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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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series of hunting-pieces after Snyders.

PEETERS, Jacob, a Flemish painter of church
interiors, who flourished in 1696. He was a pupil
of Pieter Vandevelde, at Antwerp, in 1672-3, and
Master of the Guild in 1688-9. He painted in the
style of Pieter Neefs. His brother Jan flourished
at Antwerp as a painter and engraver in 1680.

PEETERS, Jan, a brother and pupil of Bona-
ventura Peeters, was born at Antwerp in 1624.
He painted similar subjects to those of his brother,
though in general his works are very inferior to
those of Bonaventura. He sometimes painted com-
bats at sea, and even attempted historical subjects.
He became a Master of the Guild in 1645, and
appears to have died in 1677. Paintings by him
are in the Antwerp Museum, the Munich Pinakothek,
and the Belvedere and Liechtenstein Collections at
Vienna ; and the Rijks-Museum of Amsterdam
possesses a good picture of the ' Destruction of the
English fleet at Chatham, in 1667,' by him. He
engraved a series of landscapes in the style of

PEGNA (or Pegnia). See De la Peigne.

PBINS. See Pencz.

PEIPERS, Heemine. See Stilee.

PEIROLERI, PiETBO, an Italian engraver, was a
native of Turin, and flourished about the year 1760.
Zani gives 1741 for the date of his birth, and says
he was active in 1777.. Nagler says he was born
in 1738, and gives a list of 20 prints by him.
Neither authority mentions the date of his death.
His chief prints appear to be :


Bacchus seated on a Tun ; after Eulens.
Portrait of the Fornarina ; after Baphael.
Portrait of Eaphael ; after the same.
Philippe de Champagne ; copied from Edelinck.
The Holy Family ; after Scarsellino.
The Finding of Moses ; after Laszarini.
A ' Roman Charity ; ' after the same.
Abraham's Offering ; after Bellucci,
Jupiter and Calisfco ; after Amicani.
Zephyrus and Flora ; after the same.

PELACANE. See Moeone, Dom.

PELAIS, Michel, (or Palais ?,) supposed to have
flourished at Rome about 1625. He engraved the
portraits of Cardinal d'Ossat and J. de Gastebois.
His mark is also found on prints after Palma the
younger, and Federigo Zuccaro, and his manner
approaches that of Cornells Cort. The signature
Palais fee. is to be found on a wretched print of
' St. John preaching in the Wilderness,' but the
author may have been a totally different person.

PEL^^E, PiBEEE, a native of Courtedoux in tlie
Canton of Bern, and a scholar of von Schenker,
engraved from 1820 to 1838. The following prints
by him are noticed by Nagler :

The Evangelist St. John ; after Bomenichino.
The President Duranti ; after F. Belaroche.
Several Portraits and Vignettes for the works of Vol-
taire and Rousseau ; after Besenne and Beveria.

PELEGRET, Tomas, a Spanish historical painter
in fresco and en, grisaille, was born at Toledo, where
he studied the elements of his art, but afterwards
went to Italy and placed himself under Baldassare
da Siena, and Polidoro da Caravaggio, from whom
he derived his knowledge of chiaroscuro; and
whom he made his model. He returned to Spain,
in the time of Charles V., and established himself
at Saragossa, where he acquired considerable reput-
ation. His drawings were highly prized, not only
by amateurs, but by artists. They were purchased
with avidity by painters, sculptors, decorators, and
goldsmiths. Unfortunately few or none of his
works in fresco exist, and the only examples of his
ability that can be mentioned with certainty, are
some pictures in the manner of Polidoro Caravaggio
in the Monastery of Santa Eugracia, in Saragossa.
He died at the age of 84. He had many scholars ;
among them was Cuevas, who assisted him in
painting the sacristy of the cathedral of Huesoa,
and some other works.

PELGROM, Jakob, a Dutch landscape painter,
who flourished early in the 19th century. He was
a pupil of J. Pieneman.

PELHAM, Heney, historical and miniature
painter, resided with Copley, R.A., and was most
probably his pupil. In 1777 he contributed to the
Academy ' The Finding of Moaes,' which was en-
graved by W. Ward in 1787. In the following
year he exhibited some miniatures in enamel and

PELHAM, Pbtee, an English engraver, was born
in London in 1684, and died about 1738. He en-
graved several portraits in mezzotint ; among which
are the following :

King George I. ; after Kneller.

King George II. ; after the same.

Anne, consort of the Prince of Orange ; after the same.

Oliver Cromwell ; after Walker.

Thomas Holies, Duke of Newcastle.

Robert, Viscount Molesworth ; after Gibson.

John, Lord Carteret ; after Kneller.

James Gibbs, Architect ; after Hysing.

Peter Paul Rubens ; after Rulens.

Edward Cooper ; after Van der Vaart.

Dr. Edmund, Bishop of London ; after Murray.




J. C. PELHAM.,a painter chiefly of portraits, born in
1721, was liis son.

PELICHY, Gertrude db, a Flemish portrait,
landscape, and animal painter, born at Utrecht in
1743. In 1753 she followed her father to Bruges,
and afterwards resided at Paris, where she received
lessons from Suvee. In 1777 she returned to Bruges,
and was made an honorary member of the Imperial
Academy at Vienna. She painted portraits of the
Emperor Joseph II., and of his mother, the Empress
Maria Theresa. In the Bruges Academy there are :
a landscape ; ahead of Christ, after Guido ; and an
old man's head, by this lady. She died in 1825.

PELKIN, CoRNELis, an indifferent Di\tch en-
graver, lived about the year 1663. He engraved
a frontispiece to a book, entitled 'Spiegel der
Spaensche Tirannie,' published at Middleburg in

PELLEGRINI, Andrea, an Italian painter,
flourished at Milan from 1560 to 1595. He painted
historical subjects, and several of his pictures are
to be found in the church of St. Jerome at Milan.

PELLEGRINI, Giovanni Antonio, was born
at Padua in 1674 (or Venice in 1675). He was a
scholar of Genga ; and is said to have received some
instruction from Paolo Pagani. He distinguished
himself among the modern Venetians, by a ready
and ingenious invention, and an unusual facility
of execution, though the efEect of his works is im-
poverished by a feeble and languid colouring, and
a total neglect of the principles of chiaroscuro.
The reputation he had acquired at Venice, and
afterwards in Paris, recommended him to the notice
of the Duke of Manchester, who invited him to
England, where he resided some years, until 1712,
in which year he entered the service of the Elector of
Saxony at Dresden, and finally returned to Venice.
He died in 1741. He executed several ornamental
works for the mansions of the English nobility.
He is noticed in the ' Guida di Venezia,' with this
addition, ' Fu pittore piu di fortuna che di merito '
(' he was a painter rather by favour than by merit ').
Some of his pictures have been engraved by V.
Green, J. B. Gathelin, P. Simon, and T. Park. The
following are preserved :

Augsburg. Gallery. Several portraits and allegories.

Geuoa. Durazzo Pal. The Oath of Hamlet's Mother.

Paris. Louvre. Allegorical design — Modesty

offers the Artist's Paintiug
to the Academy.

Rome. Academy of St. 1 jjgVg
Luke. }

Venice. S. Moise. The Brazen Serpelit.

„ 8. C. Borromeo. Healing of the Man with the

PELLEGRINI, Domenico, a painter, was bom
at Venice about 1768. He studied chiefly at Rome,
and his first great works were the ' Death of Mes-
saHna,' and ' The Marriage at Cana.' In 1792 he
came to England, where he gained a considerable
reputation as a portrait painter. He returned to
his own country and painted several portraits in
Rome, Venice, and Naples. Schiavonelti engraved
after him.

PELLEGRINI, Felice, was born at Perugia in
1567, and was a scholar of Federigo Baroccio. He
painted historical subjects, and became an artist of
BuflScient celebrity to be invited to Rome by Pope
Clement VIII,, who employed him in the Vatican.
After having exercised his talents at Rome with
some success, he returned to Perugia, where he
died in 1630.

PELLEGRINI, Francesco, was, according to
Barotti, a native of Ferrara. He was a scholar of
Giovanni Battista Cozza, and flourished about the
year 1740. There are many of his works in the
churches at Ferrara. In the cathedral is a ' St.
Bernard ; ' and in San Paolo a ' Last Supper.'

PELLEGRINI, Pellegkino, an Italian historical
painter, was employed at the Escorial at Madrid,
and was appointed painter to the Court of Spain.
He died about 1634.

PELLEGRINI, Vincenzio, the brother of Felice
Pellegrini, was born at Perugia in 1575, and was
also educated in the school of Baroccio. He painted
several pictures for Perugia, in the churches of
Sant' Antonio, in the Chiesa Nuova, and in other
places. He was called ' II Pittor Bello ' for the
beauty of his person. He died in 1612.

PELLEGRINO, Fra Ignazio. See Danti.

PELLEGRINO da BOLOGNA, and Domenico,
See TiBALDi.


TiNO DI Battista.

PELLET, David, was a French engraver, whose
name is afSxed to a plate representing Louis XIII.
when young, on horseback, with the portraits of
Henry IV. and Maria de' Medici in small ovals at
the top.

PELLETIER, Jean, a French engraver, was
born in Paris about the year 1736. We have
several plates by him of various subjects, among
them the following :

The "Watering-place ; after Serchem.

Ruins and Figures ; after the same.

The Fish-Market ; after Pierre.

The Green-Market ; after the same.

Diana reposing ; after Boucher.

The Rape of Europa ; after the same.

Two Pastoral subjects ; after the same.

The Union of Design and Painting ; after Natoire.

Young Bacchus ; after C. van Loo.

The Travellers ; after JVouwerman.

Ladies going to the Chase ; after the same.

The Tipplers ; after Ostade.

Nagler mentions about twenty more, after Claude,
A. Van der Velde, Teniers, Bega, F. Millet, Metsu,
and others. Pelletier's wife also engraved two
plates after A. Ostade, and one after Wouwerman.
There is no account of the death of either.

PBLLI, Marco, an engraver, was born at Venice
about 1696. His principal engravings are heads
of saints ; a few portraits ; a ' Charge of Cavalry.'
after Borgognone ; and a ' Landscape,' after D. B.
Zilotti, signed M. Pelli exc. No particulars of
his life have been preserved.

PELLICIAIO. See Del Pelliciaio.

PBLLICOT, Lonis Alexis de, a French painter,
and native of Digne. He flourished in 1787. A
' Cromwell at Windsor ' and a set of views of old
French chateaux were among his most important

PELLIER, Nicolas FRANgois, a native of
Besan9on, was born in 1782_, and has left a few-
small landscapes engraved with the point from his
own designs. He died in 1804.

PELLIER, Pierre Edm:^ Lodis, a French por-
trait and historical painter, who flourished about
1815. He was a pupil of Regnault. In the
Museum at Caen is a ' Telemachus ' by him.

PELLINI, Andrea, a native of Cremona, who
flourished about 1595. He painted historical pic-
tures, and resided chiefly at Milan,





PBLLINI, Marc Antonio, an historical painter,
was born at Pavia in 1659. He was a pupil of Th.
Gatti, and studied at Venice and Bologna. He
died in 1760.

PBLISSIER, Theodor, a German painter of
French extraction, was a pupil of Wach, and
painted genre pictures towards the end of the 18th
century. He lived at Hanau, Hesse.

PBLOSI, Francesco, an historical painter, who
flourished at Venice in the 16th century. At
Bologna are by this artist a 'St. Julian,' a 'St.
James,' a ' Virgin and Child,' and a 'Dead Christ.'

PELTRO, John, engraver, was born in 1760. In
1779 he exhibited some engravings after Taverner
and others, but his chief work was engraving after
Eepton the miniature views of gentlemen's seats
for the ' Polite Repository.' He died at Hendon
in 1808.

PEMBROKE. Thomas, an English historical
painter, born in 1702. He was a pupil and follower
of the younger Laroon, and was patronized by the
Earl of Bath. His best known work is a ' Hagar
and Ishmael,' which was mezzotinted by J. R.
Smith and published by Boydell. He died in 1730.

PEN, HiSPEL, (or Penn). Strutt has fallen into
error with respect to a supposed artist of this
name ; it is now satisfactorily ascertained, that the
prints assigned to him ought to be included in the
works of Beham.

PEN, Jacob, was a Dutch painter, mentioned by
Balkema as being particularly employed by Charles
II. He says that he composed with intelligence,
and added beautiful colour to correct drawing ; but
he says nothing of his subjects, and adds, " All his
pictures are in England." Pen died in 1678.

PENA. See Diaz de la Pena.

PENAI. See La Penai.

PENALOSA, Juan de, an historical painter of
the school of Seville, was born at Baeza in 1681.
He was one of the best scholars of Pablo de Ces-
pedes, whose works he assiduously imitated, as is
evinced in the magnificent picture in the cathedral
of Cordova, representing St. Barbe. He also
painted a ' St. Jago ' for the convent of Arizafa ;
several pictures for the Minimes, and many others
for private collections in Cordova, where he died
in 1636.

PENCHARD, J., was a Dutch engraver, who
resided at Leyden about the year 1678. His plates
are chiefly confined to frontispieces, and other book
ornaments ; but he engraved the anatomical plates
for the works of Reg. de Graaf, with the portrait
of the author, published at Leyden in 1678.

PBNCZ, Geoeg, a native of Nuremberg, was
born at or before the beginning of the 16th century.
He was admitted into the Guild of Painters in
1523, after he had been, if not under the instruc-
tion, at least under the influence, of Albreoht Diirer.
He was associated with the Behams, and with
them in 1524 underwent the sentence of banilh-
ment for heresy. His sentence, however, seems
to have been allowed to drop, as we find frequent
notices of his presence in Nuremberg, though he
was deprived of his citizen-right, and in 1525 he
was permitted to settle in Windsheim, a place
within the city's jurisdiction. About 1632 he
probably returned to Nuremberg altogether. Be-
fore his trial we find him engaged on the work of
restoring pictures, but he was afterwards appointed
painter to the Rath. There is no proof that he
paid much attention to engraving till 1535, the first
date on any of his plates. He seems to have


visited Italy on several occasions, and the dates of
those visits have unusual importance from the fact
that Passavant confidently ascribes to him one of
the finest of the plates, which the world has been
in the habit of giving to Marc-Antonio. In the
fourth volume of the ' Peintre-Graveur,' Passavant
says : " Pencz left his home to frequent the school
of Marc-Antonio. This is put beyond a doubt by
the style of his words at the time. The influence
of the Italian school is clearly present. . . . Above
all is it visible in the ' Massacre of the Innocents
(au Chicot), Bartsch, 18,' hitherto considered the
original plate by Raimondi himself.'' Passavant
goes on to say that this Massacre au Chicotis finer
and firmer in drawing than the one by Marc-An-
tonio, but rather less graceful and life-like. To
quote his works ; " On carefully comparing these
two masterpieces of engraving on copper, No. 18
appears neater and firmer in drawing, but difEers
not only in the burin line, which is slightly thinner
and stiffer than that of so consummate an artist as
Marc-Antonio, but the expression of the heads has
less life, and the hatchings sometimes have that
horizontal direction which is never found among
the Italian engravers. No. 20 (Bartsch), which
undoubtedly belongs to Marc-Antonio, is of freer
line, and fuller outline, and of greater vivacity in
the heads. Everything considered, we are fully
convinced that the print, No. 18, ' Au Chicot,' was
executed by George Pencz after the original draw-
ing of Raphael" (vol. iv. p. 101). To all this
the champions of Raimondi oppose an aliM, assei-t-
ing that Pencz did not practise engraving untU
after the deaths both of Raphael and Raimondi.
It is diflScult to see how this can be conclusive,
and there certainly is much in common between
the work in the disputed plate and that in the
' Triumphs of Petrarch,' which are without doubt
by Pencz. In 1539 Pencz was certainly in Rome,
and at this time executed a large print after Giulio
Romano, called ' The Taking of Carthage,' and to
this period is also assigned by Passavant, 'The
Prisoners,' a print generally ascribed to Ghisi.
Pencz executed several plates in miniature from
the Old and New Testaments ; also many scenes
from ancient history and mythology, In 1544 he
was commissioned to paint a ' S. Jerome ' at Nurem-
berg, where he was also successful in portrait paint-
ing. He died at Breslau in 1550. Most of the
pictures ascribed to Pencz are merely copies from
his plates, but the following may be considered
authentic :

Berlin. Museam. Portrait of the painter Brhard

Schwetzer {signed with a
moTWgram and dated 1544).
„ „ Portrait of Schwetzer's wife.

„ Portrait of a Toung Man. 1534.

„ Portrait of a Mathematician.

Gallery. Three fragments from an
'Adoration of the Magi,'
signed G. P. in a monogram.
„ Two Male Portraits (?).

„ Female portrait {formerly as-

cribed to Holbein, whose name
appears upon it.)
Gotha. „ A Portrait.

Hampton Court. Portrait of an Italian Gentle-

Vienna. Belvedere. A Portrait.

Copies^ of Holbein's Erasmus, at Windsor, Brunswiclt.
and in the Braderhaus at Nuremberg.

His engravings of Bible subjects are notable for
their secular spirit, and his work as a whole for its






combination of Italian refinement in execution with
northern thoroughness. The following list includes
all his more important plates :
The six triumphs of Petrarch.
The Massacre of the Innocents lau Chicot).
The taking of Oarthage (signed Georgino Penoz pictor,
Nurriberg, Faciehat, Anno MDXXXIX) ; after
Giulio Bomano.
The Prisoners. (Generally ascribed to G. Ghisi.)
Scenes from the Old Testament.

»» i» JNew „

Thomiris, Medea, Paris, and Procris {four plates).
Triton carrying off Amymone.

The Legend of Virgil and the Scornful Lady (2 plates).
Death of Sophonisba.
The Conversion of St. Paul.
Portrait of Duke Frederick of Saxony.
(Pencz is the only one of ' The Little Masters ' who has
left no Madonnas^

See Bartsch, ' Les Peintres Graveurs,' vol. viii. p.
319, 1803 ; ' The Little Masters,' W. B. Scott, 1880 ;
and J. D. Passavant, ' Le Peintre Graveur,' vol. iv.

historical, landscape, and still-life painter, was
bom in Paris in 1811. He was a pupil of Charlet,
and among his works was a picture of the death of
Judas. He died in 1870.

PBNIOAUD. This was the name of a family of
artists of the 15th and 16th centuries. It com-
prised :

L:fioNAED or Nakdon PiNiCAUD, an enameller of
Limoges (1495—1513).

Jean Penicaud, the elder, also an enameller of
Limoges (beginning of the 16th century).

Jean Penicaud, the younger, a painter (1531-47),
has left a portrait of Luther and several other
works in Paris, and in private collections.

Jean Penicaud, the youngest, called ' The Glory
of Limoges,' was a follower of Parmigiano in style.
The Louvre has a fine collection of his enamels.

Pierre Penicaud, probably a brother of the last
(born 1515), is the painter of some draped figures
in the Gatteaux Collection, and of a mythological
subject on porcelain at Berlin. For a more detailed
account of the Penicauds see Laborde, ' Notice des
Emaux du Louvre.'

PENLEY, Aaron Edwin, a water-colour painter,
born in 1806, first appears in 1835 as an exhibitor
at the Royal Academy, to which he continued to
contribute occasionally till 1857. In 1838 he was
elected a member of the Institute of Painters in
Water-colours, but withdrew in 1856 on the
ground that justice was not done to his works
when sent for exhibition. In 1869 he was, at his
own solicitation, re-elected an Associate. From
1851 tillits dissolution he was Professor of Drawing
at the Addisoombe East India College, and he held
a similar post at Woolwich till his death. He was
water-colour painter to William IV. and Queen
Adelaide. He was the author of 'Elements of
Perspective,' ' The English School of Painting in
Water-colours,' and 'Sketching from Nature in
Water-colours.' He died at Lewisham in 1870.

PENNA, Della. See Nuzzi.

PENNACCHI, GiEOLAMo di Piee-Mabia, (called
GiROLAMO DA Tkeviso,) wasthe son of Pietro Maria
Pennacchi, and born in 1497 at Treviso, in which
city a house known as that of Pier Maria Pennacchi
still exists, its facade covered with a fresco by
Girolamo of the 'tfudgment of Solomon,' together
with medallions, playing children, and similar
designs. In early life Girolamo went to Venice,
and from thence to Genoa, but nothing authentic
now remains of his labours in either city. In 1532

he was employed by Cardinal Gloss to paint several
frescoes in the Castello at Trent ; remains of these
still exist. In 1533 Sabba da Castiglione employed
him to paint at the church of the Commenda of
Paenza a votive fresco of the ' Virgin and Child, with
Saints,' and a kneeling portrait of himself, that still
remains over the high altar. At about this period
in his life he paid a visit to Bologna, where several
of the churches possess frescoes and paintings by
him. Between the 3'ears 1535 and 1538 he returned
to Venice, and became intimate with Titian, San-
sovino, and Aretino. During this visit he painted
many frescoes in different palaces of the nobility ;
those executed by him in the Palazzo Andrea Odone
still remain. In 1642 he came to England, and be-
came architect and engineer to Henry VIII., and was
employed by that monarch at the siege of Boulogne,
where he was killed by a cannon-ball in 1644. The
mode of his death is described in a letter from
Aretino to Sansovino, dated in July 1545. Works :

London. Nat. Gal. Virgin and Child,with SS. Joseph,

James, and Paul, and patron.

{The best example extant. It

came originally from the Boc-

caferri Chapel in San Do-

menico, Bologna.)

Borne. Colonna Pal. Portrait of a Man holding a medal.

Treviso. Onigo Coll. Virgin and Child, with St. Joseph.

„ „ Two bust portraits of Men,

PENNACCHI, Pietro Maria, was the son of
Giovanni di Daniele Pennacchi, and bom in 1464.
He probably spent his early years in Treviso, and
went to Venice in after-life. In the church of San
Francesco della Vigna, Venice, there is an 'Annunci-
ation ' by him ; and Santa Maria della Salute, Santa
Maria della Miserioordia, and La Madonna de'
Miracoli have each ceilings panelled in relief with
sacred subjects in the panels, which are ascribed to
this artist. On the front of a house in the Via
Ognissanti, Treviso, are various sacred and profane
frescoes, said to have been painted by Pietro in
1628, in which year he died. The following works
by him may also be mentioned :
Berlin. Museum. Christ in the Tomb, between two

Treviso. Cathedral, The Assumption of the Virgin.

PENNE, Jan van, a Dutch still-life painter, was
settled at Antwerp about 1680. He was born about
1662, and died after 1700. He was the teacher of
J. J. Horemans the elder. Perhaps identical with
J. van Pee.

PENNEMAKERS, the Recollet, was, according
to Balkema, a scholar of Rubens. In the Museum
at Antwerp there is an ' Ascension of Christ ' at-
tributed to him.

PENNENSUS, F., who was probably a painter,
and a native of Italy, has left a few slight etchings,
the following among them :

The Holy Family, with St, Catharine, and an Angel in
the air ; after Parmigiano.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; from his own design.

PENNEVILLE, Jan, a Flemish historical painter,
was a native of Bruges. He was Master of the
Corporation of St. Luke in 1639, and died in 1681.

PENNEY, N., a French engraver, has left some
plates of devout subjects, executed with the graver.
Among others is 'The Virgin appearing to St.
Bartholomew,' which is apparently from his own
design, as he adds/ea< to his name.

PENNI, Bartolommeo, was an Italian portrait
and historical painter of the 16th century. He
was engaged in England by Henry VIII. at the
same time as Antonio Toto.





PENNI, GiANFEANOESco, called II Pattore, was
a painter of Florence, born about 1488. He went
to Rome when he was very young, and was re-
ceived into the school of Raphael, of whom he
became a favourite disciple ; and being entrusted

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 70 of 201)