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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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„ Santa Eiifemia.

„ Santa Maria della \
Pace. J
„ Bonomi'Cereda Coll.

Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Hermitage.




OLANDA, Alberto d'. See Ouwatbr.

OLANDA, Antonio and Francisco d', two Por-
tuguese artists of the 16th century who are famous
for their illuminations. Francisco, who was An-
tonio's son, made a voyage to Italy, and on his
return in 1549 presented a petition to John XL,
which by protesting against the influence of
Flemish art in Portugal, prepared the way for that
of Italy.

OLANDA, GuGLiELMO d'. See Aelst, Willem


OLDENDORP, Christian Johann, a landscape
painter, born in 1772 at the Castle of Marienborn
in the Wetterau. He was almost self-taught, and
studied the works of Berghem, but distinguished
himself most by his firelight pictures, which were
exhibited at Weimar in 1802, such as the burning
of Magdeburg, Gorlitz, Moscow, &c. Some of his
other landscapes, views in Saxony, were engraved ;
and in 1826 two appeared in lithography.

OLDERMAN, Ernst Friedeich, or Fritz, a
German engraver, was born in the village of
Werther, near Bielefeld, in 1802, and was the son
of a merchant, who intended him for his own
business. His love of drawing induced him to
devote to it all his leisure time, and he was encou-
raged by a drawing-master whose acquaintance he
made. Convinced that he could never settle to
business, he left his home and travelled to Dussel-
dorf and Berlin, where he endeavoured to improve
himself, but was obliged from want of money to
enlist for a time as a soldier. After this he entered
the service of a lithographer, and commenced as an
engraver in mezzotint. He died at Berlin in 1874.
Among his best mezzotints we may name :

Jubal ; after Klbhers.

The Compromise of the Dutch Nobles ; after Biefve.

Parade before Frederick the Great ; after Camphausen.

Eichard III. ; after Stilke.

Children at Play ; after Meyerheim.

After the Wedding ; after Kindler.

Diirer in Antwerp ; after Oer.

Philippa Welser ; after Schrader.

OLDONl, BoNlPOKTE DB, belonged to a family of
artists which appears to have moved to Vercelli
from Milan in the middle of the 15th century.
Boniforte worked from 1463 to 1510. He had
three sons, Ekcolb, Giosoe, and Blbazar, all
painters. In the parish church of Verrone, near
Biella, is a fresco signed by Giosue ; and in the
possession of the Countess Castelnuova, at Turin,
is a small ' Adoration of the Infant Christ,' signed
by Eleazar, ' Eleazar de Oldonibus.'

OLEN, Jan van. See Alen.

OLENDORF. See Olmdoef.

OLESZCZYNSKl, Anthony, a Polish engraver
and painter, born in 1796 at Krasnystow (Lublin).
He at first studied law at Warsaw, and then spent
six years in the School of Fine Arts at St. Peters-
burg. With government aid he further prosecuted
his studies at Paris, under Regnault and Richomme.
He then passed some time at Florence, in the
Academy of which city he was appointed a Pro-
fessor. His patriotic tendencies at length lost
him the support of the Russian Government, and
be then produced the series of plates known as
' Polish Varieties.' Among the best are :

The Hungarian Ambassadors offering the Crown to the
Son of Ladislaus Jagello.

The German Emperor begs the assistance of John

The Entry of Boleslaw into Kief.

Bogdan Schmielnicki.

The Shoemaker Kilmsti.

The Enchantment of Twardowski.

Portrait of Kosciusko.

OLGIATI, GiROLAMO, an Italian engraver, who
flourishe4 in the latter part of the 16th century.
He formed his style of engraving by studying the
works of Cornelis Cort. Among other plates by
him is an etched print representing the ' Trinity,'
with a number of saints and angels, after Federigo
Zuccaro, inscribed Hieronymus Olgiatus f. 1572 ;
the ' Entombment,' after Guido Clovis, and others.

OLIS, Jan, a Dutch painter, born in 1610, at
Dordrecht (?). He painted ' Corps-de-gardes,'
corporation groups, and a few single portraits. He
died in 1665, most likely in Amsterdam, where
most of his life was passed. In the Rijks Museum
there is a ' Kitchen Interior ' by him. Though signed
J. Olisfedt. 1645., it used to be ascribed to Sorgh.
A landscape with figures in the Darmstadt Gallery,
given in the Catalogue to Jan Lis, is most likely
the work of Olis.

OLIVA, Iqnazio, a Neapolitan painter and
scholar of Domenico Gargiulo, called Micco Spa-
daro. The latter was the fellow-pupil of Salvator
Rosa under Aniello Falcone, and they all painted
landscapes and marine views much in the same
style in the latter half of the 17th century.

OLIVA, Philip, a native of Middleburg, was
admitted a bourgeois of Antwerp in 1642, and a
free member of the Society of St. Luke in 1655 or
1656. He died at Antwerp about 1659. In 1648-9
an Andreas Oliva was also inscribed on the guild
books, and in 1 667-8 a Michael and a second
Philip, all described as sons of a master.

OLIVA, PiBRO, painter, a native of Messina, and
pupil of Antonello, flourished about 1490.

OLIVEIRA-BERNARES, Ignacio db, belongs to
a family of artists in Portugal who bore this name.
The first mentioned is Manoel Rodriguez, a painter
who seems to have been known also as Oliveira
Bernares. He had a son Antonio, and three grand-
sons, Ignacio, Fra Jose de Santa-Maria, a monk,
and Polycarp, all painters. Ignacio, who was born
at Lisbon in 1696, was one of the young artists
whom John the Fifth of Portugal sent to Rome,
where he wished to estabhsh a Portuguese Academy
of Painting. At Rome Ignacio studied painting
and architecture under Benedetto Luti and Paolo
de Matteis. On his return to Lisbon he was ad-
mitted into the Brotherhood of St. Luke, and
afterwards made a professor of the Academy. He
died in 1781. At Lisbon many of his works, both
in architecture and in painting, are to be seen. His
son JoSiS Pedro de Oliveira, born at Lisbon in 1752,
was also an artist, and there are pictures by him in
the Lisbon churches.

OLIVER, Archer James, an English portrait
painter, was born in 1774. He studied in the Schools
of the Royal Academy, of which he was elected an
Associate in 1803. For some years he had a wide
and fashionable circle of sitters at his studio in New
Bond Street, and he exhibited largely from 1800
to 1820. In 1835 he was appointed curator of the
painting school in the Academy. Through ill
health In his latter years his means were reduced,
and he became a pensioner of the Academy. He
died in 1842.

OLIVER, D., supposed by Fussli to have been
a French painter, resided in London in the 17th
century. The portrait of the painter P. Sevin,
by D. Oliverus was engraved by De La Croix
in 1692.




OLIVER, Isaac, an English mezzotint engraver,
in the latter part of the 17th century. He was the
son of John Oliver, glass painter. Amongst his
engravings are :

The Seven Bishops.

Charles II.

George, Prince of Denmark.

E. van Heemskerk.

OLIVER, Isaac, an English miniature painter,
was born in 1566. He studied some time under
Nicholas Hilliard, and afterwards under Federigo
Zuccaro. It is probable, from the variety of his
drawings after the great masters, particularly Par-
migiano, that he visited Italy. In the particular
branch of art he adopted he has perhaps never
been surpassed. In our country few artists can
be said to compete with him. His son Peter
approached nearer than any one else to the beau-
tiful finishing of his father. The miniatures of
Isaac Oliver are now very highly prized. He
died at his house in Blackfriars in 1617 (?), and
was buried there in St. Anne's Church. His monu-
ment was destroyed in the great fire. The following
are among his best works :

London. South Kensing- 1 Eichard Sackville, Earl of Dor-
ion Museum, j set. {Full-length ; one of
Oliver^ ^finest works,)

„ „ .A portrait of himself.

„ „ Henry, Prince of Wales.

„ „ Sir Philip Sidney {full-length).

-rt „ Ben Jonson.

„ „ Queen Elizabeth.

„ „ James I.

„ „ A head said to be that of Mary,

Queen of Scots.
Oliver rarely attempted subject pictures, but a
few miniatures of that description are mentioned
by Horace Walpole ; among them a 'Magdalen,' a
' Head of Christ,' a, ' Massacre of the Innocents,'
and an 'Entombment.' Oliver died at Blackfriars
in 1617. He usually signed his drawings Olivier,
and his miniatures with a monogram exactly re-
sembling the Greek *. He wrote a treatise on

OLIVER, John, the nephew of Peter Oliver, was
born in London in 1616. He was an eminent
painter on glass, and practised until he was far
advanced in years, as appears from the inscription
on a painted window, executed by him, in Christ
Church, Oxford, J. Oliver cetat. sua. 84, anno 1700,
pinxit deditque ; the subject is the angel deliver-
ing St. Peter from prison. He died in 1701. He
is said to have e graved a few plates of portraits
and other subjects, some of which are etched, and
others executed in mezzotint ; the following are
among them :


King James II. in mezzotint.
Judge Jeffries, styled Earl of Flint.
Thomas White, Bishop of Peterborough.
John Woremberg, the Dutch Dwarf.

A Boy sleeping, with a Skull by him ; after Art. Gen-

A View of Tangiers ; J. Oliver fee, 1676.
A View of the Hot Wells at Bath ; J. Oliver fee aqua
forti. 1676.

OLIVER, Pbtek, the eldest son of Isaac Oliver,
was born in London in 1601, and was instructed in
miniature painting by his fatlier. He did not con-
fine his talents to portraits, but was employed in
copying in water-colours several of the finest pic-
tures in the collection of Charles I., and it appears


by the catalogues of that mon.irch and of James
II., that there were thirteen historical miniatures
by hira in the royal collection, several of which
are preserved in the palace at Kensing-ton. At
Burleigh there is a picture by Peter Oliver, of
'Venus and Adonis,' dated in 1631. One of his
finest portraits is a picture of his wife, which was
in the collection of the Duchess of Portland ; it is
doubted whether his father ever surpassed this
excellent miniature. His copy of Van Dyck's ' Sir
Kenelm Digby, with his Wife and two Sons,' is
perhaps the finest miniature known of the size.
He also executed some fine drawings in Indian-ink,
among which are ' The Infant John kneeling before
the Virgin, and handing a cross to the Child Jesus,'
after Raphael ; and the portrait of Edward VI.
when a child, at Chiswick, signed P. 0. In the
British Museum there is an etching by him of a.
woman reading. It too is signed with his initials.
It is stated that he also etched some small historical
subjects. He died in 1660.

OLIVER, William, an English landscape
.painter, born in 1805. He chiefly practised in
water-colours, exhibiting at the New Water-colour
Society, of which he was a member. His subjects
were mainly taken from foreign scenery. He died
in 185.?. There is an oil-painting of Foligno, in the
Papal States, by him, in the Kensington Museum.
OLIVERUS, a skilful French miniaturist of the
12th century. He worked in Paris. The library
of Douai possesses a fine MS. illustrated by him.

OLIVES, Francisco, a Spanish painter, who
flourished at Tarragona about 1667. He filled for
a time the post of valuer of works of art for the

OLIVIER, AnBiN, a die-sinker and engraver on
wood, was born at Roye, in Picardy, in the first
half of the 16th century ; and was Director of the
Mint, under Henri II., in 1563. As a wood-en-
graver, in conjunction with Jean le Royer, his
brother-in-law, he engraved the sixty figures which
illustrate the ' Lievre de Perspective de Jehan
Cousin,' the celebrated French artist, which was
published in Paris in 1560 by Jehan le Royer, in a
large folio. The date of Aubin Olivier's death is
not known.

OLIVIER, Hbinrich, elder brother of Johann
H. Ferdinand Olivier, was born at Dessau in 1783.
He underwent the same course of study as his
brother, and ultimately became a teacher of draw-
ing and of languages in Berlin, where he died in
1848. In Vienna he executed a copy of Pordenone's
' St. Justina,' and also produced original paintings
for the churches of his native town.

OLIVIER, JoHANN Heinrich Ferdinand, painter
and lithographer, was born at Dessau iu 1785.
His first instructions were received from K. W.
Kolbe and Haldenwang, but in 1804 he went to
Dresden, and studied under Jakob Mechau, In
1807 he accompanied his brother Heinrich to Paris,
and together they painted a portrait of Napoleon I.
on horseback, as well as ' The Baptism of Christ '
and a 'Last Supper' for the church of Worlitz.
In 1811 he proceeded to Vienna, and in 1828 pub-
lished a series of lithographs at Salzburg. His oil
pictures are for the most part either purely his-
torical, or historical landscapes. In 1833 he became
professor of art history and general secretary to
the Academy at Munich, where he died in 1841.
His last and best painting is a landscape in the
possession of Fraulein Linder of that city. He
usually signed his work with a monogram of F. 0.





OLIVIER, Michel Baeth^lbmy, was born at
Marseilles in 1712, and died in Paris in 1784. He
was received into the Academy as painter of land-
scape and genre, and became painter to^ the Prince
du Conti. His style is that of his time, the execu-
tion neat, and colour undecided.

OLIVIER, WoLDBMAE Friedrich, younger
brother of Heinrich and Ferdinand Olivier, was
born at Dessau in 1791. From 1811 he studied
under his brother Ferdinand : but in 1813-14 he
served as an oflScer in the Lutzow volunteer corps,
and as such obtained the iron cross and the Order
of St. Anne and St. George. In 1815 he travelled
in England and the Netherlands, and proceeded in
1818 to Rome, where he studied under Overbeck
and Cornelius. He here painted his picture of
'Christ with the Tribute Money,' together with
landscapes with historical figures. In 1824 he
returned to Vienna and practised as a portrait
painter, but removed in 1829 to Munich, where he
worked upon the frescoes in the Konigsbau, in the
Nibelungenand Homer Saloons, and also designed
a ' Pictorial Bible' with fifty illustrations from the
New Testament. He died at Dessau in 1859.

OLIVIERI, DOMENICO, was born at Turin in
1679. He particularly excelled in painting droll
scenes, fairs, and merry-makings, in imitation of
the style of Peter van Laer, in which he displayed
infinite humour, and a talent for caricature. In
the gallery of the court of Turin were two of his
best pictures, in one of which he has represented a
fair, with an immense assemblage of figures, of
quack-doctors, and groups of peasants, sporting or
quarrelling. Though chiefly employed in painting
what are called Banibocciate, he was not incapable
of historical painting, as appears in his picture of
' The Miracle of the Sacrament,' in the sacristy of
Corpus Domini, at Turin. He died in 1755. Boni
says that he had a pupil who painted in the same
style, and of whom he speaks as N. Graneri of

OLIVIERI, DoMENico, called Salvatoriello, a
Neapolitan, born in the last half of the 17th
century. He was the best of Solimena's pupils,
and painted, in fresco, 'Tl'.e Virgin and Child,' in
S. Maria delle Grazie ; ' Rinaldo and Armida,' and
other pictures on a large scale. He died in 1718.

0LIVIBR8, Jacob Frans and Adbiaen, two
obscure painters of Haarlem, who flourished in the
17th and 18th centuries. Jacob was inscribed on
the Guild in 1632. In 1650 he received, from the
military authorities, a sum of 150 florins for re-
storing pictures, and in 1667 a requisition was made
for a tomb for him in the church of St. Bavon.
Adriaen was inscribed on the Guild in 1707.

OLLMUTZ, Wenzel or Wenceslaus von, (Ol-
MtJ'J'Z, or Olomuoz,) was a painter and engraver of
the 15th century, who produced several extremely
good copies, as well as original plates. By Bartsch
he was supposed to be identical with the " Master
signing W," while some have endeavoured to iden-
tify him with Michael Wolgemut. The more recent
opinion is that the plates with W upon them
are the work of Wolgemut, and that instead of
being copies from Diirer, Diirer copied them. For
a fuller discussion of the question see Wolgemut.
The name of Wenceslaus von Olomucz appears on a
copy from Schongauer's 'Death of the Virgin,'
dated 1481. He was still working as late as the
beginning of the 16th century. The best of his
plates are in the above-mentioned copy from Schon-
gauer's famous engraving.

OLMDORF, Hans von, (or Olmendorf,) a Ba-
varian artist, who painted between 1460 and 1518.
He was court painter to the Duke Sigmund. He
painted at Munich and at Blutenburg, where it is
thought he made the designs for the windows
painted by Hans Hebenstreit. To him is ascribed
also the picture of ' God the Father with the dead
Christ on His knees,' the engraving from which is
attributed to The Master of 1466. Some of his
pictures, on panels with gold backgrounds, are
at Schleissheim. One of his best works is the
' Crowning of the Virgin,' in which the Duke Sig-
mund is introduced on his knee.

OLMO, Giovanni Paolo. Siret speaks of a Ber-
gamese painter of this name, and of a 'Vierge
Glorieuse,' at Berlin, signed Jo. Paidus Vlmus.

OLMO, Marco. Born in 1683, of a noble family
in the territory of Bergamo, Marco Olmo showed
early such a strong inclination for painting that he
was sent to Bologna, and studied for some years
under Gio. Gioseffe dal Sole. On his return he
painted a groat number of pictures for the churches
in his native country, and many portraits. He
died in 1763.

OMER, Rowland, a draughtsman, bom in Ire-
land, who worked about 1750. He drew many
public buildings in Dublin and other parts of Ire-
land, which were engraved.

OMINO, L'. See Lombaedi.

OMME, H. VAN, a mediocre painter, who was
active at Oudewater in 1651. In the orphanage
of that town there is a large picture of ' Orphans
at Dinner,' by him.

OMMEGANCK, Balthazar Paxil, a distin-
guished painter of landscapes and animals, was
born at Antwerp in 1755, and studied under Hen-
dricuB Josephus Antonissen from 1767. In 1789
he became dean of the Guild of St. Luke in his
native city, and in 1796 professor in the Academy
there, In 1799 he won the first prize for landscapes
in Paris, and in 1809 became a corresponding
member of the Institute. He was also a member
of the Academies of Amsterdam, Brussels, Ghent,
Munich, and Vienna. He died at Antwerp in 1826.
He was one of the commissioners of 1815, appointed
by Belgium to reclaim from France the objects of
art which she had acquired by force of arms during
the great war. During his life his works were
in such request that only the rich could obtain
them, and they are therefore seldom to be found
but in the finest modern collections of England,
France, and Holland. And yet in handhng they
were soft, weak, and oversmooth, in conception
confused," and in colour poor. It is in fact greatly
to the example of Ommeganck that the poor work
done by Belgian landscape and animal painters in
the early part of the present century is to be
traced, especially their shortcomings in the matter
of colour. Carpentero, J. F. Lenzen, and some of
the more recent Belgian painters, have imitated his
manner ; a female painter, long resident in Holland
and Belgium, has copied several of his pictures
very successfully ; and others in England and else-
where, undei- the auspices of the dealers, have made
it a very profitable speculation. He executed some
admired drawings, and also clay models of sheep
and cows. Among his oil-paintings there are (be-
sides some at Antwerp, Brussels, and Cassel) :

Frankfort. Stddel Inst. Landscape with sheep and

London. Stafford Hovse. Cows in the water.
Paris. Louvre. Landscape with sheep.




OMMEGANCK, Maria Jacoba. See Baesten.

OMPHALION, a painter of the 4th century B.C.,
who, as Pausanias tells us, was a pupil and friend
of Nicias.

ON A, (or Onna,) Pedro de, a Spanish painter,
born in Spain about 1650, son-in-law to Esteban
Jordan, sculptor to Philip II. He painted in 1590
the principal altar-piece in the parish church of
Santa Maria de Rioseco.

ON AT AS, an early Greek sculptor of ^gina,
practised painting also to some small extent, and
was employed in conjunction with Polygnotus in
the temple of Athene at Plataaa.

ONATE, MiGHEL, a Spanish portrait painter,
was born at Seville in 1535, and studied under
Antony Mor, who was in Spain in 1551. He ac-
companied his instructor to Portugal, where he was
sent to paint the portrait of the first consort
of Philip II. He then returned with him to
Madrid, where he died in 1606, leaving to his
heirs a considerable fortune acquired by his pro-

O'NEAL, Jeffrey Hamet, was born in Ireland,
practised in London for many years, and died early
in the 19th century. He painted landscapes, birds,
flowers, small conversations, and miniatures ; and
contributed several years to the Spring Gardens'

O'NBIL, Henry Nelson, was born at St. Peters-
burg in 1817 ; came to England and entered the
Royal Academy schools in 1833. Some years after-
wards he started on a journey to Italy with Mr.
Elmore, with whom he contracted a friendship while
in the schools. On his return to England he rapidly
rose to fame as a contributor to the Exhibitions of
the Royal Academy. He was elected an Associate
in 1860. He died on the 13th of March, 1880. The
following are a few of his best works ; they were
very popular at the time they were painted : ' By
the rivers of Babylon,' ' Ahasuerus and the Scribes,'
' Eastward Ho I ' and ' Home Again, ' The Wreck
of the Royal Charter,' and ' The Death of Raifaelle.'
The last is considered his best picture. Besides
these, he executed a number of landscapes and
portraits. He was also the author of various
treatises on art.

O'NEILL, Hugh, an EngUsh draughtsman, born
in London in 1784. He was helped by Dr. Munro,
and afterwards taught drawing in Oxford, Edin-
burgh, Bath, and Bristol. His subjects were archi-
tectural antiquities, and his sketches of ChristChurch,
Oxford, and of Bristol were published. He died at
Bristol in 1824. There are three water-colour
drawings by him in the South Kensington Museum.
Fifty of his sketches of antiquities in Bristol were
etched by J. Skelton, and published in 1826.

ONGARO, MiCHELB, an artist of the middle of
the 15th century, a native of Ferrara. A picture
of the ' Virgin and Child ' discovered there in 1842,
is supposed to be by him.

ONGHERS, Jacob, a Dutch painter established
at Prague in 1691. In 1714 he became chief of
the corporation of painters in that city, and died
there about 1730.

ONGHERS, Oswald, painter, was born at Mechlin
in 1628, and died at Wurzburg in 1706. He studied
mainly after Van Dyck, and in 1660 settled at
Wurzburg as painter to the Prince Bishop. He
here produced an ' Assumption of the Virgin '
for the Haug Church, and a ' Mocking of Christ '
and 'Martyrdom of St. Kilian' for the cathe-

Q 2

ONOPRI, Francesco, a Roman knight and en-
graver of the 18th century, who published a set
of twelve etchings, with a title, after the works
of G. L. Bernini.

ONOPRIO DA PABRIANO, a painter of the
Umbrian school, who is said to have been contem-
porary with Gentile da Fabriano, and to have
painted in 1460 the ' Life of St. Benedict,' in one of
the cloisters of St. Michele in Bosco at Bologna.

ONOFRIO, Crescentio, (Honophrijs, or Hon-
UFRiis,) landscape painter and etcher, was born at
Rome most likely some years later than 1613, the
date usually given. He was a scholar of Caspar
Poussin, and -painted landscapes in the style of that
master. He resided chiefly at Florence, where he
was much emploj'ed by the court and for private
collections. He died at Florence. Lanzi and Zani
say he was living in 1712, which is more probable
than that he died in 1688, as lie etched a fine series
of twelve plates of landscapes, after his own designs,
which are dated 1696 !

OORT, Van. See Noort, Adam van.

OORTMAN, JoAOHiM Jan, an engraver, of Dutch
parentage, but, from his long residence in Paris,
reckoned among French artists, was born at Weesp
in 1777, and studied successively under W. Koch,
C. H. Hodges, and Claessens. He engraved after
Rembrandt, Gerard Dou, A. Ostade, Jan Steen, and
other eminent Dutch masters ; also after Titian,
Giulio Romano, Caravaggio, and Valentino : and
some French painters of more modern date. He
died in Paris in 1818. In addition to two plates

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 59 of 201)