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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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by that artist with the management of his domestic
afEairs, he acquired the appellation of ' II Fattore.'
Raphael employed him in many of his most im-
portant works, particularly in painting upon the
cartoons for Leo X., and in the Loggie of the Vati-
can. Taja informs us that the histories of Abra-
ham and Isaac were executed by Penni. In these
important undertakings, he acquitted himself so
much to the satisfaction of Raphael, that he was
appointed joint executor with Giulio Romano. He
was employed by Clement VII., in conjunction
with Giulio, to finish the frescoes of the ' History
of Constantino,' which had been begun in the
Saloon now called after them. ' Constantino's
Vision of the Cross,' and his ' Battle with Maxen-
tius,' were painted by Giulio ; his ' Baptism by St.
Silvester,' and his 'Donation of Rome to that
pontiff,' by Penni ; so in ' The Assumption of the
Virgin,' at Monte Luce, Perugia, Penni painted
the lower half. He had also a principal share
in the 'History of Cupid and Psyche,' in the
Farnesina. After this he fell into disagreement
with Giulio, and made a tour through Lombardy,
settling afterwards at Rome. The marriage of
his sister with Perino del Vaga led him to work-
ing in conjunction with this artist also. Of his
own compositions, those executed in fresco have
now almost entirely perished ; and he painted
so few pictures in oil, that they are rarely to be
met with. He paiticularly excelled in landscapes,
and was well acquainted with the beauties of
architecture. In 1525 he was invited to Naples
by the Marquis del Vasto, and took with him an
admirable copy he had made of the ' Transfigura-
tion,' by Raphael, which he sold to that nobleman,
for whom he executed some considerable works.
This copy is now in the Sciarra Colonna Palace,
at Rome. He died in 1528. Pictures by him are in
the Vatican, the Museum of Naples, and the galleries
of Dresden and Stuttgart. According to some
authorities the picture in the Bridgewater Gallery,
known as ' The Madonna del Passeggio,' is painted
by him.

PENNI, LtJCA, called Romano, the brother of
Gianfrancesoo Penni, was born about the year
1500. He is said to have frequented, for a short
time, the studio of Raphael ; and after the death of
that' master to have attached himself to Perino del
Vaga. After painting some pictures for the churches
at Lucca and Genoa, he visited England, in the reign
of Henry VIIL, by whom he was for sonie time
employed, and afterwards went to France, where
he painted at Fontainebleau, in conjunction with
II Rosso. On his return to Italy he applied himself
to engraving, and executed several plates, both
with the point and the graver. Among his designs
are ' Diana borne on the shoulders of Orion ' (en-
graved by Giorgio Ghisi) ; ' Apollo with the Muses
upon Parnassus ' (engraved by G. Mantovano) ; and
a ' Scourging of Christ ' (engraved by H. Wierix).
His prints are chiefly from the works of 11 Rosso
and Primaticcio ; the following are the best :

The Death of Luoretia.

Two Satyrs presenting "Wine to Bacchus ; after II Rosso,

Leda drawing Arrows from Cupid's Quiver; after the

Susanna and the Elders ; after the same.

The Sacrifice of Isaac ; after Primaticcio.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
Penelope at work, surrounded by her Women ; after
the same.

PENNING, NicoLAAs Lodewijk, bom at the
Hague in 1764, was a scholar of Dirk van der Aa,
and painted landscapes, interiors of stables, and
marine subjects. He died at the Hague in 1818.
His drawings are held in some esteem.

PENNY, Edwabd, was born at Knutsford, in
Cheshire, in 1714, and having, at an early period
of his life, discovered an inclination to painting, he
was sent to London, where he was placed under
the tuition of Hudson, who was at that time emi-
nent. He afterwards went to Rome, where he
studied some time under Marco Benefial. On his
return to England, some time before 1748, Penny
became a member of the Incorporated Society
of Artists of Great Britain, of which he was for
some time vice-president. At the foundation of
the Royal Academy he was one of the original
members, and was appointed their first Professor
of Painting. He continued in that situation, and
read an annual course of lectures, which were well
received, until the year 1783, when, in consequence
of declining health, he was obliged to resign the
professorship, and was succeeded by Barry. About
this period he went to reside at Chiswick, and
having married a lady of property, lived in quiet
retirement until his death, which happened in 1791.

Penny was principally employed in painting
small portraits in oil, which were very generally
admired. He also painted sentimental and historical
subjects, many of which were publicly exhibited.
Among others, were the ' Death of General WohEe,'
from which a mezzotint print was published by
Sayer, and met with a very extensive sale; the
portrait of the 'Marquis of Granby relieving a
sick Soldier,' from which there is a print ; ' Virtue
rewarded,' and ' Profligacy punished,' two pictures
which are also engraved. In 1782 he exhibited
for the last time. 'The pictures then shown included
' The Benevolent Physician,' ' The Rapacious
Quack,' and 'The Distraint of the Widow's Cow.'

PENOZZI, B., is mentioned by Papillou as an
engraver on wood, but he has not specified any of
his prints.

PENS. See Pencz.

PENSABENE, Fra Marco, and Fra Marco
Maeaveia, his assistant, both of the order of the
Dominicans at Venice, painted at Treviso in 1520
and 1621. The former was born at Venice about
1486, and entered his religious order in 1602. Lanzi,
enumerating the scholars, followers, and hnitators
of Giovanni Bellini, mentions the altar-piece in
the Dominican church at Treviso, painted by
Marco Pensabene and his assistant, in which the
cupola, the columns, and the perspective, with the
throne of the Virgin seated with the infant Jesus,
and surrounded by saints standing, the steps orna-
mented with an angel playing on the guitar, are
all modelled on similar things by Bellini. Crowe
and Cavalcaselle conjecture that this altar-piece
may have been finished by Savoldo. In 1520
Pensabene began a painting of 'The Madonna
with Saints,' for San Nioool6, in Treviso, but for
some unknown reason fled secretly .from his con-
vent in 1521, before it was completed. It stifl,
however, evinces such merit that it has been
ascribed to Titian, Giorgione, and Sebastianodel
Piombo. In 1524 Pensabene was again a Dominican
friar in Venice, where he died in 1529. Two por-
traits by him are in the monastery at Treviso, and




a ' Madonna with Saints ' in possession of the Conte
Lbchis Carrara.

FENSIERI, Battista. See Parmensis.

PENZEL, Johann Geoeq, a painter and en-
graver, was born at Hersbruok, near Nuremberg,
in 1764, according to Brulliot (Zani and Nagler
say in 1754), and died at Leipsic in 1809. He
commenced with Schellenberg at Winterthur, and
afterwards studied at Dresden, where he entirely
devoted himself to engraving. He worked much
for the publishers there, and engraved many of
Chodowiecki's designs.

PEPIJN, Martin, (Pepin, or Peptn,) was born
at Antwerp in 1575. It is not known under whom he
studied, but he went when young to Italy, where
he remained several years. Such was the reputation
he acquired at Rome, that when Rubens, who
was then in the zenith of his fame at Antwerp,
heard of Pepijn's intention to return to his native
country, it occasioned him some uneasiness. Pepijn
became a member of the Guild at Antwerp about
1600, and died ii) 1642 or 1643. In the church
of the hospital at Antwerp there are two ad-
mirable works by him ; they are both triptychs.
In the centre picture of one he has represented
the Baptism of St. Augustine ; on one of the
wings, that Saint giving alms to the poor ; on
the other, St. Augustine curing the Sick. The
centre picture of the other triptych represents
St. Elisabeth giving charity to a group of miserable
objects, who are struggling to approach her. On
one of the wings is the death of that Saint, and on
the other her Ascension to heaven, with a choir of
angels. The Museum of the same city possesses a
' Preaching of St. Luke,' and ' The Passage of the
Red Sea' (1626), by him; the cathedral a 'St.
Norbert,' and the Arenberg Gallery at Brussels a
'Female Head.' Most of the works of Pepijn
are, however, in Italy. His daughter, Kathaeina
Pepijn, also a painter, was born in 1619, and be-
came a member of the Guild in 1653.

PEQUIGNOT, an obscure French landscape
painter of the 18th century. He is chiefly re-
membered as the friend of Girodet Trioson, with
whom he travelled.


PERANDA. See Santo Peeanda.

PERCELLES (or Peecellis). See Paecelles.
_ PERDANUS, Abeaham, a Dutch painter of still-
life, born at Haarlem in 1673. He was a pupil of
Brakenburg, and died at Maarsen in 1744.

PERE, Ant. van db. See Vandepbee.

PEREA, . A Spanish painter mentioned by

Espinosadelos Monterosamongtheartists employed
at Seville in the decoration of the funeral monument
of Philip II. Perhaps identical with Pereira {q. v.").

PEREA, Blas DE, was a Portuguese painter, who
settled in Castile about 1550. He was a friend of
the painter Francisco de Holanda.

PEREDA, Antonio, (or Peeea,) a Spanish his-
torical painter, was bom at Valladolid in 1599.
He was a scholar of Pedro de las Cuevas, and gave
early proofs of his ability in art. After making
considerable progress in the school of Cuevas he
was placed by his patron, Don Francisco de Texada,
with Juan Bautista Cresoenzi, Marquis de la Torre,
who had been a pupil of Pomerancio. At the age
of eighteen he produced and exhibited to the public
a picture of the ' Immaculate Conception,' in which
the Virgin appeared on a throne of clouds supported
by angels. The reputation he acquired by this per-
formance induced the 'Conde-Duque,' Olivarez, who

was then occupied in filling the palace of the Buen
Retire with the works of the best Spanish painters,
to place Pereda among those of the highest rank.
He performed his part to the satisfaction of his
patron, and was munificently rewarded. Pereda's
works were much in request, and he exercised his
talent on a great variety of subjects. History,
social scenes, still-life, vases, tapestry, musical
instruments ; all were within the compass of his
versatile brush. He died at Madrid in 1669. His
works were formerly to be found in all the palaces
and churches of Madrid, Toledo, Aloala, Oueuca,
Valladolid, and in many private collections. At
present there are two in the Madrid Gallery, one of
which is a 'St. Jerome meditating on the last
Judgment ; ' in the church of San Tomas is a ' St.
Domingo and God the Father' (1640), and in the
Academy of San Fernando ' The Dream of Life ; '
in Marshal Soult's collection there was a 'Christ
asleep on the Cross,' with flowers and skulls about
Him; in the Esterhazy Gallery, at Pesth, there
is a 'St. Anthony and the Infant Christ' (the
same subject is among the Suermondt pictures at
Berlin) ; a still-life subject (1621) is at St. Peters-
burg ; and three or four in the Gallery at Munich.
Formerly it was considered that no Spanish col-
lection was complete without an example of

PEREDA Y DUARTE, Tomas de, a Spanish
artist, who became a member of the Academy of
San Fernando in 1757. He died in 1770.

PEREGRINI DA CESENA, an Italian engraver
of the 15th century. Duchesne enumerates sixty-
six plates by his hand, which he calls nielli. More
recent critics, however, see in these not proofs of
goldsmith's work, but impressions from plates ex-
pressly engraved for printing. The facts in favour
of this view are, in the first place, the number of
these so-called nielli, and, secondly, the occurrence
of the artist's signature upon the prints with the
letters the right way. Peregrini's most important
plate is a 'Resurrection,' which is signed De Opus
Peregrini Ce*. The rest of the plates ascribed to
him are signed either P or O.P.D.C.

PEREIRA, Vasoo, (Perbyba, or Peeiea), was a
Portuguese painter, who resided at Seville, in great
credit, at the end of the 16th century. He was
employed in 1594 to repair the fine fresco of ' Christ
of the Criminals,' painted only thirty years pre-
viously by Luis de Vargas. He was one of the
artists employed in the cathedral of Seville in
1598, to prepare the magnificent decorations for
the funeral service of Philip II. He painted the
' Decollation of St. Paul ' for the convent of that
order, in competition with Mohedano and Vazquez.
He executed many other works which have ceased
to exist in Spain, though some are to be found in
Portugal. He was reckoned a skilful draughtsman,
but dry and hard as a colourist, as may be noted in
the 'Four Doctors of the Church' painted by him
for the library of the Carthusians of Santa Maria de
las Cuevas, and an 'Annunciation ' in the college of
San Hermenegildo. He died at the commencement
of the 17th century. The Dresden Gallery possesses
a ' St. Onofrius ' by him. In the case of the ' Cruci-
fixion ' in the Misericordia of Oporto, it is undecided
whether it was the work of Pereira, or of Vasco
Fernandez. The Museum of Seville possesses a
' Nativity ' dated 1579.

PERELLE, Gabriel, an eminent French de-
signer and engraver, was born at Vernon-sur-Seine
at the beginning of the 17th century, and died in





Paris in 1675. He was instructed by Daniel Rabel,
whom he soon surpassed. He excelled in drawing
and engraving landscapes and views, of which he
left a prodigious number. He usually enriched
them with ruins and other objects, which give an
agreeable variety to his scenery. Although by far
the greater part of his plates are from his own com-
positions, he also engraved from the designs of
several other masters, particularly Paul Bril, Gas-
par Poussin, Asselyn, and above all, Silvestre.
His best works are comprised in the two collections,
'D^lices de Paris,' and ' Ddlices de Versailles.' He
was assisted in his numerous works by his sons,
Nicolas and Adam Perelle, who, after his death,
engraved a great number of plates of architectural
views, landscapes, &c., which are inferior to those
of their father. Nicolas is stated to have engraved
' The Four Seasons,' and ' The Pour Elements,' and
to have died at Orleans ; Adam, to have been born
in 1638, and died in Paris in 1696. The Perelles
worked both with the point and the graver. Their
works from their own designs are multifarious, and
frequently to be met with. The following are the
principal plates they engraved after other artists :

A set of four Views, the Church of St. Michel at Dijon,
the Palace in that City, the Bridge of Grenoble, and
the Porte Eoyale at Marseilles ; after Sihestre.

Four Views in Paris, the Arsenal du Mail, the Pontneuf ,
the Louvre, the Mail, and surrounding country ; after
the same.

A set of four Views, the Baths of Bourbon d'Archam-
baud, the Castle of Bourbon Lancy, with the Baths
of Julius Caesar; and the great Chartreuse near Gre-
noble ; after the same.

Six Views of the Jardin de Euel ; after Israel iSilvestre.

Two Mountainous Landscapes, with bibhcal subjects ;
after P. Bril.

Six Views in Rome and its Environs ; after J. Asselyn.

A View of Buins, with the Adoration of the Magi ;
after Poelemberg.

PERERIETTE, , executed a coarse etching

after Paolo Veronese, representing the Holy Family
accompanied by two angels.

PERET. See Pbreet.

PEREYRA. See Peeeiea.

P^REZ, Andees, a Spanish historical and flower
painter, was born at Seville in 1660 ; and was
instructed by his father, Francisco Perez de Pineda
one of the members of the Society of Professors
who established the Academy in that city, and
who was himself a scholar of MuriUo. In the
sanctuary of Santa Lucia, at Seville, there were
three Scriptural subjects relating to the holy sacra-
ment, signed Andres P4rez, 1707 ; and in the
sacristy of the Capuchins of the same city another
with the date 1713, representing the ' Last Judg-
ment,' taken in part from that of Michelangelo.
Perez was, however, most successful in painting
i3owers and other objects after nature. His his-
torical works show a great falling off from the
good rules MuriUo had endeavoured to establish.
Andres P6rez died in 1727.

P!^REZ, Antonio, a Spanish historical painter,
born in a village of Andalusia. In 1648 he was
employed to paint chosen subjects for the old
sanctuary of Seville cathedral. In 1550 he finished
three pictures for the church of Nuestra Senora ;
in 1653 he painted the altar of San Ibo, and in 1556
restored that of the church of San Francisco. He
died about 1680. His son Antonio worked with him.

PEREZ, Antonio and Nicolas, painters, were
two brothers living at Seville from 1654 to 1668,
who devoted considerable time and money to the
foundation of the Academy in that city.


P!1^REZ, Baetolom^, was a Spanish painter, bom
at Madrid in 1634, and appointed painter to the
king in 1689. He was the scholar and son-in-law
of the flower-painter Arellano, whom he excelled
as a draughtsman, and sometimes assisted by paint-
ing the figures in his works. He was particularly
successful in rendering curtains and drapery, on
which he was much employed for the theatre at
Buen Eetiro. His flower-pieces too were much
esteemed. He died in 1693 from a fall from some
scaffolding whilst painting a ceiling in the palace
of the Duke of Monteleon. He painted a 'St.
Rosa of Lima,' a ' Virgin praying to the Child '
and many flower paintings, of which there are
four good examples in the Madrid Museum.

PEREZ, Flobian Juan, a Spanish nobleman, and
amateur painter of genre subjects, was bom in
the neighbourhood of Madrid in the first half of
the 16th century. He was a knight of a religious
order; in 1566 was appointed valet to Philip II.
He died at the commencement of the 17th century.
PEREZ, JoAQUiK, a Spanish historical painter,
was bom at Alcoy. In 1773 he gained the prize
from the Academy of San Carlos at Valencia. He
died in 1779.
PJ^REZ, Mattbo. See Alesio.
PEREZ DE PINEDA, Fbancisco, was a pupil
of MuriUo. His son, who bore the same name,
went at his father's death to the school of Luea de
Vald^s, and died at Seville in 1732. Bermudez
says that his pictures were as bad as the doggerel
verse in which he wrote the life of Fernando de

PERFETTI, Antonio, an engraver, was born at
Florence in ViWi, and from 1818 onwards was a pupil
of Rafael Morghen. In 1828 he obtained the prize
at the Florence Academy with his ' Sibyl of Cumae,'
after Guercino, but obtained wider renown through
his ' Presentation in the Temple,' after Fra Barto-
lommeo. He and his pupils completed the engraved
collection of the Gallery of Florence. He died in
that city in 1872. Other plates by him are :

The Madonnas ' deUa Sedia ' and ' del Granduca '; after

Birth of the Virgin ; after Andrea del Sarto.
Portrait of Dante ; after Giotto.

PERGER, Anton von, a painter, bom at Vienna
in 1809. He was a son and pupil of Sigmund von
Perger. In 1830-33 he was travelling in Italy,
and on his return to Vieima he was appointed
Professor of Anatomy, and in 1872 Director of the
Court Library. He painted chiefly still-life scenes.
He died in 1876.

PERGER, Sigmund Ferdinand von, historical
painter and engraver, was bom at Vienna in 1778,
and studied at the Academy there. In 1816 he be-
came Court painter, and in 1825 assistant custodian
of the Belvedere Gallery. He died in the same
city in 1841. As a painter on porcelain he showed
himself especially skilful, working eleven years at
the Imperial factory. Among his works we may
name :

Horse-race at Kopcsan {afterwards engraved !n/ himself).
The Herald bringing the News of the Victory of Mara-
thon to Athens.
The Rape of Ganymede.
Romulus and Remus with the She-wolf. (Etching.)

PERICCIOLI, GiULlo, (or Periocivoli,) designer
and etcher, was born at Siena about 1600, and after
receiving some instruction from his uncle Fran-
cesco, an ecclesiastic and calligraphist, completed
his studies in Rome and Venice. He subsequently




visited Constantinople, Egypt, Malta, Sicily, and
Spain, where Philip III. appointed him drawing-
master to the prince, his son. He next went to
Holland, and was similarly employed on behalf of
the Princess Louise ; then to England, where he
painted Charles I. ; and finally returned to his own
country, where he entered the service of the Grand
Duke of TUBoany. He died after 1660. He pro-
duced numerous pen-and-ink drawings, several of
which he ©tched. Two plates hy him after Vanni
represent a ' King writing,' and a ' Warrior on

PERIER, FEANgois, an obscure French painter
and engraver, who died about 1665> He was a
native of Saint-Jean-de-Laure. He was a member
of the TnaUrise.

PBRIGAL, Akthub, an English historical painter
of some promise, who gained the Academy gold
medal in 1811 for his ' Themistocles taking refuge
with Admetus.' He occa-sionally exhibited at the
Academy up to 1821, after which, there is no further
trace of him. In that year he was living at

PERIGAL, Arthub, a landscape painter of High-
land scenery, was- born in Iiondon in 181&. He
was a frequent exhibitor in Edinburgh, and an
occasional contributor to the Royal Academy and
British Institution from 1861 to 1876. He was
elected an Associate of the Scottish Academy in
1841, an Academician in 1868, and Treasurer in
1880. He died suddenly in 1884, in Edinburgh.
Works :

A Sutherlandshire landscape..
Vesuvius, from Naples.
The Pier, Nairn.
On the Jed.
A Eough Day.
Skye, evening..
Loch Tromlie.
Morning, Glen Nevis..

Moor near Kinlochewe, Bosshtre. {Scottish National

PERIGNON, Alexis Joseph, a French portrait
and genre painter, born in Paris in 1806. He was
the son of A. N. Perignon, under whom, and Gros,
he studied. His works were awajded medals in
1836, 1838, and 1844, and he obtained the Legion
of Honour in 1850, becoming an officer of the order
in 1870. His latter years were spent at Dijon as
Director of the Academy there. He died in 1882.
Amongst his works are :


Museum. Portrait of Admiral Leray.
Museum. St. Cecilia.

PERIGNON, Alexis Nicolas, the elder, a French
painter and engraver, alsa an architect and notary,
was bom at Nancy in 1725. He travelled in Italy
and Switzerland, and died in Paris in 1782. He
painted landscapes in oil, and flowers in gouache ;
and has etched 43 plates from his own landscapes.

PERIGNON, Alexis Nicolas, the younger, a
French painter of portraits, genre, and historical
subjects, was born in Paris in 1785. He was a
pupil of Girodet, and exhibited at the Salon from
1814 to 1850, obtaining a second class medal in
1824. He died in 1864. At Versailles there are
by him :

Davoust in 1792.

The Duke of Orleans and the Duke of Chartres.

Perignon's daughter, Caeoline Louise Emma,
Mme. Debay, also won some repute as a painter.
VOL. n. T

PERIN, Alphonse Henri, a French historical
and landscape painter, born in Paris in 1798. He
was a pupil of Gudrin, and among his works are
the mural paintings in the church of Notre Dame
de Lorette in Paris. He died in 1874.

PERIN-SALBREUX, Li^ Louis, a French minia-
ture painter, bom at Rlieims in 1753. He came to
Paris at the age of twenty-five, and took lessons
from an Italian painter called Sioardi. On the
outbreak of the Revolution he retired to Rheims,
where he died in 1817.

PERINI, Giuseppe Sforza, an Italian engraver,
was bom at Rome about the year 1748, and was stili
living in 1795. He executed some of the plates
for the 'Scuola Italiana' of Gavin Hamilton, and
engraved some of the statues in the Clementine
Gallery. The following, among others, are by

The Frontispiece to the 'Scuola Italiana,' with two figures
by Michelangelo.

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Jacopo Talma.

Charity ; after Bartolommeo Schedone.

Christ bearing his Cross ; after Zanfranco.

PERINI, LoDOVico, an indifferent Italian en-
graver, has left some prints executed with the
graver, among which is one representing two men
playing at cards, and a woman overlooking them.

PERINO del VAGA. See Buonacooesi.

PERIS, Henei, a Flemish la,nd&cape painter.
He was appointed Dean of the Corporation of St.
Luke at Antwerp, ifli 1662. In, the church of the
Augustins. at Antwerp are two landscapes by him.
Ha died in 16.70.

PERISIN. See Pereissim.


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