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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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PALTHE, Geraed Jan, bom at Degenkamp, in
Overyssel, in 1681, was a scholar of Jurriaan Pool.
He painted portraits, family subjects, and inte-
riors, by candle or torch-light, in the manner of
G. Schalken. He died about 1750.

PALTHE, Jan, portrait painter, a son and pupil
of Gerard Jan Palthe, was born at Deventer in
1719, and resided at Leyden, where he acquired
considerable reputation, and where he died in 1769.
There were two other painters of the same name,
who may be considered as amateurs. Works :
Amsterdam. B. Museum. Portrait of Pieter Cypiiaan
„ „ Portrait of Agatha Heronyma

Nobel (Testart's wife).
„ „ Portraits of the Nobel family.

PALTRONIERI, Pietro, (or Palteinieei,)
called II Mieandolese ualle PEOsriTTivE, was
born, according to Oretti, at Bologna in 1673. He
distinguished himself as a painter of perspective
and architectural views. There are many of his
works in the public edifices at Bologna, also at
■\'ieima ; the figures in these are frequently painted
by Ercole Graziani. He died in 1741.

PALUDANUS, Heineich, a painter, was a native
of Malines, and flourished about the middle of the
16th century. He was a pupil of F. Floris, and
afterwards went to Italy, where he spent some
time at the Ducal Court of Florence, and some
time at Rome, eventually returning to his own

PALUSELLI, Ignaz, called Paduello, was a
native of Heimserthale in the Tyrol, and painted
several Bacchanalian pieces. He died young at
Eoveredo in 1778.

PAMPHILUS was a native of Amphipolis, in
Macedonia, and a disciple of Eupompus. He
flourished from about 390 to 350 B.C., principally
in the reign of Philip, the father of Alexander the
Great, and has the reputation of being the first
artist who united painting with the study of the
Belles Lettres. He was well acquainted with
mathematics, which he considered necessary to

art, employing them doubtless in calculating pro-
portions in fore-shortening. He in fact hel.l
the opinion that a painter ought to be versed in
every -department of knowledge, and conversely
that no education was complete that did not com-
prise an acquaintance with painting. Such was
the lustre and dignity to which he elevated the art,
that by his influence an ordinance was first pub-
lished at Sicyon, and afterwards liiade general
throughout Greece, by which painting was placed
in the first rank among the liberal arts, was for-
bidden to be practised by slaves, and was only
to be studied by persons of education and distinc-
tion. It was indeed as a teacher and theorist that
he won so high a reputation, that the young men of
the noblest families became his disciples. Their
course of study occupied ten years, and the fee for
it was a talent (£250). He distinguished himself
among the painters of his time by a superior skill
in composition. His pictures were usually of large
dimensions, and more crowded with figures than
was customary with Greek artists. One of his
best represented the Battle of Phlius ; another,
Ulysses in his Galley. It is stated that he also
practised encaustic painting. He had the credit
of having been the instructor of Apelles, while
Melanthius and Pausias were certainly his pupils.

PAMPLONA, Pbdeo de, scribe and miniature
painter. About the middle of the 13th century he
wrote and illuminated a Bible for King Alonso the
Wise, of Spain. This MS. is now in the library of
Seville Cathedral. The miniatures are poorly drawn
and designed, but are brilliant in colour.

PAMPURINI, Alessandeo, a Cremooese painter
of historical and religious subjects. He -flourished
in 1511, in which year he was at work in the
cathedral of Cremona.
PAN. See Lis, Jan.

PANCALDI, Pibteo Feancesco, called Mola,
was a native of Ancona, but flourished as a painter
at Bologna about 1780. He painted portraits and
historical pieces.

PANCHET, called Belleeose, an obscure French
painter of portraits and landscape, who was at
work at Bayeux early in the present century.

PANCOEBO, Francisco, a little k^own Spanish
historical painter, who was at work at Jaen about
the middle of the 18th century.

PANCOTTO, Pietro, was a native of Bologna,
and flourished about the year 1590. He was
brought up in the school of Carracci, and, according
to Malvasia, was one of the most eccentric and
enterprising artists of the Bolognese school. His
principal work is the ' Last Judgment,' painted in
fresco, in the church of La Madonna di San Colom-
bano, at Bologna.

PANDEKEN, Egbert van, a Dutch engraver,
was bom at Haarlem in 1606 (according to Nagler
1576). He resided at Antwerp, where he engraved
a considerable number of plates, executed with the
burin in a formal style. Among others, we have
the following :

The Virgin interceding with Christ for the salvation of

mankind ; after Rulens.
The Fonr Evangelists ; after Pieter de Jode.
St. Louis, with a border representing his Miracles ;

after the same.
Three circular plates of Minerva, Juno, and Venus ;

after Spraiiger.
The Portrait of Maurice, Prince of Orange, on horseback,

with a battle in the background ; after Tempesta.
Four plates of the Sick Man and the Doctor ; after

Goltziusi scarce.





Part of the Plates for the ' Acad^mie de I'EspSe ' ; ly G,

PANDERIT. See Padditz.

PANDINO, Antonio da, lived in Milan in the
middle of the i5th century, and painted the Apostles
in the pendentives of the cupola of San Satiro,
Milan. He is also the author of a window in the
Certosa of Pavia, representing ' St. Michael over-
coming the Dragon.' His master was probably a
glass painter, known as Pandino Milano.

PANDOLFI, Giangiacomo, was a native of
Pesaro, and flourished early in the 17th century.
He was a scholar of Federigo Zuccaro, of Whose
style he was one of the most successful followers.
He painted in fresco in the Oratorio de Nome di
Dio, where he treated several subjects from the Old
and New Testaments. His picture of ' San Giorgio
and San Carlo,' in Pesaro cathedral, is considered
by Lanzi as little inferior to the works of Zuccaro.

PANDOLFO. See Eesohi.

PANEELS. See Pannebls.

PANETTI, DoMENioo, was the son of Gasparo
de Panetis of Ferrara, and was probably born about
1460. He was a contemporary of Costa, and,
according to Vasari, the master of Garofalo. His
early paintings show him to have been a disciple
of Bono da Ferrara. The Berlin Museum possesses
a ' Dead Christ wept over by the three Maries ; ' and
the sacristy of the cathedral at Ferrara, a ' Virgin
and Child enthroned,' which may be counted among
his earlier productions. In 1503 he painted a ' St.
Job,' and a ' Virgin and Child between four saints.'
In 1509 he executed the frescoes in the chapel of
San Maurelio, at San Giorgio extra Muros di Fer-
rara, by order of Alphonso I. In 1511 he received
payment for a banner, representing on one side the
Virgin and Child, and on the other a skeleton,
painted for the brotherhood ' della Morte,' of
Ferrara. His death occurred before 1513. Many
of the private and public galleries of his native
city contain pictures by Panetti ; the Costabili
Collection alone possesses eight. The following
may also be named :
Ferrara. JPinacoteca. The Annunciation.

„ „ The Visitation.

„ „ St. Paul. (And others.)

Paris. Louvre. The Nativity.

PANFI, RoMOLO, was born at Carmignano, near
Pistoja, in 1632. He was instructed in the art of
painting by G. Vignali, and at first painted small
portraits, but afterwards took to landscapes and
Kattle-pieces. He died about 1700,

PANFILO. See Ndvolone.

PANHUIJS, LuisE Friedbike Auqdste von,
was born at Frankfort in 1763. She was the
daughter of the designer and painter Helene Ehsa-
beth von Barkhaus-Wiesenhiitten (who lived from
1736 to 1804), and married van Panhuijs, the
Dutch governor-general of Surinam, and resided
with him at Paramaribo during 1810-16. She
visited that place a second time, and on both
occasions painted landscapes, plants, and butter-
flies from nature. She was a pupil of Gerard C. H.
Schtitz, and painted landscapes after Waterloo,
Moucheron, and also after her own designs^ She
died at Frankfort in 1844.


PANICO, Antonio Maria, was, according to
Belloriy a native of Bologna, and a disciple of
Annibale Carracci. He accompanied that rhaster
to Rome when he was very young, and»was taken
under the protection of Signer Mario Farnese, who


employed him in ornamenting his country-seats of
Castro and Latera. In the cathedral at Famese
he painted a picture of the Mass, in which he is
supposed to have been assisted by Annibale

PANICO, Ugo da. See Carpi.

PANINI. See Pannini.

PANNEELS, Herman, a Fleming, was the
engraver of two plates for a book to vindicate
Philip IV. 's claim to the title of 'the Great,' pub-
lished by Don Juan Antonio Sapia y Roleles at
Madrid in 1638. He also engraved a portrait of
Philip IV. in armour wearing the order of the
Golden Fleece, inscribed 'A Religione Magnus,'
and an excellent head of Olivarez, the minister,
with the cross of Calatrava, both framed in tasteful
borders, and taken from pictures by Velasquez.

PANNEELS, WiLLEM van, a Flemish painter
and engraver, was born at Antwerp about the year
1600. He was a disciple of Rubens, as appears
from the inscription on one of his prints. He
worked at Cologne and Frankfort-on-the-Maine,
and one of his plates is dated 1636. The year of
his death is unknown. Of his work as a painter
little is known, and from the number of his prints
he appears to have been chiefly employed in
etching after Rubens and from his own designs.
The following are his principal plates :

after RUBENS.

The Portrait of Eubens, in an octagon border.

David cutting off the Head of Goliath.

Esther before Ahasuerus.

The Adoration of the Magi.

Mary washing the Feet of Christ.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

The Holy Family, with the Infant Christ and St. John
playing with a Lamb.

St. John baptizing Christ.

Samson killing the Lion, with a companion, David kill-
ing the Lion and the Bear.

St, Sebastian.

The Toilet of Venus.

Jupiter and Antiope.

Jupiter and Juno.

Bacchus drunk, supported by a Faun and a Satyr.

Bacchus supported by Satyrs and a Bacchante.

Meleager presenting the Head of the Boar to Atalanta.


Holy FamUy.

The Fate of Phaeton.

The Nativity.

PANNI, an obscure Italian decorative painter.
He was a relative and pupil of Gio. Bat. Zaist.

PANNICCIATI, Jacopo, according to Baruff-
aldi, was born at Ferrara about the year 1510.
He was a, disciple of Dosso Dossi, and painted
history much in the style of that master. He died
young, in 1540.

PANNINI, Cavaliere Giovanni Paolo, or Giam-
POLO, (or Panini,) was born at Piacenza in 1691,
or 1695. He went early to Rome, w^here he became
a scholar of Andrea Locatelli and Benedetto Luti.
He also partly adopted the style of Salvator Rosa.
He applied himself to designing the remaining
monuments of ancient architecture in the Roman
vicinity. His merit, however, is not confined to
architecture ; he decorated his pictures with figures,
gracefully designed, and grouped with taste.
Although he usually confined himself to pictures
of an easel size, he was not incapable of succeed-
ing in works on a larger scale ; and Lanzi speaks
in very favourable terms of a ' Christ clearing the
Temple,' with life-size figures, in the church of the

f annini



Florence. TTfflzi.

London. Nat. Gallery.
Madrid. Esemrial.

Montpellier. Museum.
Paris. Louvre.

Rome. Corsini Palace.
Turin. Gallery.

Signori della Missione, at Piacenza. Works of
Pannini are to be found in most large collections
in England, and several decorate the palaces of
Rome. Two of the finest are in the gallery of
the royal palace of Monte Cavallo. Pannini died
in 1764. He was a member of the Academies of
San Luca, at Rome, and of Paris. Many of his
pictures have been engraved by Lempereur, Le
Bas, J. S. Miiller, Vivares, Benazech, Bartolozzi,
and other eminent engravers. The following are
among those that remain :

Ruins. {A similar subject at

The Pyramid of Cestius.

A Cardinal visiting a Picture

Vestibule of St. Peter's at

Monuments of Rome.

A Banquet (two copies).

A Concert.

Architectural Ruins (three sub-

Interior of St. Peter's at Rome
{iSigned I. P. Panini. RoMiE.


Concert given at Rome on the
Birtli of the Dauphin in 1729.

Preparations for the F4te on
the ^ame occasion.

The Porch of Octavia.

The Temple of Vesta.

The Pantheon.

Three Views in Rome.

PANNINI, Giuseppe, painter, was born at Rome
about 1745. He was instructed by his father,
Giovanni Paolo Pannini. He painted chiefly land-
scape and marine pictures, and travelled in Italy,
France, and England. He died about 1812.

PANCENDS, a distinguished painter of ancient
Greece, was the nephew of the great sculptor,
Phidias, and probably some years younger than
Polygnotus and Micon. He exercised his talents
in conjunction with his uncle, in adorning the
temple of the Olympian Jupiter, where he painted
' Atlas supporting the World,' and ' Hercules, ac-
companied by Theseus and Peirithoiis, preparing
to relieve him of his burden.' He also painted
' Hercules combating the Nemean Lion ; ' ' Hippo-
damia, the daughter of ^nomaiis, with her mother ;'
' Prometheus chained to the Rock, whom Hercules
is about to deliver ; ' and ' Penthesilea killed by
Achilles.' But the work which most contributed
to the establishment of his fame, was the ' Battle
of Marathon,' with which, assisted by Micon, he
decorated the Poecile at Athens.

PANTALEO, a Byzantine miniaturist of the
10th century, by whom several of the miniatures
in a missal sent to Luigi Sforza, Duke of Milan,
by the Emperor Basilius Porphyrogenitus, were

PANTOJA DB LA CRUZ, Juan, was bom at
Madrid in 1551, and was a scholar of Alfonso
Sanchez Coello, in whose school he so greatly dis-
tinguished himself that Philip II.. named him one
of his painters and valets-de-chambre. He became
very eminent both as an historical and portrait
painter. Palomino possessed the original designs
by him for the beautiful tombs of Charles V.
and Philip II. in the Escorial, which he painted in
oil, together with two escutcheons of the Arms of
Austria, en grisaille, which were used at the
funeral ceremony of the great Emperor. He painted
a great number of portraits of the family of Philip

II., of which many exist at the Escorial, the Retiro,
and in the tower of the Paradas. Several were
destroyed at the burning of the Prado. At the
death of Philip, he continued in favour with his
successor, Philip III., who commanded him to
paint his portrait on horseback, as a model for the
famous sculptor, Giovanni de Bologna, then at
Florence, to form the equestrian group in bronze
placed in the garden of La Casa del Campo ; Taoca
also executed a statue from it. He painted also
two magnificent portraits of Philip III. and his
Queen, which are dated 1606, and are still pre-
served in the palace of the Dukes d'Uceda at
Montalvan. Bermudez lays particular stress upon
the portrait of the councillor Ruiz Perez de Ribera,
which is in the monastery of Santa Maria de Naxera.
It is dated in 1596. Mention is further made of
a picture of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,'
in which the portraits of Philip II. and his
family are introduced. Among the other notable
persons whom he portrayed, we find the Empress
Maria and the Princess Juana in the Desoalzas
Reales, and the same Empress with the Princess
Margarita of Austria and Isabel de Valois in the
Madrid Gallery. He was also a successful painter
of animals. After a laborious life he died at
Madrid in 1609. The Spanish parallel to the story
of Zeuxis IS attached to a work by this master.
It is related that a superb eagle having been cap-
tured near the Prado, the king gave orders to Pan-
toja to paint its likeness ; which he did with so
much truth, that the royal bird on seeing it mistook
it for a real eagle, and notwithstanding all their
efforts to control it, attacked the picture with
impetuosity and tore it to pieces. The Madrid
Museo possesses the following examples of his work :

Portrait of Donna Maria, daughter of Philip II., and
wife of the Emperor Maximilian II.

Portrait of Isabel of Valois, third wife of Philip II.
Ditto. ditto.

Portrait of Margaret of Austria, wife of Philip III.

Portrait of the Emperor Charles V.

Portrait of the Infanta Juana, daughter of Philip II.

Portrait of Philip II.

The Birth of the Virgin.

The Birth of Jesus Christ.

Two female portraits.

One male portrait.

PANTOT. A French painter of this name,
a native of Lyons, was the intimate friend of
Thomas Blanchet during the latter's stay in Rome,
about the middle of the 17th century.

PANVINUS, Onulph, is stated to have been
a native of Antwerp. He flourished in the latter
part of the 16th century. He engraved and pub-
lished a set of twenty-seven portraits from his own
designs, entitled ' Elogias et Imagines Pont. Max.
ad. viv. delin.' 1668. Zani mentions an Onofeio
Panvinds, a designer and engraver of Verona,
who was at work about the same period.

PANZA, Fbbdbrigo, was born at Milan between
1633 and 1643. He was a pupil of Nuvolone, and
went to Venice to copy the works of Titian and
Paolo Veronese. On his return he settled at Milan,
where he executed several pictures, and was
knighted by the Duke of Savoj'. He died in 1708.

PANZACCHI, Maria Helena, (Panzachia, Pan-
znccHi,) was born, according to Orlandi, at Bologna
in 1688. She was instructed in design by Emilio
Taruffl, and became a reputable painter of land-
scapes, embellished with figures. Some of her
works are to be found in the private collections at
Bologna. Zani says she died in 1737.





PAOLETTI, Antonio d'Eemolas, painter, worked
at Venice, decorating the court of the Oasa Luna
with frescoes and oil pictures in the style of Louis
XVI., and producing scenes from the fashionable
life of Venice in the 18tli century. His best works
are ' The Ages of Man,' and ' Choir Boy drinking

PAOLETTI, Paolo, was a native of Padua, and
flourished in the first half of the 18th century. He
excelled in painting flowers, fruit, fish, and dead
game. His pictures are held in considerable estim-
ation throughout Friuli. He died at Udine in

PAOLI, Francesco da. Florent le Comte men-
tions this artist as the engraver of a View of the
City of Rome. He lived about 1640.

PAOLI, Jacobds, was an inferior artist, living
at the beginning of the 15th century, who was the
painter of an ' Annunciation ' with a kneeling
patron, in the Archivio Notarile of the Podesta's
Palace at Bologna, and also part author of an
altar-piece of the Coronation of the Virgin in the
chapel of San Croce, in the church of San Giacomo
Maggiore, in the same city.

PAOLI, MiCHBLE, a pupil of Crespi, who practised
at Pistoja as a historical painter at the beginning
of the 18th century.

PAOLILLO, a Neapolitan, and the best pupil
of Sabbatini, to whom his works used invariably
to be ascribed. Paolillo died young.

PAOLINI, Giacomo. See Paulini.

PAOLINI, PiETRO, or LucA PiBTRO, (or Paulini,)
was born at Lucca in 1603, and was sent early in
his life to Rome, where he entered the school of
Angelo Caroselli, and where he remained thirty
years. After returning to Lucca he established an
academy there. His death occurred in 1681 or
1682. He painted a fine picture of the Martyrdom
of St. Andrew, for the church of San Michele at
Lucca ; and Ms large work in the library of San
Frediano, representing Pope Gregory entertaining
the Pilgrims, is in the style of Paolo Veronese.
He invented an instrument for taking perspective
views, and designing them in their due proportions :
perhaps the Camera lucida.

PAOLINI, Pio (or Fabio), was a native of
Udine, but studied at Rome under Pietro da Cor-
tona. He painted historical subjects, and was re-
ceived into the Academy at Rome in 1678. There
are several of his frescoes in the Roman churches ;
a ceiling of one of the chapels in San Carlo al
Corso is particularly good.

PAOLINO, Fea. See Del Signoeaccio.

living in the middle of the 14th century, and a
pupil and follower of the Lorenzetti. His name
first appears on the roll of the Sienese Guild of
Painters in 1355. He is the author of a series of
chiaroscuro frescoes in the cloisters of the convent
of Lecceto, representing Heaven and Hell, the
Works of Mercy, incidents from the lives of certain
Augustine Hermits, and other subjects both sacred
and profane, which were finished in 1343.


PAOLO Di DONO. See Dong.

PAOLO VENEZIANO, (or Maesteo Paolo,) a
north Italian painter, who was at work at Vicenza
in 1840. His two sons, Giovanni and Jacopo,
helped him in his work. In the Hopenzollern
collection, at Sigmaringen, there is a ' Coronation
of the Virgin ' with the following inscription :



CHEISTAM POETARE ALELUIA ; and Under the throne
the signature : MCCCLVIII johaninus eiv(s)


PAOLOTTO, IL Frate. See Ghislandi, Vittoee.

PAON. See Le Paon.

PAOUL, Jean. An artist of this name was
painter-in-ordinary to the court of Lorraine in
1575. Portraits by him are still extant in Nancy
and the neighbourhood.

PAPA, SiMONE, ' il Giovine,' born at Naples in
1506, was the son of a goldsmith, who intended to
bring him up to that business, but as he had shown
an inclination for art, he was placed under the
instruction of Giovan' Antonio d'Amato, the elder,
and became a painter of history. In tlie church
of Santa Maria la Nuova, at Naples, are two
frescoes by this master, in one of which he has
represented the Assumption of the Virgin, and in
the other the Annunciation. Another of his fres-
coes is in the choir of Monte Oliveto, in the same
city. He died at Naples in 1567.

PAPA, SiMONEJ ' il Vfecchio,' was bom at Naples
about the year 1430 ; his death occurred in 1488.
He was the scholar of Antonio Solario, surnamed
'lo Zingaro.' In the church of San Niccolo alia
Dogana, Naples, there is a picture of the Annun-
ciation by Papa ; and the church of San Lorenzo
in the same city pos'sesses his altar-piece of the
Virgin and Child, with Saints. Further there
remain by him :

Naples. Museum, St. Michael weighing goals, be-

tween two donors and their
,, „ The Crucifixion.

„ „ Virgin and Child, with Saints.

PAPARELLO, ToMMASo, (or Papacello,) painter,
was a native of Cortona. In 1651 he was employed
as assistant by Giulio Romano. He was still alive
in 1553.

PAPE, A. DE. See De Pape.

PAPE, ^GiDius Simon (de), a native of Oude-
narde, who flourished from 1585 to 1636. He
spent his life in his native town, where he enjoyed
a considerable reputation as painter, goldsmith, and
architect. His son JossE was also a painter, and
on the death of his father, migrated to Rome.
Another son, Simon, lived and worked at Oudenarde,
where, and at Ghent, some of his works are to be
found. This Simon died in 1677. His son Gillis
practised as an historical painter in Oudenarde,
where he died in 1705.

PAPE, F. DE, a Flemish miniaturist and painter
in water-colours. He was born in 1814, and died
at Bruges in 1863.

PAPE, Martin Didiee, was an enamel painter,
who lived at Limoges from 1574 to 1609, and was
about the former date superintendent of the enamel
factory there.

PAPETY, Dominique Louis F]SEtioL, a French
painter, born at Marseilles in 1815. He was a
pupil of L. Cogniet, and carried off the Grand Prix
in 1836. In Rome he painted 'Moses in the
bulrushes ; ' a copy of the ' Council of the Gods,'
after a fresco of Raphael's ; and ' Dream of Hap-
piness.' He travelled in Greece and the East, and
made many drawings ; on his last voyage he laid
the seeds of a fever which carried him off in 1849.

PAPI, Ceistofano pi, called Dell' Altissimo,
was a Florentine painter of the middle or latter
half of the 16th century. He was a pupil of Bron-
zino and Pontormo, and in his youth produced
several important pictures, chiefly portiaits, for




Cosmo I. Duke of Tuscany ; also a large number
of those portraits of distinguished persons which
hang in the corridor of the Uffizi at Florence.
Neither the year of his birth nor that of his death

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