. Other productions of his are to be met with
at Brunswick, Brussels, Copenhagen, St. Peters-
burg, and Stockholm. He died at Haarlem in 1703.

NIKKELEN, Jan van, was born at Haarlem in
1649, and instructed by his father or elder brother
Isaak. He did not pursue the same branch of art,
but applied himself to the painting of landscapes
and game, in which he followed the style of Karel
du, Jardin. He passed some time at the court of
the Elector Palatine, for whom he painted several
pictures, and was afterwards made painter at the
court of Cassel, where he died in 1716. The Gallery
there contains a ' Roebuck in a Forest ' by him. His
p 2

daughter, Jakobea Nikkelen, born in 1690, was a
pupil of Herman van der Myn, and excelled in
painting fruit and flowers. She married Willem
Troost, a portrait painter. The pictures she painted
at Diisseldorf have been erroneously ascribed to
her father. See Teoost.

NIKOLET. See Nicolet.

NILSON, F. Christian, painter, was bom at
Augsburg in 1811. He worked chiefly at Munich,
and is principally known by his frescoes of scenes
from the Greek "War of Liberation," executed
after designs by Peter von Hess, in the " Hof-
garten ; " and by the decorative pictures, from his
own designs, on the staircase of the State Library
at Munich. His paintings in illustration of Schil-
ler's ' Song of the Bell ' have been engraved by
Adrian Schleich. In his later years he abandoned
painting for drawing and engraving. Nilson died
at Munich the 19th December, 1879.

NILSON, Johann Esajas, a German miniature
painter and engraver, was born at Augsburg in
1721. He engraved and etched several portraits,
and a number of figure scenes in borders, which
are good examples of the decorative art of the 18tli
century. He became Director of the Academy at
Augsburg, and died there in 1788. His plates
appeared in series of two, four, six, or twelve, and
are signed either Nilson, E. N ., J. E. N., or with
a monogram. Among others are the following :


Clement XIII., Pontit. Max. ; Nilson inv. et fee.
Petrus III., Russorum Imperator.
Catherina Alexiewna, Russorum Imperatrix.
Stanislaus Augustus, Rex Pol.

NIMECIUS, Balthasae MENEins, was an in-
different engraver on wood, and is said to have
been a native of Saxony. Professor Christ attri-
butes to him a monogram composed of a B., an
M.( and an N.

NIMEGEN and NIMWEGEN. See Nymegen.

NINFE. See Dalle Ninfe.


NIPOTE, II. See Gaebieei, Lok.

NIQUET, Claude, the elder, was born in 1770.
He was one of the engravers employed on the
' Galerie du Mus6e Napoleon,' published by Filhol.
He was still living in 1831. Among his plates are :

The Death of St. Bruno ; after Le Sueur.

The Triumph of Flora ; after N. Poussin.

The Apollo Belvedere.

The Diana of the Louvre.

The Laoooon.

Cupid and Psyche.

The Transfiguration ; after Raphael.

NIQUEVERT, Alphonse Alexandke, a French
historical and .landscape painter. He was bom in
Paris in 1776, studied under David and Regnault,
and exhibited at the Salon from 1806 to 1824.
He was a friend of the painter Jean Louis Cesar
Lair, whose biography he wrote, and after whose
death he retired into private life. There are several
of his works in the cathedral of Metz. Niquevert
died 2nd December, 1860. There are by him :

Tobit and the Angel.

The Siege of Paris by Henry IV.

Christ before Pilate.

NITTIS, Giuseppe de, an Italian, was bom
near Barletta, Naples, in 1845, and was a pupil of
G^r6rae, in Paris. He painted genre subjects,
chiefly scenes in the streets of Paris and London,
which are remarkable for their truth. His works
are realistic in the best sense. He painted for a





time in England, and with much success. He won
the orthodox honours at the Salon, and was
" decorated " in 1878. He died suddenly in 1884.
Among his works we may name :

Bougival. 1875.

Paris, Place de la Concorde. 1875.
„ „ des Pyramides. 1876.

Naples, on the Boad to Castellaraare. 1876.

Paris, from the Pont Royal. 1877.

Paris, Arc de Triomphe. 1878.

London, The Victoria Embankment.

NIVOLSTELLA, (? Johann Geoeq,) was a wood-
engraver of Mayence, who was at work towards
the end of the 16th century. He is known by a
set of borders after the designs of B. Castelli for
the first Genoa edition of Tasso's ' Gerusalemrne
liberata.' His son, Johann Georg, was born in
Genoa in 1594, and was also a wood-engraver, but
his works are inferior to those by his father. He
produced a, set of wood-cuts for an edition of the
'.ffineid,' and another after Anton Tempesta's
' Patriarchs.' He died at Rome in 1624.

NIXON, Jambs, an English miniature painter.
He was a member of the Incorporated Society,
studied in the Royal Academy, where he first ex-
hibited in 1772, and was elected an Associate in
1778. Nixon received court patronage, and held
appointments to the Prince of Wales and the
Duchess of York. He was born in 1741, and died
at Tiverton in 1812.

NIXON, John, an English engraver, who was
born in 1706, and was still at work about 1760.
His best prints are small portraits, in which the
faces are entirely finished in stipple. Among
others we have the following portraits by him :

Frederick, Prince of "Wales.

William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ; two plates.

Archbishop Tillotson.

■John, Earl of Granville.

NOBLE, John, an English painter, born in 1797.
He was a member of the Society of British Artists,
and occasionally painted Italian landscapes. He
died in 1879.

NOBLE, William Bonneau, an English land-
scape painter, was born in 1780. He taught draw-
ing, and exhibited a few works at the Royal Academy
in 1809-11. Having lapsed into irregular habits,
through disappointment in love and art, he at-
tempted suicide in 1825, and died in Somers Towh
in 1831. He left a MS. poem called, ' The Artist.'

NOBLESSE, (or Noblet,) FEANgois, according
to Nagler was born at Cahors in 1652, and resided
in Paris, where he died in 1730. He excelled in
drawing with a pen, and appears to have formed
his taste by studying the works of Callot. He
etched a few small landscapes.

NOBILI, Antonio, named Steafoko, was an
excellent landscape painter of Verona. He died
young in 1696.

NOBILI, Durante de', an Italian painter, who
flourished at Caldarola about 1571, and formed
himself on the style of Michelangelo. At S. Pier
di Castello, Ascoli, there is a ' Madonna ' inscribed
with his name, birthplace, and the above date.

NOBLIN, H. and L. Two indifferent engravers
of portraits, who lived in Paris about the year 1680.

NOCHER, J. E., a French engraver, born in
Paris about the year 1736. He was a pupil of
Etienne Fessard, and has engraved several book-
ornaments, and a few portraits ; among the latter
a ' J. J. Rousseau,' after Ramsay, dated 1766.

NOCRET, Jean, (or Nooeoit,) a French painter
and engraver, was born at Nancy in 1618, and be-


came a scholar of Jean Leclerc, but finished his
studies in Italy under the direction of Poussin.
On his return to France he was much employed at
St. Cloud and the Tuileries. He painted the por-
traits of several of the royal family of France,
among them the Queen of Louis XIV. as ' Minerva.'

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