Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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in illustration of the ' Lusiad,' he supplied the
following to Filhol's ' Mus^e Franjais : '

Portrait of Eembrandt ; after that artist.
The Death of the Virgin ; after Caravaggio.
Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; after Titian.
Human Life ; after J. Steen.

OOST, Jakob van, the elder, was born at Bruges
about 1600, of an ancient and opulent family. It
is not known under whom he studied, but in 1621
he painted an altar-piece for one of the churches in
his native city, which excited great admiration.
This success led him to visit Italy in search of
further improvement. On his arrival at Rome he
especially studied the works of Annibale Carracci ;
and during his residence in that capital he painted
some pictures of his own composition, so entirely
in the style of that distinguished artist, that they
astonished the most intelligent judges. After a
sojourn of five years he returned to his own country,
where he was immediately loaded with commis-
sions. He was equally successful in altar-pieces,
portraits, and pictures for private collections. Dur-
ing a long life he continued to be one of the most
employed and most popular painters of his country.
The number of altar-pieces he painted for the
churches in Flanders, particularly at Bruges, is
almost incredible, and proves the readiness of his
invention, and the extraordinary facility of his
hand. The backgrounds of his pictures are gener-
ally embellished with architecture, which he per-
fectly understood. He gave peculiar dignity to
his portraits, by representing his sitters in the
exercise of their profession. Van Oost died at Bruges
in 1671. Of his numerous works, the following are
the most deserving of notice :

Bruges. Jesuits' Church. The Deposition from the Cross.
,, St. Saviour's. The Baptism of Christ.

„ Notre Dame. The Nativity.

„ S. Jacques. Presentation of the Virgin.

„ S. Truyen. Descent of the Holy Ghost.





Bruges. Academy. A Churchman dictating a Let-

ter to a young Clerk.
„ St. John's Hospital. A Philosopher in Meditation.
Petersburg. Hermitaye. The Virgin, with Donors.

OOST, Jakob van, the younger, the son and
scholar of Jakob van Oost the elder, was born at
Bruges in 1639. He studied under his father until
he was twenty, and then went to Paris and Rome
for improvement. He returned, after some years,
to Bruges. After painting there some pictures for
the churches, he established himself at Lille, where
the greater part of his works are now. He died at
Bruges in 1713. He painted history and portraits,
and was so eminent in the latter, that his partisans
ventured to compare his work with that of Van
Dyck. His historical pictures partake more of the
Roman than of the Flemish school. Works :

Brussels. Gallery. Male Portrait. Signed J. v.

Oost de ionghe.
Lille. S. Etienne. Martyrdom of St. Barbara.

„ Capuchin Gh. The Child Jesus shown the In-

struments of His inartyrdom.
„ Museum. Two male portraits. 1688 and


OOSTEN, J. VAN, was an artist who painted
small landscapes, with figures and animals, in the
manner of Jan Breughel, to whom they are usually
ascribed when they appear in sales. There are
no particulars of him recorded. There is a good
example of his work, a ' Paradise,' in the Ijiechten-
stein Collection, at Vienna. It is signed J. van

OOSTERHOUDT, Thibret van, was born at
Tiel, in Guelderland, in 1756. He was a scholar
of R. van Bynder, and frequented the Electoral
Academy at Diisseld orf. After several years' study
of the pictures of Raphael, Carlo Dolci, Rubens,
Van Dyck, and other masters there, he returned to
his native city, and painted portraits, and finished
numerous compositions. Some of his subjects are
scenes in private life, and are to be met with at
Tiel and Utrecht. He painted also in water-
colours. He died in 1830.

OOSTERWIJCK, Maria van, a celebrated
painter of flowers and fruit, was born at Nootdorp,
a small town near Delft, in 1627 or 1630. She
was the daughter of a clergyman, who encouraged
the disposition she evinced for art by placing
her under the tuition of the flower painter, Jan
Davidsz de Heem, whose works she in a few years
almost equalled. Her pictures of fruit, flowers,
and still-life found their way into the choicest
collections, and she received commissions from
many of the princes and sovereigns of Europe.
The Emperor Leopold I. engaged her to paint a
picture for his collection, and on its completion
sent her tte portrait of the Empress and his own,
set with diamonds, as a mark of his approbation.
William III. and Louis XIV. were among her
most munificent patrons. Maria van Oosterwijck
died at Entdam in 1693. Her works are extremely
scarce, from the care she bestowed upon them.
Among them we may note :

Dresden. Gallery. Glass filled with Flowers in

great variety.
„ „ Fruit-piece, with Clusters of

Vienna. Schonlom Gall. The same subject.
„ Amh'ase Coll. Still-life subject.

OPIE, (or Oppey,) a portrait fainter, was born
in Cornwall, but is said to have been in no way
connected with John Opie. He is believed to have


been self-taught. In the catalogue of the Exhibition
held in London in 1780, by the Incorporated Society
of Artists, he and his works are thus described,
'■ Master Oppey, Penryn. ' A Boy's Head.' An
instance of genius, not having seen a picture."
This head is said to have been expressive, well
coloured, and to have attracted notice on its
merits. Oppey died young, in London, 25th Nov.

OPIE, John, painter, was bom in the village of
St. Agnes, about seven miles from Truro, in 1761.
He was the son of a master carpenter, who was
very desirous of bringing him up to his own
business, but the love of drawing appears to have
given an early bent to bis inclinations, and as his
propensity was encouraged by an uncle, who had
instructed him in arithmetic and the elements of
mathematics,his desire of becoming a painter gained
an entire dominion over his mind, and nothing could
divert him from it. He had already acquired some
practice in portrait-painting, when his talent was
accidentally discovered by Dr. Wolcott, 'Peter
Pindar,' who at that time resided at Truro. He
interested himself in his advancement, and lent
him some of his pictures to study and copy. By
Wolcott' s assistance and recommendation, the
talents of young Opie soon became known through-
out the county, and he met with considerable em-
ployment as a portrait painter. His earUest efforts,
though not distinguished by taste, or a graceful dis-
position of the figure, were extraordinary produc-
tions for an artist reared in so remote and secluded
a situation. About the year 1777 he was introduced
to Lord Bateman, who employed him in painting
old men, beggars, &c., which he designed with
uncommon vigour and great truth of expression. In
1780 he visited London under the auspices of Dr.
Wolcott, where his merit and the extraordinary
circumstances of his early artistic life, made him
the object of widespread interest. Commissions
crowded upon him, his partisans were zealous in
his praise, and for some time ' the Cornish wonder '
was the rage.

The powers of Opie were not calculated to flatter
the frivolity of fashion ; he was not very suscept-
ible to female grace, and his portraits of men were
rather distinguished by identity and truth, than by
dignity. Thus it was not long before the curiosity
excited on his arrival in London in a great degree
subsided, but as his talents were not confined to
portraiture, he continued to meet with employment
in painting domestic or rustic subjects. The great
undertakings which were in hand at this time, such
as Boydell's ' Shakespeare,' Bowyer's ' English
History,' Macklin's ' Poets and Bible,' opened a
new field to Opie, and perhaps his most popular
performances were his pictures of the 'Murder of
James I. of Scotlaiid,' the ' Death of Rizzio,'
' Jephtha's Vow,' the ' Presentation in the Temple,'
and 'Arthur supplicating Hubert.' In the best of
these he shows not only vigour, but also a curious
sense of style which is hardly to be found in any
other Buglish historical pictures of the time.

On Fuseli's appointment to the office of Keeper
of the Royal Academy, in 1806, Opie became a
candidate for the vacant professorship of painting,
and was elected. In that capacity he read four
lectures at Somerset House, which bear testimony
to the extent of his powers, and to his acquaintance
with the theory of his art. He died in 1807, and
his remains were interred in St. Paul's Cathedral,
near those of Sir Joshua Riyuolds. A catalogue




of his paintings was published in 1878. There are

in public collections :

Loudon. National \ Portrait of Himself.

Portrait Gallery.^ „ Bartolozzi.

„ ■ „ Th. Holoroft.

„ National Gallery. „ "William Siddons.

„ „ „ Mary Wollstone-

„ City Art Gallery. „ Daniel Pinder.

„ „ Murderof James I., of Scotland.

„ „ Murder of Rizzio.

Dulwich. Gallery. Portrait of Himself.

Manchester. Gallery. Troilus, Oressida, and Pan-
darus. {Lent by the National
Gallery. )

OPITZ, Georg Emanuel, was born at Prague in
1775, and studied under Casanova in Dresden. Up
to 1807 he painted portraits in oil and miniature,
but then commenced painting popular scenes,
character sketches, costume figures, and so forth.
In 1813 he followed the Duchess of Courland to
Paris, where he found a rich source of such sub-
jects. Afterwards he lived at Heidelburg and
Altenburg, and finally settled at Leipsic, where he
died in 1841. He was also successful in aquarelle
and gouache painting, and as an engraver.

OPPENORD, GiLLES Marie, (or Oppenort,) a
draughtsman and architect, was born in Paris in
1672, and was sent with a pen^iion from the king to
Rome, where he spent eight years. He died in
Paris in 1742. He prepared the designs for the
high altars of St. Germain dea Pr^s and St. Sulpice.
Huquieres engraved some ornaments after him.

OPPERDOES, Jan Pietersz, a Dutch painter,
was born at Amsterdam in 1631 or 1632. In 1648
he was bound apprentice to Govaert Gamphuysen.
Little is known of him. In the Rijks-Museum
there is a landscape by him, signed Opperdoes.

OPPERMANN, 0. There is a miniature of the
Czar, Alexander I., in the Dresden Gallery, signed
with this name, and dated 1809.

OPPI, Bernardino, a designer and engraver, who
worked at Rome in 1590. He helped to engrave
a collection of sixteen plates representing the
'Virtues,' after designs by Lanfranco, which are
dedicated to Cardinal Piccolomini.

OPSTAL, Antony van, a Flemish painter, who
was in the service of the Archdulte Charles of
Austria, in 1624. Nagler says that Van Opstal
lived at Brussels, and that Van Dyck painted his
portrait. Jan Meyssens was his pupil and engraved
after him.

OPSTAL, Gaspar Jacob van, the younger, was
born at Antwerp in 1654. He was probably a
pupil of his father. In 1676 he entered the guild,
of which in 1698-9 he was dean. He painted his-
tory and portraits, and there are several of his
works in the churches in Flanders and Brabant ;
but the defective pigments which he used have
caused them to darken. In 1714 he was employed
by Marshal Villeroy tcf copy the celebrated altar-
piece by Rubens, in the cathedral at Antwerp,
representing the ' Descent from the Cross,' together
with the shutters of the organ. The commissions
which he received were so numerous that he fre-
quently had to entrust them to his pupils. He
died at Antwerp in 1717. Of his other works we
may name :
Antwerp. Museum. A Portrait. 1699.

„ Jesuits' Ch. The Child Jesus addressed by

Angels. 1693.
Darmstadt. Gallery. The Holy Family resting near

a classic ruin.
St. Omer. Cathedral. The Fathers of the Church.

OPSTAL, Gaspar van, the elder, a painter of
Antwerp, who studied under Simon de Vos in 1632.
He was admitted a master in 1644. His son,
Gaspar Jacob, was a better painter than he.

ORAMji Edward, an English landscape painter
in the latter half of the 18th century. He was the
son of William Oram, and acted as assistant to
Loutherbourg. He exhibited at the Incorporated
Society in 1766, and at the Academy from 1775
to 1799. A work of his, apparently posthumous,
I Precepts and Observations on the Art of Colour-
ing in Landscape Painting,' was published in

ORAM, William, called 'Old Oram,' was
brought up as an architect, but taking to land-
scape painting, arrived at success in that branch
of art, and was, in 1748, made superintendent of
the Board of Works by the interest of Sir Edward
Walpole, who had several of his pictures and draw-
ings. There is a picture by him in the Hermitage
at St. Petersburg ; it probably went there with the
Houghton Collection. Oram was much employed
in decorating halls, staircases, and- the panels over
chimney-pieces. Walker has engraved the tri-
umphal arch erected by him for the coronation of
George III., at Westminster Hall, and has intro-
duced the entrance of the Champion and the Lord

ORATII, (or Orazi,) Alessandbo, painted about
the middle of the 16th century, at Bologna. Mal-
vasia speaks of a picture of the Virgin by him,
which he found over the Macchiavelli altar in the
church of San Francesco.

ORAZI, Andrea Antonio, painted in fresco and
in oil. He was born about 1630, and was a pupil
of L. Garzi and C. Ferri in Rome. In the Crozat
collection was a drawing by him, ' The Angel and
Gideon's Fleece,' which was etched by Caylus, and
engraved by N le Sueur. He died about 1690.
Giuseppe Orazi, who painted the vault of St. Maria
del Orto, is believed to have been a. relation of
Andrea Antonio.

ORAZZI, Niccol6, was an Italian engraver, who
flourished about the year 1760. He was employed
to execute part of the plates for the ' Antiquities of
Herculaneum,' published by the authority of the
King of Naples.

ORBETTO, L'. See Turchi.

ORCAGNA. See Cione.

ORDE-POWLETT, Thomas, an English ama-
teur etcher, born in 1746. His plates are chiefly
caricatures and portraits. There is a burlesque
portrait of Voltaire by him, signed ' T. 0. fecit,
1772.' He was raised to the peerage as Lord Bolton
in 1797, and died in 1807.

ORDONNANCE. See Mouoheeon, Is.

ORELLI, Antonio Baldassarb, an obscure
painter of the Milanese. There is a large altar-
piece by him in the ' Calvary ' Church at Domo-

ORELLI, Giuseppe Antonio Felice, was born
in 1700, in the Milanese, and received his first
instruction in art from his father, Antonio Bal-
dassare. He also worked under Baptista Sassi for
eight years, but Tiepolo having been called to Milan
by Count Arohinti, Orelli had the good fortune to
be employed by him, and afterwards accompanied
him to Venice. There he remained six years. He
then went to Bergamo, where he executed several
works for the convents and churches, also at Milan
for Count Brentato. He also painted a few portraits.
He died in 1774.





ORFELIN. See L'Hoefelin.

ORIENT, Joseph, was born at Burbach, nea,r
Eisenstadt, in Hungary, in 1677, and was a pupil
of Anton Feistenberger. He became sub-director
of the Academy at Vienna, and died there in 1737.
It is said that he made use of a concave mirror in the
painting of his landscapes, in which Ferg, Canton,
and Janneck used to supply the figures. Among
them are :

Landscape with a Hunt. (Ziechtenstem Col.)

A Flat Landscape. {The same.)

Tvfo Tyrolese Landscapes. (Belvedere.)

Forest, with Game (engraved ly Eosel).

Mountain Landscape, with river. (Town Gallery, Stutt-

ORIBNTB, Josfe, a Spanish painter, born in or
near Villareal in Valencia, who painted in the
capital of that province about 1680-9. Among
other works by him, are ' Virgin of the Rosary,' in
the church of S. Felipe Neri, and a portrait of Do-
mingo Sarrio, which was engraved by Crisistomo

ORIOLI, Bartolommeo, was of Treviso, and
painted there about 1616. His principal work is
a large picture painted for the church of Santa
Croce, in which there is a procession of the inhabit-
ants of Treviso, all portraits.

ORIOLI, Giuseppe, painted at Mantua. His best
picture is ' The Last Supper,' in the Refectory of
the Carmine in that place. He died in 1760.

ORIOLO, Giovanni, of Ferrara, is known only
by a portrait of Leonello d'Este, in the National
Gallery ; it is signed Opus Johanis Orioli, and
was formerly in the Costabili Gallery at Ferrara.
Oriolo painted in the middle of the 15th century.
He is supposed to have been a pupil of Vittor
Pisano of Verona, called Pisanello, because this
Leonello d'Este is a free copy from one of that
master's medals.

ORIZONTE. See Bloemen, J. F. Van.

ORLANDI, Deodato, lived at the close of the
13th century, and is the author of a ' Cruciiix' now
in the Palace of Parma, and bearing the date 1288.
In the Pisa Gallery there is a ' Virgin enthroned
between SS. James, Damian, Peter, and Paul,'
painted by him in 1301. No certain dates can be
given for his birth or death.

ORLANDI, Francesco, the son of Stefano
Orlandi, was born in 1725, and educated by his
father. He painted in the same style for theatres
at Leghorn and a chapel at Cente, and was Pro-
fessor of Architecture in the Clementine Academy
at Bologna. He was also a good musician. He
died at Bologna in 1769.

ORLANDI, Giovanni, an engraver and pub-
lisher of prints in Rome between 1590 and 1640.
He followed the style of Cornelius Cort. The
number of engravings executed or published by him
is considerable. Among them are ' The Last Judg-
ment,' after Michelangelo, and 'The Transfigura-
tion,' after Raphael ; also from forty to fifty portraits,
and a plan and view of Genoa, dated 1637.

ORLANDI, Odoardo, an obscure Bolognese
painter, and pupil of Pasinelli. He was born in
1660, and died in 1736.

ORLANDI, Stefano, was the son of Odoardo
Orlandi. Stefano was born in 1681, and studied
under Pompeo Aldrovandini, with whom he went
to Rome. In 1684, in conjunction with Giuseppe
Orsoni, he painted in many theatres in Italy, in the
Saloon of the Palazzo Ranuzzi, and, with Francesco
Monti, for the Martinengo family at Brescia. He
died in 1760.


OBLANDINI, GiULio, painted in Parma in the
middle of the 17th century.

ORLANDO, Bernardo, was appointed court
painter at Turin in 1617.

ORLANDO OF PERUGIA, was one of the fol-
lowers of Perugino. In 1509 he was painting in
conjunction with Sinibaldo Ibi, at Gubbio, of which
place he was made a citizen between 1502 ai;d

ORLEANS, FBANgois d', a French artist, who
was born at the end of the 15th century, and
worked at Fontainebleau under II Rosso.

ORLEY, Van (or Orlat). The important artistic
family of the Van Orleys flourished in Brussels for
three centuries. The following pedigree is given
by Alphonse Wauters :

Valentine van Orley, 1466, d. before 1532.

Philip, Bernard, Everard,

1606—1566. 1493 (?)— 1642 (?). working
I 1504.









Jerome, Pieter, Franz,

working 1680— d. after lf08.
1652. I

Richard (II.), John,

1662(?)-1732{?). 1656-1736.




Mar. Ant. Leyniei-s
(tapestry worker).

Richard (I.).

Bernard, (or Babend,) van Orlet, as will be seen
from this table, was bom about 1493. At an early
age he quitted Brussels for Rome, and studied in the
school of Raphael, becoming, it is said, a great
favourite with his master. He returned while still
very young to his native country, where he was
appointed painter to Margaret of Austria, Govern-
ess of the Netherlands. Together with Michael
Coxie, he superintended the making of the tapes-
tries ff om Raphael's cartoons, which were actually
woven by Pieter Van Aelst, in Brussels. Follow-
ing his master's example, he made, too, a large
number of designs for tapestry, among the most
famous of which are 'The Life of Abraham,' at
Hampton Court, and ' Maximilian's Hunt,' in the
Louvre. He also made designs for windows.
Those on which the portraits of Francis I., Charles
v., and Mary of Hungary appear, in the church
of St. Gudule at Brussels, are from his cartoons.
Bernard married as his first wife, Agnes Seghers,
by whom he had seven children ; and, as his
second, Catherine Hellinckx, who bore him two.
In 1527, the whole family of Van Orley, together
with many of their connections, among the latter
Jan Van Conninxlo, were arrested for being pre-
sent at secret services of the Reformed Church.
There is no evidence beyond that, however, to
show that Bernard was a Protestant. In his
pictures he combined a superficial resemblance to
various Italian masters witlj his more deeply seated
Flemish tastes. Among the best we may name :

Antwerp. Ch. ofS. James. The Last Judgment.
Brussels. Museum. The dead Child, with Virgin

and Saints (a triptych).

„ „ The Patience of Job (a trip-

tych; elaborately signed and

„ „ Portrait of George van Zelle, a

doctor of the 16th century.

„ „ Portrait of Guillaume de Ncr-


„ „ Episode in the life of the Virgin.

(The detached wings of a trip-

„ -, A Holy Family.











Nat. Gall.
Nat. Gall.






Liechtenstein Coll.

A Holy Family {bought in Lon-
don in 1875).

The Magdalen Beading.

The Magdalen reading.
(Similar to the picture at

The Trinity worshipped by

Two groups of Supplicants be-
fore Saints.

Marriage of the Tirgin.

The Descent from the Cross.

Christ on the Cross.

A Diptych with scenes from
Jewish History.

A * Hiposo.'

Two portraits, male and female.

A great number of pictures referable to the
school of Van Orley are extant, among them the
so-called Leonardo da Vinci at Gatton Park, the
' Vierge, au bas-relief,' which seems to be a copy
from a picture by Cesare da Sesto, now in the
Brera, which is itself a compilation from various
sources. W.A.

ORLEY, (or Oblay,) Richaed van, was the
eldest son of Peter van Orley, of the same family
as Bernard. Peter was a landscape painter, and
had two sons — Richard, who died in 1732, and
Jean, who died in 1735. They were each then
from twenty to twenty-two years of age. Their
first master was their father, but he soon placed
them under the guidance of his brother, who was
a monk and artist. Richard painted in the Italian
style, and engraved a number of plates after
different masters. The uncle, Richard, painted
some fine pictures for the church of his order, ' The
Recollets,' but Jean was the most able of them all,
as he painted a number of pictures for churches,
and made many fine designs for tapestry. They
are mostly done on blue paper with the pen, and
shaded with Indian-ink. Those by Richard are
miniatures or designs for book-illustrations in Indian-
ink, and were much admired by Pioart le Remain.

ORLOWSKy, Alexander Ossipowitsch, a
painter, designer, etcher, and lithographer, who
was born at Warsaw in 1777. He studied under
Norblin, and at the Academy of St. Petersburg,
after which he travelled in Prance, Germany, and
Italy. He distinguished himself at this period
chiefly by his battle-pieces. In 1812 he was named
court painter to the Czar, Alexander I., an appoint-
ment which the next Czar, Nicholas, continued. He
died at St. Petersburg in 1832. His best pictures
of battles are in the possession of the Russian
Emperors, but others, together with sketches from
Russian popular life, historical pictures, and por-
traits, are in the collections of the nobility of that
country. Bight hunting and rural pieces are in
the Hermitage. He also executed a number of
drawings which either himself or others repro-
duced in lithography,, among them the humorous
' Cat Court.' Four original lithographs by him
represent military subjects, and his own portrait.
There is also a scarce etching of a ' Race-horse
and Jockey ' from his hand.

ORME, Anton de l'. See De Lobme.

ORMB, Daniel, an engraver and miniature
painter. He worked about 1800, and exhibited
many portraits in miniature, and one or two in
oils at the Royal Academy, between 1797 and
1801. He engraved in stipple many portraits of
persons celebrated at the time, some battle-pieces,
and a picture of 'Alexander and Thais,' from a
picture painted by himself. There is a water-

colour drawing of Margate New Pier by him in

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 60 of 201)