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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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in 1723, and in 1737 published a View of London
from Westminster Bridge, with other plates of a
similar kind. He was, however, chiefly employed
by the booksellers in portraits, book-plates, and
humorous subjects. He was still living in 1750.
Among others, we have the following engraved
portraits by him :

Maria Louisa, daughter of Charles II.

John Fisher, Bishop of Eochester.
, "William Becket, prefixed to his Ohirurgical Observations.
1740.

PARRASIO, Angelo, a Sienese painter, who was
employed at the court of the Marquis Leonello
d'Este, in thtfmiddle of the 15th century.

PARRASIO, MiOHELE, a painter of the 16th cen-
tury, was a pupil of Titian and of Paolo Veronese.
He was a man of wealth, and continued through
life in intimate correspondence with Titian. There
remain by him :

Madrid. Esconal. The Marys at the Sepulchre.

„ „ Adoration of the Kings.

I. Museum. The Dead Christ adored by

Pius V.
Venice. Academy. Deposition from the Cross.

J, ), Male Portrait.



Parre



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Parrocel



PARRE, Mathieu, a Dutch painter of the present
century, who was at work in Amsterdam from 1811
to 1849. He was a pupil of J. Van der Stok.

PARREU, Jos^, was born at Rusafa, Valencia,
in 1694. He was a pupil of D. Vidal, and executed
several works for the churches in Valencia. He
died in 1766.

PARRHASIUS, the younger contemporary and
rival of Zeuxis, was a native of Ephesus, and a
disciple of Euenor. He was in the fulness of his
reputation about 400 B.C. According to Pliny, he
was the first who arrived at perfect symmetry in
the proportion of his figures, and Quintilian terms
him " the legislator of art," from the canon which
he established on this point having been accepted
by succeeding artists. He gave to his forms more
relief and roundness, more life and motion, than
were known before his lime. He was also par-
ticularly successful in the treatment of the hair,
and in the expression of his female figures. This
characteristic he carried so far as to impart to his
pictures some of the soft and sensuous quality of
the Asiatic school, and this not to the female
figures only, for Euphranor remarked that the
"Theseus' of Parrhasius had been fed on roses,
while his own was fed upon beef. The painter,
moreover, was voluptuous in his own habits, and
used to add to his signature the epithet, aPpoSiaiToc,
' the luxurious.' Parrhasius was remarkable, too,
for vanity and arrogance. He styled himself the
prince of painters, and asserted that he had carried
the art to the highest possible perfection. He
was always clothed in sumptuous attire, and
claimed to be descended from Apollo. He pre-
tended to have painted Plercules from a revelation
of his form in a vision ; and when defeated by
Tiraanthes in a contest for a picture upon the
' Strife of Ajax and Ulysses,' he declared that
Ajax was a second time overcome by an unworthy
rival. The story versified by the American poet
Willis, of his putting a slave to the rack in order
to furnish himself with a model for the expression
of intense agony, whether it be founded upon fact
or not, is too much in accordance with his nature :

" I'd rack thee though a thousand lives were thine ;
What were ten thousand to a fame like mine ! "
Notwithstanding these serious personal defects,
Parrhasius cannot be denied the glory of having
been one of the most accomplished painters of
Greece. The well-known story of Pliny in refer-
ence to the contest between him and Zeuxis is
related in the article upon the latter artist. One
of his principal works, representing a ' High Priest
of the goddess Cybele,' was afterwards purchased
by the Emperor Tiberius, for sixty thousand
sesterces. Pliny highly commends two pictures
by Parrhasius, one representing a warrior rushing
to the combat, the other a soldier taking off his
armour. His celebrated picture of ' Theseus ' was
in that historian's time preserved in the Capitol at
Rome ; and another representing Meleager, Her-
cules, and Perseus, in one group, was formerly at
Rhodes. Yet another of his most notable produc-
tions was his picture of ' The Athenian People,' in
which he appears to have icaught and expressed
all the varying modes and passions of the populace.
Some of his subjects were lascivious.

PARRHASIUS (of Antwerp). See ScHoonjans.

PARRIS, EDMnND Thomas, portrait and historic-
al painter, was born in 1793. He first exhibited
at the Royal Academy in 1816. From 1825 to
1829 he was engaged in painting the panorama of



London at the Coliseum. In 1838 he was appointed
painter to Queen Adelaide. In 1839 he painted a
portrait of Queen Victoria, and a picture of the
Coronation. In 1843 he won a prize at thp Guild-
hall competition for a cartoon of 'Joseph of
Arimathea converting the Jews.' From 1853 to
1856 he was employed in restoring Sir James
Thornhill's pictures in the dome of St. Paul's. He
died in 1873.

PARROCEL, Charles, the son of Joseph Parro-
oel, was born in Paris in 1688, and was first in-
structed by his father, who dying when he was
only sixteen years of age, he was placed under the
tuition of Charles de ia Fosse, and on leaving that
master, travelled to Italy, where he studied some
years in Rome. On his return to France he ac-
quired considerable reputation as a painter of
battle-pieces, and though these and his hunting-
pieces are inferior to those of his father, they
possessed sufficient merit to procure his reception
into the Academy at Paris, of which in 1745 he
further became professor. He was in the same
year appointed to accompany the king to Flanders,
to depict his victories. Among his best paintings
are those of ' The Turkish Ambassador before and
after his audience in the Tuileries,' now at the
Gobelins. Parrocel has left thirty-seven etchings,
from his own designs, representing horse and foot
soldiers, among them six in the style of Salvator
Rosa. He died in Paris in 1752.

PARROCEL, Etienne, was the son of Pierre
Parrocel. He was bom in Paris about the year
1720, and is stated to have been a painter, perhaps
also an engraver.

PARROCEL, Bakth^lemy, a native of Brig-
nolles, father and first instructor of Joseph Parrocel.
He was of no repute as an artist, and died about
1660.

PARROCEL, Ignace, the nephew of Joseph
Parrocel, was born in Paris in 1668. He was
apparently the scholar of his uncle, as he painted
similar subjects, battles and huntings, and in a
closely similar style. He died in Paris in 1722.
A ' Turkish Battle ' and a ' Field Encampment ' by
him are in the Belvedere of Vienna.

PARROCEL, Joseph, an eminent painter of
battles, was born at Brignolles, in Provence, in 1648.
He was the son of Barthelemy Parrocel, a' painter
of little note, who, together with his elder son
Louis, instructed Joseph in the first elements of the
art. Without the help of any other teaching, the
latter went to Paris, where he obtained the notice of
some distinguished artists, who recommended him
to visit Italy. On his arrival at Rome, he found
the works of Borgognone in the highest estimation ;
and he entered the school of that artist. After a
residence of some years at Rome, he visited Venice,
where he rapidly improved his colour by study-
ing the works of the best Venetian masters. The
encouragement he experienced in Venice led him
to think of establishing himself there, when one
evening he was assailed on the Rialto by several
assassins, posted, it was believed, by persons jealous
of his success, and it was only by his courage and
personal vigour that he escaped. In 1675 he re-
turned to Paris, and immediately met with public
favour. He was made a member of the Academy
the following year, on which occasion he painted
the ' Siege of Maestricht ' for his reception picture.
He was commissioned by the Marquis de Louvois,
to decorate one of the four refectories of the In-
valid es, with the conquests of Louis XIV., and after

255



Parrocel



A BIOGIIAPHIOAL DICTIONARY OP



Partridge



this he was employed on some of the works at
Versailles and Marly. He became one of the
favourite painters of Louis XIV., in whose service
he remained until his death, which occurred in
Paris in 1704. He painted several historical sub-
jects for the H6tel de Toulouse, and an admirable
picture of ' St. John in the Wilderness,' for the
church of Notre Dame de Paris. The Museum of
Lyons possesses a ' Horsemen Resting ' by him.
We have ninety etchings by Parrocel from his own
designs : among which are the following :

The Four Parts of the Day ; J. Parrocel inv. et.fec.

Four Battles ; the same inscription.

A set of forty-eight prints from the Life of Christ.

PARROCEL, Louis, a painter, the eldest son of
Barth^leray Parrocel, was born at Avignon in 1640.
He was instructed by his father, and painted chiefly
historical pictures.

PARROCEL, PiEBRE, nephew of Joseph and son
of Louis Parrocel, was bom at Avignon in 1664,
and died in Paris in 1739. He was first instructed
by his uncle, and afterwards entered the school of
Carlo Maratti at Rome, and in 1730 became a
member of the Academy there. His principal work,
as a painter, was in the gallery of the Hotel de
Noailles, at St. Q-erraain-en-Laye, where he repre-
sented the history of Tobit in thirteen pictures ;
but the ' Coronation of the Virgin,' in the church
of St. Mary at Marseilles, is considered his chef-
d'oeuvre. He also etched and engraved. His
etchings are executed with dexterity and spirit, in
a style analogous to that of A. Rivalz ; but he was
not equally successful with the graver. Of the
fourteen etchings left by him, 'Tlie Triumph of
Amphitrite ' is perhaps the most noteworthy.

PARROCEL, PiEEEE Ignaoe, was born at Avig-
non in 1702, and was at Rome in 1739-40. He
was afterwards director of the school of art there.
He etched thirty-six plates, comprising among
them a series of Bernini's statues.

PARRODI. See Pabodi.

PARRY, William, was born in London in 1742.
He was the son of Parry, the celebrated blind per-
former on the Welsh harp, and received his first
instructions in design in Shipley's drawing-school.
He afterwards studied from the plaster-casts in
the Duke of Richmond's gallery, and became a
pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; about which time he
also entered the academy in St Martin's Lane. He
was considered at that time a very promising artist,
and obtained several premiums from the Society
of Arts, and in 1766 he became a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists. On leaving Sir
Joshua he was favoured with the patronage of Sir
Watkin Williams Wynn, by whose liberality he
was enabled, in 1770, to visit Italy, where he
remained four years, and among other things he
painted for his protector a copy of Raphael's
' Transfiguration,' at that time in the church of
San Pietro in Montorio. He returned to London
in 1775, and in 1776 was chosen an Associate of
the Royal Academy ; he then exhibited some por-
traits, as he did again in 1778, 1779, and 1788.
Not meeting with the employment he expected, he
removed to Wales, and on the death of his wife,
in 1788, revisited Rome, where he found sufficient
encouragement to induce him, with the help of a
small fortune acquired through his wife, to remain
several years. His ill state of health obliged him
to return to his native country at the commence-
ment of the year 1791 ; but he only survived his
arrival a few days, and died on February 13th.

256



There is a small etching by Parry, prepared as a
ticket for a benefit concert on behalf of his father,
whom it represents playing on the harp.

PARS, Henry, an English draughtsman, born in
1734. He was the elder brother of W. Pars,
A. R. A., and was brought up as a chaser. His
chief claim to remembrance is in connection with
the St. Martin's Lane School, of which he was
master so long that it became known by his name.
He died in 1806.

PARS, William, was bom in London in 1742,
and was educated in the rudiments of art in Ship-
ley's drawing-school. He afterwards frequented
the St. Martin's Lane school, and the Duke of
Richmond's Gallery. He exhibited at the Society
of Arts in 1761, and in 1764 obtained from them
the third premium of twenty guineas, for historic
painting. Shortly afterwards he went as draughts-
man with the expedition sent into Ionia by the Dilet-
tanti Society, with Dr. Chandler and W. Revett
as his colleagues. On this expedition he was ab-
sent over two years, and some time after his return
he was engaged by the second Lord Palmerston,
to accompany him in a tour through Switzerland
and Italy, to make drawings of the most remark-
able views and antiquities. In 1770 he was elected
an Associate of the Royal Academy ; and in 1774
the Dilettanti Society having determined to send
an artist to Rome, for a certain number of years,
upon a pension, to complete his studies as a painter,
Pars was made choice of, and arrived at Rome in
1775. He continued his studies in Italy until the
autumn of the year 1782, when he died of a fever.
He had exhibited at the Royal Academy Constantly
from its establishment until 1776, producing both
small and life-size portraits, as well as drawings
and stained views of temples in Asia Minor and
Greece. Several of the views he made in Greece
have been engraved by Byrne ; and some of
those in Switzerland and Italy were reproduced in
aquatint by Paul Sandby. Woollet also engraved
five Swiss views after Pars.

PARSON, William, an amateur architectural,
landscape, and fruit painter, was born in London
in 1736. His father was a builder, and at fourteen
he was apprenticed to an architect. He afterwards
went on the stage, and became a popular comic
actor, but never relinquished his art. He died in
1795.

PARSONS, Francis, an English portrait painter,
in the second half of the 18th century. He Was
taught in the St. Martin's Lane school, and became
a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists,
In his later years he became a picture-dealer.
Works :

Portrait group of Indian Chiefs who visited London in

1763. Engraved by McArddl.
Portrait of Miss Davis as ' Madge,' in ' Love in a Villige.'
Portrait of Brindley, the Engineer. Engraved, by Bun-

karton.

PARTRIDGE, John, a portrait painter, was born
in 1790. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from
1815 to 1846. In 1843 he exhibited portraits of
the Queen and Prince Albert, which were engraved
and became very popular. Two years later he
was appointed portrait painter extraordinary to the
Queen. For thirty years he held a good position
in the second rank as a portrait painter, exhibiting
for the last time in 1846. On two occasions only,
in 1830 and 1836, did he send a subject picture to
the Academy; these were respectively, 'Titania,
Puck, and Bottom,' and ' A Sketching Society, the



Pas



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Fasseri



Critical Moment.' Partridge died November 25,
1872. The National Portrait Gallery possesses a
large picture by him of a meeting of the Fine Arts
Commission of 1841 at Gwydyr House, "Whitehall ;
and the National Gallery of Ireland a portrait of
SirT. Wyse, KGB.

PAS, DE (Pass). See Yan db Pass.

PASADOS, Miguel, a Spanish Dominican monk,
born at Valencia in 1711. He painted historical
pictures, and died in 1763.

PASAROT. See Passerotti.

PASCAL, Antoine, a painter of still-life, and
pupil of Eedoutd. He was at worli at Macon in
the early years of the present century. His wife
followed the same profession.

PASCAL, Joseph Andebas, a miniature painter
of Munich, who flourished in 1729. He painted
portraits and other pictures in miniature for the
Bavarian court. He died in 1758.

PASCALINI. See Pasqualini.

PASCH, LoEBNZ, a painter of Stockholm, was
born in 1733. He painted the Swedish king and
the members of his house and court, and decorated
the royal palace with pictures. He was a professor
and rector of the Academy, and inspector of the
Gallery. He died in 1805. Works:

Stockholm. Gallery. Portrait of the Engineer Daniel
Thuuberg. \Fasch pinxit,
1772.
„ „ Half-length portrait of Gus-

tavus Adolphns IV.

His sister, Priederica Ulrica Pasoh, who was at
Stockholm in 1735, and died in 1796, was also
a portrait painter and member of the Academy.

PASENA, Egg. de. See Van der Weyden.

PASINELLI, LOEENZO,- was bom at Bologna in
1629, and was first a scholar of A. Baroni and
Simone Cantarini, but afterwards studied under
Flaminio Torre, whose school he left at an early
age. He then visited Turin, Mantua, and Rome,
and spent some time at Venice, where the style of
Paolo Veronese exercised great influence over him.
On leaving Venice he returned to Bologna, where
he died in 1700. Among his best paintings are :
' Christ's Entry into Jerusalem,' and ' The Return
of Christ from Limbus,' in the Certosa of Bologna ;
' St. Francis raising a Dead Man to Life,' at San
Francesco in the same city ; and the ' History of
Coriolanus,' in the Palazzo Ranuzzi. We have
the following etchings by Pasinelli from his own
designs :

St. John preaching in the Wilderness.

The Martyrdom of several Saints.

The Murder of the Innocents ; after Guido Eeni.

PASQUALI, FiLlPPO, was a native of Porli, and
a scholar of Carlo Cignani. He flourished about
the year 1680, and in conjunction with Marc
Antonio Franceschini, painted several fresco works
at Bologna and Rimini. There are some of his
paintings in the portico of the Serviti at Bologna :
and Lanzi makes honourable mention of his
pictures in the church of San Vittore, at Ravenna.

PASQUALINI, Felice, a pupil of Sabbatini ;
some of his works are still extant in Bologna and
its neighbourhood.

PASQUALINI, Giovanni Battista, (or Pasca-
LINI,) an Italian painter and engraver, was born
at Cento, near Bologna, about the year 1600. He
frequented for some time the school of Giro Ferri ;
but it does not appear that he arrived at great
eminence as a painter. We have several etchings
by him, principally after Guercino, his countryman,

VOL. II. 8

Si



in which he endeavoured, not very successfully,
to imitate with the point the masterly pen drawings
of that master. The earliest is dated 1619, and the
latest 1630. He frequently signed his plates J. B.
Ceniensis. We have, among, others, the following
prints by him :

St. Felix kneeling before the Virgin and Infant ; after

L. Carracci,
St. Diego working a Miracle : after Ann. Carracci,
The Death of St. Oecilia; after Somenichino.
The Aurora ; after Guido.

SUBJECTS AFTER GUEEOINO.

Christ dictating the Gospel to St. John.

The Resurrection of Lazarus.

Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter.

The Treachery of Judas.

Angels showing Mary Magdalene the Instruments of

the Passion.
Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus.
The Incredulity of Thomas.

The Virgin and Infant, with an Angel presenting Fruit.
The Virgin and Infant, to whom St. John presents an

Apple.
S. Carlo Borromeo.
St. Felix resuscitating a Dead Child.
Tancred and Brminia.
Tithonus and Aurora.

PASQUALINO. See Eossi, Pasquale.

PASQUALINO, an imitator of Bellini and Cima,
who lived in the latter part of the 15th century.
In the Correr Museum, Venice, there is a ' Virgin
and Child, with St. Mary Magdalene,' dated and
signed by him in 1496. Nothing is known of his
birth or death. ,

PASQUALOTTO. See Ottini.

PASQUETTl, Foetunato, portrait and historical
painter, was a pupil of N. Cassana. In 1741 he
was director of the Academy at Venice, and died
about 1770.

PASQUIER, Jean Jacques, a French engraver,
was born in the early part of the 17th century, and
was a pupil of Laurent Cars. He has engraved
several plates after French painters, and a variety
of vignettes and other illustrations for books. We
may name the following by him :

Arion upon the Dolphin ; after JBmcher.

Two Pastoral Subjects ; after the same.

The Graces ; after G. van Loo.

A set of Twelve Academical Figures ; after Natvire.

PASS, DE (or PASS.EUS). See Van de Pass.

PASSANTE, Bartolommeo, a Neapolitan painter
of little note, and a pupil of Spagnoletto.

PASSAEI. See Passeei.

PASSABOTO (or Passaeotti). See Passeeotti.

PASSAVANT, Johann David, a German his-
torical painter, born at Frankfort in 1787. His art
studies were carried on under David, Gros, and
Overbeck. But he chiefly devoted himself to the
literature and criticism of art, publishing works on
Raphael (by which he is best known), engraving,
art in England, &c. He died in 1861. At Frank-
fort there is a portrait of the Emperor Henry II.
by him, and a picture of St. Hubert. We give the
titles and dates of publication of his books :

' Kunstreise durch England und Belgien.' 1833.

' Eaphael von Urbino und sein Vater Giovanni Santi.'

1839-57.
' Die Christliche Kunst in Spanien.' 1853.
' Le Peintre Graveur.' 1860—1864.

PASSE, De (Pass). See Van de Pass.

PASSBRI, Andeea, was a native of Como, in
tho Milanese. In the year 1505 he painted in the
cathedral of his native city a picture of the Virgin
surrounded by the Apostles,

257



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF



Passeri

PASSERI, Bernardino, (Passari, or Passeeo,)
an Italian engraver, flourished at Rome about the
year 1580. He is doubtfully stated to have been
also a painter, and to have adopted the style of
Taddeo Zuooaro. Among others we have the
following prints by him :

The Holy Family in which the Virgin is attired as a
Bohemiau.

A set of several plates of the Life of St. Bruno.

Several Madonnas, and other subjects.

PASSERI, Giovanni Battista, was bom at
Rome about the year 1610, and is reported by
Lanzi to have been a friend of Domenichino, and a
follower of his style. He was employed by Canini,
in the Villa Aldobrandini, in 1635, and was president
of the Academy of St. Luke, in 1641, when Domeni-
chino died. At the close of his life Passeri entered
into holy orders, and in 1675 obtained a benefice
in the college of Sta. Maria in Via Lata. He died
in 1679. In the church of San Giovanni della
Malva, at Rome, is a picture by him of the Cruci-
fixion ; but his works are more frequent in private
collections than in public edifices. He sometimes
painted pictures of dead game, birds, &c., of which
there are several in the Palazzo Mattel. In the
Academy of St. Luke there is a portrait of Domeni-
chino, painted by him, and placed there at the death
of his friend, whose funeral oration Passeri pro-
nounced. Passeri was one of the chief Italian
writers on art. His principal work is entitled
' Vite do' Pittori, Soultori, e Architetti, che hanno
lavorato in Roma, e ohe son morti dal 1641 al
1673.' It was published in full for the first time
in 1772, in Rome.

PASSERI, Giuseppe, the nephew of Giovanni
Battista Passeri, was born at Rome in 1664, and,
according to Pasooli, was a favourite disciple of
Carlo Maratti, of whose style he was one of the
most successful followers. His principal works at
Rome are his picture of the Conception, in the
church of San Tommaso in Parione ; and one of
the wings to the picture of the Baptism, by Maratti,
in the Vatican, in which he has represented St.
Peter baptizing the Centurion, which was executed
in mosaic, and the original placed in the church of
the Conventuali at Urbino. At Pesaro there is
one of his best works, representing St. Jerome
meditating on the Last Judgment. Passeri died in
1714.

PASSBROTTI, Bartolommeo, (or Passarotti,)
was born at Bologna about the year 1520 or 1530.
He was first a scholar of Qiacomo Baroccio da
Vignola, but afterwards he became the disciple
and coadjutor of Taddeo Zucoaro, at Rome, where he
resided in the early part of his life. For the public
buildings here he painted some pictures of which
the most esteemed is the Martyrdom of St. Paul, in
the church of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane. On his
return to Bologna he painted a great number of
altar-pieces for the churches, of which the most
celebrated are the Adoration of the Magi, in San
Pietro ; the Annunciation, in San Martino Mag-
giore ; and the Virgin on a throne, surrounded by
St. John the Baptist and other Saints, in San
Giacomo Maggiore. The last-named was painted
in competition with the Carracci, and excited their
admiration. He died at Bologna the 3rd June,
1592. His works are very unequal, as he frequently
sacrificed correctness and refinement to his desire
of gain and to the indulgence of an uncommon
facility of hand. He was the founder of a respect-
able academy at Bologna, and counted among his

258



Fassini



disciples, Francesco Vanni, Agostino Carracci, and
other distinguished artists. He particularly ex-
celled in portrait painting. Among the personages
whom he portrayed were Popes Pius V., Gregory
XIII., and Sixtus V., and Cardinal Guastavillani.



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