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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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brother, Franz Anton, at Presburg, and then at-
tended the Vienna Academy and travelled in Italy.
In 1752 he became court painter at Dresden, and
in 1764 at Munich. He died in 1767, apparently
at Prague. Among his paintings are :

R 2

Judith and Holoferues.

Deliverance of Captives. (Trinitarians, Presburg.)
St. John. (Dresden Court Chapel.)
Two etchings by him are known :
Christ and the Samaritan Woman.
Adam and Eve hiding themselves in Fear.

His brother, Franz Anton Paloko, was a pupil
of his father, and became court painter to Prince
Esterhazy. He has left altar-pieces in the cathedral
and in the Salvatorskirche, at Vienna.

PALISSY, Bernard, was born about 1510, at La
Chapelle Biron, a village in Perigord. He was
brought up to his father's trade of a glazier, but
having a taste for drawing, design, and decoration,
he turned it to account in painting glass for churches
in the district. At the age of twenty-one he set
out on his travels. He first went into the country
of the Pyrenees, and after settling for a time at
Tarbes, he went through France, Switzerland, and
Southern Germany to Belgium and Flanders. He
returned to France in 1539, and settled atSaintonge
in the south-west, where he married, and pursued
his manifold callings of portrait painting, glass
painting, and land-measuring. While thus en-
gaged he was seized with the desire to produce
enamelled faience, and his ardour in prosecuting
his researches is well known. His fame as a potter
spread, and he soon attracted the notice of the
Duke of Montmorency, Constable of France, who
by using his influence with Catharine de' Medicis,
saved Palissy from being burnt as a Huguenot.
After his release from imprisonment he removed
from Saintonge to the Tuileries at Paris, where he
long continued to carry on the manufacture of his
famous pottery. At the age of seventy-six he was
again arrested as a heretic and imprisoned in the
Bastile, where he died after about a year's imprison-
ment, in the year 1588. His life belongs rather to
the history of an art with which this book is not
supposed to deal, but the fact that he did once
work as a painter prevents our passing his name in

PALLADINO, Adriano, according to Orlandi,
was born at Cortona in 1610, and was a scholar of
Berrettini (Pietro de Cortona). He painted history
in the style of his master, and executed several
works for the public edifices of his native city.
He died in 1680.

PALLAVICINI, Leo, appears to have resided at
Milan in the early part of the 17th century. He is
said to have published some prints marked with
the initials .£. P.f.

PALLIERE, Armand Jhlien, a painter of Bor-
deaux, was born in 1783. He was a brother of
Louis Palliere, and was also instructed by Vincent.
He painted mythological and historical pictures,
such as ' The Death of Epaminondas,' ' Love,' and

PALLIERE, Louis-Vincent-L^on, a French his-
torical painter, was born at Bordeaux in 1787. He
was a scholar first of his father, who was an en-
graver and draughtsman, and then of Vincent, and
gave early promise of arriving at excellence in the
art. In 1809 he obtained a second prize for his
' Priam kneeling before Achilles,' and in 1812 the
Prix de Rome for his ' Ulysses slaying the Suitors
of Penelope.' At Rome, where he remained five
years, he painted ' Argus slain by Mercury ; '
'Prometheus tormented by the Vulture;' 'The
Flagellation of Christ' (for which Louis XVIII.
awarded him a gold medal: it was painted for
the church of the Trinita de' Monti) ; and ' Jui\o

■ 243




borrowing the Girdle uf Venus.' In 1819 he ex-
hibited at the Musee ' St. Peter curing the Lame
Man ; ' ■ Tobit restoring Sight to his Father '
(now in the Bordeaux Museum) ; ' A Shepherd in
Repose ; ' ' A Nymph coming from the Bath ; '
' Preaching at Home during the Night ; ' and other
subjects. He died in 1820.

PALMA, Jacopo, called Palma Vecchio, to
distinguish him from his grand-nephew, Palma
Giovine, was born at Serinalta about 1480. Very
little is known of his life. His will, which has
been discovered within the last few years, was
made on the 28th July, 1628, and he is known to
have died a few days afterwards, it is said at the •
age of forty-eight. In the collection of the Duo
d'Aumale there is a ' Holy Conversation ' with i
the following inscription, jaohobds palma md.
This inscription Crowe and Cavaloaselle accept,
and partly, at least, upon its evidence base their
belief that Palma shared with Giorgione and Titian
" the honour of modernizing and regenerating
Venetian art." For the picture on which it occurs
is entirely in the free manner of the cinqueoentisls.
Morelli, on the other hand, refuses to accept this
cartellino as genuine, or the theory of Raima's
forceful originality as well founded. He contends
that it was not until much later that Palma became
capable of such work. At present the question
must remain open. The birthplace of Palma is in
the province of Bergamo, and throughout his pic-
tures a Bergamasque feeling can be traced. We
have no authentic information as to his pupilage.
Giovanni Bellini, Cima, and Carpaccio seem to
have been his chief models, and from the whole
drift of his art we must credit him with an import-
ant share in the creation of what is too often called
the Giorgionesque innovation in painting. His
portraits especially are broad, luminous, and in-
tensely human. So far as can be discoveredj the
brush of Palma was never officially employed,
which takes away one important Fource of inform-
ation as to his life. Like other men of his time,
he was often asked for semi-allegorical pictures of
heathen gods and demi-gods. Of these the records
of a ' Ceres,' of a ' Rape of Ganymede,' of a canvas
with Juno, Venus, and Minerva upon it, have
come down to us, as well as one picture, a recum-
bent ' Venus,' now at Dresden. An ' Adam and
Eve,' too, at Brunswick, is a fair example of his
only mediocre skill in the nude. His more import-
ant pictures are enumerated below. Of Raima's
last days more is known than of the rest of his life.
We gather from his will that he was never married,
and that consequently he had no legitimate children.
The famous Violante must have been illegitimate.
In his will he mentions a niece Margarita, and two
nephews besides Antonio, who afterwards became
famous as the father of Palma Giovine. All these
were the children of a brother, Bartolommeo.
Palma died in the odour of sanctity within a few
days after the signing of his will, for on August
8th, 1628, his executors made an inventory of his
goods, which included forty-four unfinished pic-
tures. He was a member of the San Spirito brother-
hood, and was buried in their vaults at San Gregorio,
Venice. WA,

Bergamo. Andreossi Col. A Holy Conversation.

„ Lochis Carrara \ Madonna, with St. John the

Blenheim (formerly).


j Baptist and the Magdalen.
Madonna, with a female martyr
and soldier saint. {Ascribed
to Giorgione.)

Brunswick. Gallery.



London. National Gall.
Lady Eastlake.








Petersburg. Leuchtem-

berg Gallery.

Home. Palace Boryhese.

„ „ Colonna.

Rovigo. Gall. Commujiale.
Serinalta. Duorrw.

Venice. Academia.

J, Acad. {Contarini

„ Sta, Maria Formosa.



jS. Stefano.


Adam and Eve. {Exhibited in
the Zio Collection at Venice in

A Holy Conversation, with

Madonna and Child, with St.
John the Baptist and St.

A Holy Conversation.

(?) Madonna ; shepherd adoring.
(No. 4 ; ascribed to Titian.)

Madonna, with kneeling saints.

SS. Helen, Constantine, Sebas-
tian, and Bock.

Adoration of the Magi, with St.

A Holy Conversation.

A Holy Conversation. {Very

Madonna ; shepherd adoring.
( With two forged signatures
upon it, TiTiANNTJS and Tici-


I A Holy Conversation, {Very
\ important.)
Madonna, with SS. Anthony

and Jerome.
Madonna, with St. Peter.
A Holy Conversation.
A series of pictures, of which
the Purification of Mary is
the chief.
St. Peter among other Saints.

- Christ and the Widow of Nairr.

St. Barbara, with Keta and
Saints. {^Perhaps Palma^s

The Virgin enthroned.

A Holy Conversation.

The Salutation of Mary.

Virgin enthroned.





Castle. A Peasant Girl ; two lovers in
the distance.
A young "Woman. {Signed P.)
The Three Sisters ; called also
' Palma's Daughters,' and
' The Three Graces.'

(?) Ariosto. {Ascribedto Titian)
A young Man. (? Palma him-
The so-caUed ' Schiava di Titi-

Florence. Uffizi.

London. National Gall,
Munich. Galleiy,


Pal. Barberini.
„ Sciarra Palace.

Vienna. Belvedere.

' La Bella.' {Ascribed to

Five female portraits. {Nos.

322. 324—327 in Cat. of 188i.)
Violante. (323.)

PALMA, Jacopo, called ' II Giovine,' was bom
at Veui e in 1644. His father, Antonio, nephew
of Palma Vecchio, was also his instructor. At
the age of fifteen he was taken by the Duke of
Urbino to Rome, where he studied chiefly the
works of Polydoro Caravaggio. His manner, though
mechanical, shows much talent, especially in the
treatment of heads. Some of his best pictures are
in the palace of the Doge, and in the Academy.
After the death of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese
he seems to have displayed legs care, as many of
his later pictures are very inferior. He died in
1628. A good ' Madonna, with Saints,' is in the
church of S. Francesco della Vigna ; and a ' St.
Catharine rescued from the Wheel ' at S. Frari in
Venice. The following examples of his art may
I also be named :






The Presentation of Mary.


St. Sebastian.

Crucifixion of St. Andrew.



St. Margaret with the palm of



The Temptation of St. Benedict.



The Deposition. (Signed
Jacobus Palma. F. 1600.)



Two other versions of the same

The Nativity.



Eece Homo.


The Flagellation.



Two scenes from the Apoca-

n „ St. Francis.

„ (Contarini Coll.) Six pictures.
,, (Renter Coll.) The Body of Christ sustained

by Angels.
Vienna. Belvedere. The Murder of Abel.

„ „ The Daughter of Herodias.

„ „ Two pictures of the Deposition.

„ „ Christ supported on the edge

of the Tomb by three Angels.
,) „ Christ's Body watched by

„ „ The Immaculate Conception.

„ ,, St. John and the Angel of the


PALMAROLI, PlETRo, was an Italian painter
and picture reslorer, to whom the world iaindebted
for the preservation of the famous ' Descent from
the Cross,' by Daniele da Volterra, which in 1809
he transferred from the wall, on which it was
painted in fresco, to canvas. This was the first
work of the kind, and he afterwards transferred
and restored several other pictures in Rome, and,
in 1826, in Dresden ; among the latter the cele-
brated 'Madonna di San Sisto,' by Raphael. He
also freed Raphael's ' Sibyls,' in the church of Santa
Maria della Pace, from the destructive restorations
in oil made by order of Alexander VII. His
feats, however, were not all as beneficial as these.
Palmaroli died at Rome in 1828.

PALMASANUS (or PalmeggianI). See Pal-


PALMER, Sir Jambs, was a member of the
household of Charles I., and was employed by him
in the purchase of pictures. He made copies of
several works in the Royal Collection, among them
Titian's ' Tarquin and Luoretia.' He is also said
to have painted a feast of Bacchus.

PALMER, Samuel, water-colour painter, was
born in 1805. He early showed a taste for art,
and at the age of fourteen he exhibited at the
British Institution, ' Bridge Scene ' and ' Land-
scape,' and at the Royal Academy, ' Cottage Scene,
Banks of the Thames, Batteraea,' ' Landscape with
Ruins,' and 'A Study.' By the advice of his
father-in-law, John Linnell, he underwent a course
of figure drawing at the British Museum, during
which time he was introduced to W. Blake. He
then went to live at Shoreham with his father,
and we find him exhibiting at the Academy and
British. Institution. In 1839 he married, and for
his wedding tour spent two years in Italy. He
then returned to London, and lived in Kensington
till 1851, when he removed to Furze Hill, near
Reigate, where he spent the remainder of his life.
His last appearance at the Academy was in 1842.
He was elected an Associate Exhibitor of the
Society of Painters in Water-Colours in 1843, and
a full member in 1855. He was chosen a member
of the Etching Club in 1853. A translation of
Virgil's ' Eclogues ' by him was published after his
death, with plates designed and partly etched by

himself. The subjects of his finest drawings were
mostly from Milton. He died at Reigate in 1881.
The following is a complete list of his etchings :
The Willow. 1850. His first plate.
Christmas ; or Folding the Last Sheep. 1850. (From

Bampfylde^s Sonnet.)
The Herdsman's Cottage. 1850.
The Skylark. 1850. (Published ly the Etching Club.)
The Vine ; two subjects on one plate. 1852. (Published

in the ' Songs and Sonnets of Shakespeare.')
The Sleeping Shepherd. 1857. (Published by the Etch-

ijiff Club.)
The Rising Moon. 1857. (Published by the Etching

The Herdsman. 18C7. (Published by the Etching Club.)
The Early Ploughman. 1868. (Published in- • Etching

and Etchers.')
The Morning of Life. 1872. (Published by the Etching

The Bellman ; from U Pensieroso. 1879.
The Lonely Tower ; fi'om II Pensieroso. 1880. (Pub-
lished by the Etching Club.)
Early Morning ; opening the Fold. 1880.

PALMERUCCJ, GniDO., was born at Gubbio in
1280, and is known to have executed frescoes in
the church of Santa Maria de' Laici, Gubbio, pre-
vious to 1337, and to have painted at the Town
Hall in 1342. In the former of these buildings, on
an exterior wall, are the remains of a figure of St.
Anthony*; and in the latter is a colossal ' Enthroned
Virgin and Child, with Saints and a kneeling
Gonfaloniere.' Many other of the churches in
Gubbio possess frescoes of a similar character to
those mentioned above, which may be by Guido,
but there are no recorded evidences to prove the
fact. His death occurred about 1345.

PALMEZZANO, Marco (di Antonio), was bom
at Forli, probably about the year 1456, and lived
up to 1537. He was a pupil of Melozzo da Forli,
and was in the habit of signing his early produc-
tions Marcus de Melotiilk, a fact which has occa-
sioned many of his best paintings to be attributed
to his master. He closely followed Melozzo's
teachings, and his frescoes exhibit a sculpturesque
hardness of style. In a chapel of San Biagio in
San Girolamo, at Forli, are some frescoes repre-
senting secular scenes which are signed, Marcus
Palmezzanus Victor foroliviensis M. . . ., which,
according to Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, closely
resemble, both in style and colour, a fresco repre-
senting eight of the prophets, painted on the dome
of the Capella Tesoro in the church of Loretto. In
1497 Palmezzano executed, by order of the Prior
of the Company of San Michelino of Faenza, an
altar-piece representing the Virgin and Child,
enthroned between SS. Michael and James the
Less. The church of the Zoccolanti, at Matelica
near Fabriano, contains an altar-piece, 'An en-
throned Virgin and Child, with a Pieti and Saints^'
etc., signed Marcus de Melotius Foroliviensis
fatiehat, al temp, de frate Zorzo Guardiano del
MoG.G.C.G.C.i-, with a curious monogram. The
church of the Carmine at Forli possesses a ' Glory
of St. Anthony, between SS. John the Baptist and
Sebastian,' with a similar inscription. The exact
date of Pahnezzano's death is unknown. A por-
trait of the artist, painted by himself in 1536, is
now in the Pinacoteca of Forli. Examples of
Palmezzano are also to be found as below :

Berlin. Museum. The Resurrection. 1515.

„ „ Virgin and two Saints.

Bordeaux. JHuseum. Calvary.

Dublin. JVat. Gallery. Enthroned Virgin and Child,
between SS. John Baptist
and Lucy. 1508.






S. Girolamo.

Tinac, Comun.





Nat. Gallery.





Spada Palace.

The Crucifixion.

Subjects from the Life of the

Apostle James. 1485.
Virgin surrounded by Saints.
Communion of the Apostles.

Christ on the way to Calvary.
The Nativity. 1530.
The Entombment.
Virgin and four Saints. 1493.
The Nativity. 1492.
Coronation of the Virgin.
The Dead Christ.
Virgin and six Saints. 1537.
Christ on the way to Calvary.

PALMIERI, GiosEFFO, (or Giuseppe,) was born
at Genoa in 1674. Although he acquired some
reputation as a painter of history, he is chiefly cele-
brated for his pictures of animals. One of the best
of his historical works is his picture in the church
of San Domenioo, at Genoa, representing the
' Resurrection.' He died in 1740.

PALMIERI, PiETKO, painter and engraver, was
born at Parma" in 1740. He learnt the elements of
art in his own city, and then went to Paris. He
painted chiefly landscapes and genre subjects.
After several years' residence in Paris, he was ap-
pointed a Professor in the Academy at Parma.
He died at Turin in 1804. "

PALMIERI, PlETEO Jacopo, engraver, was born
at Bologna in 1720. He engraved landscapes and
battle scenes, the latter chiefly after Simonetti.

PALMISANUS. See Palmezzano.

PALOMARES. See Santiago Palomahes.

PALOMBO, Baetolommeo, was born at Rome
about the year 1612, and was a scholar of Pietro
da Cortona. In the church of St. Joseph, at Rome,
is an altar-piece by him, representing the death of
that Saint ; and in the church of the Carmelites of
St, Martino de' Monti, a picture of ' Mary Magda-
lene.' He was still living in 1666.

PALOMBO, Onofrio, a painter who flourished
at Naples about 1640. He was a pupil of J. B.
Carracoioli and Artemisia Gentilesohi, and painted
chiefly for the churches.

PALOMBO, PiBTRO Paolo, an engraver of Na-
varra, who lived at Rome about the middle of the
16th century. Among his plates were the following:

The Last Supper ; after Eaphael.
A Holy Family ; after the same.
The Entombment ; after Michelangelo,
The Crucifixion ; after the same.
A Drawing-School ; after the same.

PALOMINO, Juan Beenab^, was born at Cor-
dova in 1692, and studied painting under his uncle
Antonio Palomino at Madrid, until the death of
that artist in 1726. He practised engraving also, and
executed the second title-page and some plates for
his uncle's great work. - Returning to Cordova, he
devoted himself to the burin, executing a portrait
of Louis XV. of Prance of such merit as to induce
Philip V. to recall him to court. On the estab-
lishment of the Academy of San Ferdinando in
1752, he was made director of the engraving
school, and Perdinand "VI. appointed him engraver-
in-ordinary. He died at Madrid in 1777. He exe-
cuted a large number of prints, some of consider-
able merit : ' Dionysius the Carthusian,' after Car-
duoho ; ' San Bruno,' from the statue by Pereira ;
'A Miracle of St. Isidro,' after Carreno ; 'St. Peter
in Prison,' from a picture by Roelas, in the church
of that saint at Seville ; portraits of Queen Isabella,
the Nuncio Cardinal Gonzaga, his own nephew,


Nicolas Palomino, the Jesuit Alonzo Rodriguez,
the controversialist Bishop Juan de Palafos, and
many other worthies of his time. He furnished
titles and frontispieces to many books. He left
a son, Juan Pernando Palomino, likewise an en-
graver, who died at Madrid in 1793.

AoiscLO Antonio, the Vasari of Spain, was born at
Bujalance, near Cordova, in 1653. His parents were
Eernab§ Palomino and Maria Andrea Lozano, who,
being in good circumstances, transferred their
residence to Cordova, in order to bestow an educa-
tion on their son suitable to his rank. Here he
studied grammar, philosophy, theology, and juris-
prudence ; but his ruling passion discovered itself
by his devoting his leisure hours to copying prints.
In 1672, the painter Juan de Viildes Leal, returned
from Seville to Cordova, and was shown some of
Palomino's productions ; he gave him encourage-
ment to proceed, and taught him the fundamental
rules of painting. This decided his course, and he
acknowledged Valdes Leal as his master. He,
however, did not abandon his literary studies, and
was ordained for the Church. In 1675 he received
some further instruction and encouragement from
Juan de Alfaro, who recommended him to visit
Madrid, and study the works of the great masters
there. But he stayed at Cordova till 1678, when
Alfaro returned to Madrid, and Palomino .accom-
panied him. He found employment at the court,
and gave so much satisfaction to his friend Alfaro,
that the latter appointed him by his will to finish
some pictures which he had commenced, but had
been unable to complete. Palomino next formed a
friendship with Juan Carreno and Coello, and was
chosen by the latter to assist in painting the ceiling
of the queen' s gallery at the Alcazar ; he executed
his part so much to the satisfaction of his coadjutor,
that Coello, having other engagements at the Es-
corial, left him to finish the ceiling. On the mar-
riage of Charles II. in 1690, Palomino designed the
decorations for the state entry. In 1692, the arrival
of Luca Giordano caused some consternation among
the Spanish painters; but Palomino maintained
his position. Luca was probably not so well versed
in Christian as in heathen mythology, and Palo-
mino was able to instruct him in the subjects he
was called upon to paint. This he did with such
delicacy and perspicacity, that Giordano, embracing
him warmly, exclaimed, " The work is done I "
In 1697 he went to Valencia, where he painted the
frescoes from the lives of the two St. Johns, in
the presbytery of the church of San Juan-del Mer-
cado, and remained there for three years, with the
exception of a short period passed at Madrid, and
painted several important pictures. While at the
latter city, in 1701, he produced his ' Confession of
Peter,' in Nuestra Senora Desamparados. In 1705
he went to Salamanca, to paint frescoes in the
convent of San Esteban. On his return to Madrid
he produced many other pictures ; and in 1715
published the first volume of his ' Museo Pictorico,'
on which he had been employed for many years.
He had in 1712 painted the sacristy of tlie Car-
thusian monastery at Granada, with a ' St. Bruno
supporting the World, amid a glory of saints and
angels ; ' as well as five pictures for the grand altar
at Cordova. He published the second volume of
the ' Museo Pict6rioo ' in 1724. From this time his
health began to decline ; and his wife having died
in 1725, he was ordained a priest. He died in the
following year, and was buried with great pomp in




the same grave as his wife, in the church of San
Francesco, at Madrid.

As an artist he was more successful in oil-
paintings than in frescoes. He is, however, best
known by his writings upon art. In his two folio
volumes he notices upwards of two hundred painters
and sculptors, who flourished in Spain from the
time of Ferdinand the Catholic to the end of the
reign of Philip IV. Of this work there was an
abridgment, in Spanish, published in London in
1742, entitled, ' Las Vidas de los Pintores y
statuaries erninentes Bspanoles,' of which there
is an English translation. The original volumes,
though containing plenty of mistakes, afford a vast
store of good material, and until the more exact
work of Cean Bermudez appeared, were the only
source worth consulting for a knowledge of the
arts and artists of Spain.

Palomino's sister, Francesca Isabel, also prac-
tised painting.

PALOUN, John, a painter, was a native of
Dumfries in Scotland. In 1730 he came to London,
but died in the following year.

PALTHE, Adeiaan, son of Gerard Palthe. He
painted a few portraits, and copied many pictures
in -gouache.

PALTHE, Antonis, son of Gerard Palthe, and a
portrait painter of little note. His widow married
Willem Hendriks, of Haarlem.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 64 of 201)