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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Wallerstein collection, and is now ascribed to Alt-
dorfer, but is much more probably the work of
Ostendorfer. He engraved on wood a genealogical
tree of the Turkish Sultans, with their busts.

OSTEEWALD, Geoeg, painter and etcher, was
born at Einteln in Weserthal, in 1803. He was
trained under Gartner in Munich. From 1830 to
1832 he studied in Paris. He painted history, genre,
landscape, architecture, and portraits. Among his
better works we may name :

The Cathedral of Bamberg.

The Cathedral of Siena.

The Prophecy of Jeremiah (water-colour).

OSTERWIJCK. See Oostbewijc?:.

OTELIN, of Valenciennes, the first painter men-
tioned in the annals of his native city, flourished
in the 15th century, and executed a picture of ' The
Valenciennois setting out to pull down the Houses
of Bruay and Fresnes, April 25th, 1456,' which is
at Valenciennes.

OTT, JoHANN Gborq, was born at Schaffliausen
in 1782, and in 1801, with the assistance of Landolt
and Breitinger, first devoted himself to art, after
having been brought up to business pursuits. In
the following year he went to Vienna, and there
produced some ' Studies of Horses.' He then
travelled in Germany, Holland, and France, and
returned in 1805 to his native place, where he
devoted himself to the painting of battle-pieces,
in which he evinced much acquaintance both
with military matters and with horses. He died
at Zurich in 1808. Among his works we may
mention :

Patrol of Hussars.

A Horse dragging a dead Chasseur.

Brother Nikolaus von der Fliite at the fatal Meeting at
Stanz in 1481 {left incomplete at Ott's death).

OTTAVIANI, Giovanni, an Italian designer
and engraver, was born at Rome about 1735, and
died in 1808. He was a pupil of Wagner at
Venice, and on his return to Rome engraved several
plates after some of the most distinguished masters.
The following are among the best of his works :
St. Jerome with a Crucifix ; after Guercino.
St. Cecilia ; after the same.
Angelica and Medoro ; after the same.
Mars and Venus ; after the same.
Three Women bathing surprised by a young Man ; after

the same.
Diana and Actseon ; after the same.
Twenty-three plates, from the paintings by Raphael, in

the loggie of the Vatican.
Four plates from the pictures by Raphael, in the Far-
nesina, representing

Jupiter and Ganymede.
Juno on her Car.
Neptune on the Ocean.
Pluto and Prosperine.
The Aldobrandini Marriage ; after Smugliewici.

OTTAVIANO DA Faenza. See Fabnza.

OTTENS, Fredeeik and Jan, two little known
engravers, who flourished at Delft early in the
18th century.

OTTEVAERE, Augdste, a native of Everghem,
Flanders, who painted from 1809 to 1856. He
lived chiefly in Paris, but died at Ghent in the





latter year mentionorl. He was a pupil of E. Ver-
boeckUoven, and painted similar subjects.

OTTINI, Felice, called Filioetto di Brandi,
was one of the best scholars of H. Brandi. In the
churches of Rome there are but a few pictures by
him, for he died young in 1697. He also etched
from his own designs and from the works of
other Italian masters. He signed his etchings
F. 0. F.

OTTINI, Pasquale, (called Pasqualotto,) was
born at Verona about 1570, and died in the same
city, of the plague, in 1630. He was a disciple of
Felice Ricci, whose manner he imitated so happily
that he was employed, after that artist's death, in
conjunction with Turchi, to complete several pic-
tures which Ricci had left unfinished. A study of
the works of Raphael added much to the improve-
ment of his talent. A good example of his work-
manship is ' The Slaughter of the Innocents,' in
San Stefano; and he appears to still more advan-
tage at San Giorgio in the picture of St. Nicholas,
with St. Bernard and several fathers of the Church.
A single etching is known by him ; it is an ' En-
tombment,' and is signed Fasq'. Otti>. Ver'. inv.

OTTLEY, William Youno, an English writer,
and artist, was born near Thatcham (Berks.), in
1771. He was of a good family, and cultivated
art as an amateur. Having studied under Cuitt,
and in the schools of the Academy, he went, in
1791, to Italy, where he remained ten years, study-
ing and collecting works cf art. He is mainly
known as an author, but he illustrated many of
his books himself. In 1833 he was appointed
Keeper ( f the Prints in the British Museum. He
died in London in 1836. His chief works are :

Inquiry into the Origin and Early History of Engrav-
ing.' 1816.

'The Stafford Gallery.' 1818.

' The Italian School of Design ' {with etchings ly him-
self.) 1823.

'A series -of plates after the early Florentine School.'

' Pac-similes {by himself) of Prints of early Italian,
German, and Flemish Schools.' 1826.

* Fac-similes {by himself) of rare Etchings after Italian,
Flemish, and Dutch' Schools.' 1828.

' Notices of Engravers and their Works.' 1831.

' An Inquiry into the Invention of Printing,' 1863.

In 1823 Ottley exhibited a spirited design at the
Royal Academy, of '■ The Battle of the Angels.'

OTTMER, Kael Theodoe, an architect and
painter, was born at Brunswick in 1800, and
after having attended the Carolinum theie during
1816-19, he in 1822 went to Berlin, seven 3'ears
later to Paris, and thence to Italy, where he first
devoted himself to painting, although through-
out his life he was more engaged in building.
He died at Berlin in 1843. He was a member of
the Architectural Union of Great Britain, and an
honorary member of the Berlin Academy.

OTTO, H. P., an obscure German engraver, said
to have been a native of Berlin. He resided at
Frankfort in 1707, and engraved part of the heads
for a work enti led, ' Notitia Universitatis Franco-
fortianEe,' published in that year. His plates con-
sist chiefly of book ornaments.

OTTO, Johannes Samuel, was born at Unruh-
stadt, in the province of Posen, in 1798. He
visited the Berlin Academy, where he was much
occupied in etching after the architectural drawings
of Schinkel. He also painted several altar-pieces,
a.s well as many portraits ; some of liis portraits of
royal personages he reproduced by lithography.


He also worked in facsimile after Holbein's 'Dance
of Death.' In 1844 he was named a Royal Pro-
fessor. Ho was a great friend of Kiss the sculptor.
Otto died in Berlin in 1878. There is a portrait of
Kiss by him in the National Gallery at Berlin. We
iTiay also name :

Portrait of the Opera singer, Lehmann.

„ King Frederick William IV. (engrated iy


OUDEN-AERD. See Auden-Aebd.


OUDENDIJK, Adriaen, a landscape painter,
was born at Haarlem about 1648, and instructed
by his father. He painted landscapes and views of
towns, some of which are enriched Avith figures by
Dirck Maas, probably when he was young ; but his
chief skill lay in copying, or rather pillaging, the
works of Adriaen van de Velde and Thomas Wyck,
for which he was surnamed ' Rapianus.' The time
of his death is not known, but he was living in

OUDENDIJK, Evert, a painter at Haarlem,
who was admitted into the guild in 1640. He
was the father of Adriaen Oudendijck. He painted
landscapes enlivened with stag-hunts and similar

OUDENROGGE, Johannes Dircksz, a painter
of whose life few particulars are known, but in
the Museum at Amsterdam there is a picture, ' The
Workshcp of a Weaver,' signed by him, and dated
1652. Oudenrogge visited France in 1651 and
died two years later, in 1663, at Haarlem.

OUDRY, Jacques Charles, animal painter, was
the son of Jean Baptiste Oudry, and the pupil of
his father. He was born in Paris in 1720. He
was received into the Academy in 1748. He
travelled much ; he lived for a time at Brussels,
where he was paintcr-in-chief to Prince Charles of
Lorraine ; and died at Lausanne in 1778.

OUDRY, Jean Baptiste, a French painter and
engraver, born in Paris in 1686. His first art
instruction was received from his father, an artist
who combined the trade of picture-dealing with
painting. He also studied in the old ' maitrise ' of
St. Luke, and undtrde Serre, the king's painter at
Marseilles, whom he accompanied to that city.
On his return to Paris he became a pupil of Lar-
gilliere, under whom he studied five years, and
who bestowed great care on his training, and fully
recognized the peculiar bent of his genius. In
1717 he had already risen to such repute, that
when Peter the Great came to Paris in that year,
he had his portrait painted by Oudry. He was
elected a member of the 'maitrise' in 1708, and
subsequently filled in it the offices of assistant and
professor. Oudry was received into the Academic
des Beaux Arts as an historical painter in 1717,
on his picture of ' Abundance.' For many years
his practice consisted of portraits and votive pic-
tures for churches : in fact, whatever came to him.
Among these works, the most noteworthy were
the 'Nativity' in the church of St. Leu, and the
' Adoration of the Magi ' in St. Martin-des-Champs.
At one time he was disposed to seek better fortunes
in Russia, whither he was invited by the Czar, whose
portrait he had painted. A commission to paint
some hunting-scenes for the Duke d'Antin, however,
turned the scale in favour of his native country,
and induced him to remain in France. But it was
not until he was presented to Louis XV. that he was
enabled to devote himself entirely to the class of
work on which his reputation rests. He became




a great favourite with the king, and was assigned
apartments in the Louvre. His brush was in con-
stant requisition to portray the royal dogs and
hunts, as well as any additions to the king's ool-
lei^tion of wild animals. Basking in the sunshine
of court patronage, there was now no lack of com-
missions to paint his favourite subjects. One of
liis chief patrons was Fagon, the finance minister,
for whom he executed many decorative works. By
him he was appointed, in 1734, to the superintend-
ence of the manufactory at Beauvais, and his
success in this undertaking obtained him the like
appointment at the Gobelins. In producing designs
for execution at these establishments, he worked
assiduously, and for some time single-handed, until
he summoned Boucher and Natoire to his aid.
Notwithstanding these labours he found time to
paint a great number of pictures. Moreover, his
appreciation of La Fontaine led him to produce
illustrations for the fine edition of that poet's
fables which was published in 1766. In the same
year he was struck with apoplexy. He i-enioved to
Beauvais, in the hopes of obtaining benefit from
the change ; and there he died on the 30th April,
1765. The following is a list of his better works :
Amiens. Museum. Dog and Game.

Arra,s. „ Fox-hunt.

Besancon. „ Dog guarding Game.

Caen. „ Wild Boar Hunt. 1748.

Cherbourg. „ Eagle and Hare.

Dijon. Frefecture. Fish, Eel, and Ducks.

Lille. Museum. Pug-dog. 1730.

Montpellier. „ Game, Dog, Flowers, and Fruit.

Nantes. „ Eustic scene.

„ Dog seizing a Duck.

Wolf-hunt. 1748.
,, ,, Spaniel.

Narbonue. „ Bitch and Puppies.

Orleans. „ Poultry.

„ „ Dog and Pheasant.

Paris. Louvre. AVolf-hunt. 1746.

Cock-flfht. 1749.
„ „ Dog and Game. 1747.

„ „ The Farm. 1750.

Three pictures of Dogs of Louis
Pau. Museum,. Stag-hunt.

Eouen. „ Stag-hunt. 1725.

Stockholm. Nat. Gallery. "VVater-spaniel and Heron.
„ Tiger at the Menagerie, Ver-

sailles. 1739.
„ ,, Stag-hunt.

„ „ The Lion and the Spider.

„ „ Flowers and Fruit. 1721 .

„ „ Spauiel and Partridge. 1742.

„ „ Six still-life pictures.

Toulouse. Museum. Portrait of himself.

„ „ Louis XV. hunting the Stag.

Tours. „ Bear-hunt.

VersaiUes. y^f„™'' } Plenty.

„ „ The Harvest.

„ „ Vintage.

Some of Oiidry's drawings (if bird.s in black and
white chalk on blue paper are peculiarly fine.


OUDRY, P., an unknown French pamter, whose
name is appended to a portrait of IMary Queen of
Soots, now in the National Portrait Gallery, and
long in the possession of the Brocas family, at
Beaurepaire, in Hnmpshire.

OURS, J. S. SAINT. See Saint Ouks.

OUTKIN. See Utkin.

OUVILLY. See Gebbier.

OUVRIE, PiERBE Justin, painter and litho-
grapher, was born in Paris in 1806. He was a

pupil of Abel de Pujol and of Chatillon. He visited
Italy, Flanders, and England. His landscapes are
remarkable for the skill with which the buildings
in them are treated. Ouvri^ died in 1879. Among
his best works we may name :

Shelley's Funeral.

The Grand Canal, Venice.

St. Laurence, Nuremberg.

San Pietro, Genoa.

Windsor Castle.

Wurzburg Cathedral. {^Water-Colour)

View of Rouen. (The same.)

Market in Nuremberg. {The same)

Somerset House. {The same.)

OUVRIER, Jean, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1725, and died in 1754. We have by
him a variety of vignettes, landscapes, and other
subjects, of which the following are considered
the best :

The Villagers of the Apennines ; after Pierre.
A View in the Alps ; after Veniet.
A View in the Apennines ; after the same.
The Magic Lantern ; after Scheiiau.
The Flemish School ; after Eisen the elder.
The Dutch School ; after the same.
The Genius of Design, an emblematical subject ; after

OUWATER, Albert van, an early Dutch painter
whose life and works are involved in great obscurity,
and, presumably, a native of the town of Ouwater,
or Oudewater. He is the first painter mentioned
by Vau Mander as having been a native of Holland,
and must therefore, in a sense, be called the founder
of the Dutch school. No picture, however, can be
certainly pointed to as his. The old biographers
tell us that he acquired a well-deserved reputation
by his skill in the treatment of landscape, and in
the painting of hands and feet. In the 16th cen-
tury the gallery of Cardinal Grimani possessed a
few landscapes which were said to be his, but they
have disappeared. They are mentioned by Mo-
relli's ' Anonimo ' as the work of ' Alberto d'Olanda.'
Van Mander ascribes to Albert an altar-piece in
the great church of Haarlem, representing St. Peter
and St. Paul, life-size, and, on a predella, pilgrims
on the way to Rome in a finely painted landscape.
A ' Descent from the Cross,' in the Cologne Mu-
seum, which has also been ascribed to Ouwater, is
of a totally different character. It bears, too, the
year 1480, which may well be later than Ouwatei-'s
true date. Of that, however, we know nothing
positive, as Van Mander tells us the year nelthiT
of his birth nor his death. A ' Descent from the
Cross,' at Vienna, which Passavant gives to Ouwater,
is in a different manner again. Perhaps Ouwati/r's
true style is to be traced in such works as the
' Adoration of the Kings,' which is No. 1079 in the
National Gallery. On this panel the word Ouwater
has been written, probably with the butt-end of a
brush, while the paint was still wet, so that the
reddish under-painting shows through the letters.
This seems at least to connect the picture in some
way with the town of Ouwater. Supposing it to
be Albert's work it would make him the fountain-
head from which the styles of Gheerardt David
and Patinir were derived, and would give him
much affinity with Dirck Bouts. W. A.

OUWATER, Gheekardt van. See David.

OUWATER, IsAAK, an artist, born in 1747, iit

Amsterdam. He painted there, at Utrecht, and at

Haarlem. His subjects were views of or in towns,

into which he introduced figures and animals. He

I died at Amsterdam in 1793. Six pictures by him





were sold, in 1814, at the sale of J. C. van Hall ;
and there are in the Museum at Amsterdam, two
views of that city by him.

OUWATER, Jakob, was a Dutch painter of
fruit, flowers, insects, birds, &c., of whom little is
known. He lived long, however, at the Hague,
where he was inscribed, in 1754, on the registers of
the ' Pictura ' brotherhood. He afterwards worked
for a time at Middelburg.

OUWERKERK, Jan Van, an unimportant Dutch
painter, was established at Middelburg in 1774,
where he painted marine views. He was a pupil
of Marinus Piepers.

OVENS, Jueiabn, a Dutch painter and etcher,
was born at Amsterdam in 1623. He has been
supposed to have been brought up in the school
of Rembrandt. Whether this be correct or not,
he certainly excelled in painting night-pieces and
subjects by torch-light ; he was also eminent as
a portrait painter. There are some of his works
in the Stadt-house at Amsterdam, representing sub-
jects from Dutch history. In 1675 he was invited
to Friedriohstadt, to the court of the Duke of
Holstein, in whose service he remained till his
death, which occurred on the 7th December, 1678.
There has been some confusion as to the dates of
Juriaen Ovens, in consequence of a mistaken
assertion, supported by Nagler, that on a portrait
of himself, painted by him in 1666, the words
anno cetatis 66, were to be read. Pictures of
his are to be found as under :

Amsterdam. Town Hall. The Conspiracy of Claudius
„ Huisittenliuis. Portrait.
„ R. Museum. Portrait of Mr. Jan Barend

„ „ Portrait group of seven regents,

half life size.
Copenhagen. Museum. The Concert.

„ „ Portrait.

Nantes. Museum. The Departure of Tobit. 1651.

Vienna. Count Harrach's. Girl with a Fowl.

„ „ Girl with a Bunch of Grapes.

Among his etchings there are :
The Whale. 1659.

Inauguration of Kiel University. 1666.
Portrait of Chancellor Kielmann.

OVERBECK, BoNAVENTDEA van, called ' Romu-
lus,' a painter, engraver, and author; was bom
in 1660 at Amsterdam. He was probably a pupil
of Gerard Lairesse, and went three times to Rome,
many of the antiquities of which city he drew and
engraved. He painted there also a picture for the
Bentvogel Society, which was engraved by Van
Pool. Schenk engraved his 'Mars and Apollo,'
and C. Vermeulen his portrait by C. le Blon. He
died in 1706. After his death, his work, ' Reliqui»
antiqusB urbis Romse,' was published in 1708, and
remarks upon it, by P. Rolli, in 1739.

OVERBECK, JoHANN Friedbich, the leader of
the modern religious movement in German art,
was born at Lubeck on the 4th of July, 1789. His
ancestors for three generations were Protestant
ministers ; his father was doctor of laws, a poet,
and Burgomaster of his native city. After a
general education conducted mostly at home, Over-
beck was sent, in 1806, to prosecute his art studies
at Vienna, in the Academy. The method there in
force _ soon awakened strong opposition in his
peculiar temperament, which led to his expulsion
with several of his sympathizers. In 1810 he went
to Rome, where, with his friend Cornelius, he
founded the school of German pre-Raphaelites ; the


home of the brotherhood being the disused monas-
tery of Sant' Isidore, on the Pincian. The first
important commission Overbeck received was one
from Queen Caroline of Bavaria for an ' Adoration
of the Kings.' This was in 1811 : two years later
he deserted the faith of his fathers, and was re-
ceived into the Roman Church. This change,
which can hardly have failed to distress the parents
at home, must no doubt be taken as the explanation
of Overlseck's deliberate avoidance of his native
place on his several visits to Germany. After his
parting with them in 1806, he never again saw his
mother and father, although they did not die until
1820 and 1821 respectively. In 1819, an exhibition
of German pictures, painted in Rome, was held in
the Palazzo Cafarelli, and the chief interest centred
in the works of Overbeck, Cornelius, Veit, and
Schadow. One of Overbeck's contributions was a
' Madonna ' which showed an almost slavish defer-
ence to Raphael. The other was a 'Flight into
Egypt,' in which little of his own ascetic bent
could be perceived. In 1819 Overbeck married a
lady, a native of Vienna, whose Christian name
was Nina, and who, we are told, had no right to a
surname, for she was the illegitimate daughter of
a Viennese noble, from whom she received a
dowry. By her he had two children, a girl who
died young, and a boy, Alfons Maria, who only
lived long enough to give promise of considerable
powers. In 1831 Overbeck paid a visit to Germany.
In 1833 he was present at the opening of Raphael's
tomb in the Pantheon. In 1840 occurred the death
of his son, which was followed thirteen years later
by that of his wife. In 1855 he visited Germany
for the last time. Two years later he was honoured
by a visit in his studio from Pius IX., on the 7th
of February, and on the 12th November, 1869, he
died at the age of eighty. The following list
includes most of his important works :


d^AngdC \^^^^°^ °* ^*- Francis. {Fresco)
Carlsruhe. Gallery. The Christian Parnassus. {Car-
Cologne. Cathedral. Assumption of the Madonna.
Basle. Museum. The Finding of Moses. (Cartoon.)

n „ Israelites gathering Manna. {The

„ „ Translation of Elijah. {The same.)

.. -, Death of St. Joseph. {The same.)

Berlin. JFat. Gallery. The Seven Sacraments. Seven
» „ Portrait of an old Monk.

>• 1, Jerusalem delivered.

„ Raczynski Coll. Marriage of the Virgin.
» „ A Sibyl.

Biebrieh. Villa Ger- ),-,,.. , ,

Dusseldorf. Academy. Raising of Lazarus.

Frankfort. Slddel Gal. Joseph sold by his Brethren.

Hamburg. Great ) mi, » ■ iv ,-, j

Hospital. f^^-^Sor>.ym the G^deu.

Heidelberg. «|;.^^-|^,^^^^^_^_

„ „ Portrait of Cornelius.

^" ™' H^P^o'it ] iDoredulity of St. Thomas.
Lubeck. Town Library. Meeting of Ulysses and Tele-
„ „ A Pieta.

„ Marien Kirche. Christ entering Jerusalem.
Munich. New Pina- ) tt i -c -i -ii. oi x i.
cothek. J ■^° y Family, with St. John.

„ „ Italia and Germania, as two

female figures in a landscape.
„ „ Con6rmation.

!, „ Portrait of Vittoria Caldoni.

Borne. Cara Bartholdi. History of Joseph. (Frescoes.)




Rome. Villa Massimo. Jerasalem delivered. {Frescoes.)
■Weihem (near Zot:- 1 ' Oyclus ' from the Gospels.
Munich), leek Coll. j (Forty Cartoons.)

OVERBECK, (or Ovekbebck,) Leendert, a
Dutch landscape painter and engraver, born at
Haarlem in 1750. He was a pupil of H. Meyer,
and at first designed tapestry and ornaments, but
afterwards turned his attention to drawing and
etching, in which latter he became very skilful.
In the year 1775 he was Moderator in the Academy
at Haarlem, and gave the following year a dis-
course which was printed. He worked in Amster-
dam and at Weesp, and died at Haarlem in 1815.
He engraved a number of Dutch landscapes with
figures, among which are views in the neighbour-
hood of Haarlem, dated 1791-93, and two of Leyden,
dated 1807.

OVERLABT, Anton, a designer and etcher,
who lived at Antwerp in the latter half of the 18th
century, and had at first been a journeyman baker.
He was admired for his pen-and-ink drawings
from portraits, historical pictures, landscapes, and
genre scenes. Among his copies we may name :

Beggar and his "Wife ; after Rembrandt. 1760.

Dutch Village, with Castle and Canal ; after the same.

Two drawings of Male and Female Feasants; in A.

Ostade's majmer.

OWEN, The Rev. Edward Pryce, an English
etcher and painter, born in 1788. He graduated
at Oxford, took orders in the Church of England,
and cultivated art as an amateur. He published
some etchings of ancient buildings in Shrewsbury,
1820-21, and another volume of etchings in 1826.
He died at Cheltenliam in 1863.

OWEN, Samuel, marine painter in water-colours,
was born in 1768. His subjects were generally
siiipping, which he executed in a correct and
skilful manner. He exhibited for the first time at
the Royal Academy in 1794, and again in 1797,
when his subject was the ' IBritish and Spanish
Fleets, commanded by Sir John Jarvis.' He was a
member of the 'Associated Artists in Water-
Colours,' a defunct society, which was founded in
1808. For several years before his death (which
occurred at Sunbury in 1857) he had given up
painting. He made the eighty-three drawings
illustrating Bernard Cooke's ' The Thames.'

OWEN, William, an eminent painter of por-
traits and fancy subjects, was born at Ludlow in
1769, and was educated at the grammar-school of
that town. It is not known that he received any
instruction in painting until he reached his seven-
teenth year, although he had as a boy exhibited a
strong inclination for art. About 1786 he was sent
to London and placed nnder Catton, who had been
a coach-painter, but was then a Royal Academi-

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 62 of 201)