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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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PERKINS, Charles C, an American painter,
[ draughtsman, and writer on art. He was born at
Boston in 1823. He studied painting under Ary
Schefifer, and etching under Bracquemond and
Lalanne, but most of his life was devoted to the
study of art history and to its. teaching. In 1876
he was appointed honorary director of the Museum
of Pine Arts at Boston. In 1864 he published
' Tuscan Sculptors ' in two volumes ; in 1867,
' Italian Sculptors, in one vojume, and in 1878,
' Raphael and Michael Angelo.' The plates in
these books were etched by himself, mostly from
his own designs. He died in 1886.

PBRLA, Feajstoesoo, the reputed author of two
frescoes in the Cathedral of Mantua, dating from
the 16th century.

PERNA, PlETEO, according to Strutt, was an
engraver on wood, to whom some prints marked
F. P. are usually attributed. He Uved to the latter
end of the 16th century.

PERNET, , is mentioned by Strutt as an

engraver who lived about the year 1620, and
executed a few indifferent portraits.

PERNICHARO, Pablo, a native of Zaragoza,
studied with Hovasse at Madrid. Philip V. granted
him a pension to enable him to study in Rome,
where he was elected to the Academy of St. Luke.
On his-return he became painter-in-ordinary to the
king-, and Director of the Academy of San Fer-
nando from 1753 till his death in 1760. He furnished
various sacred compositions to the palace, the
Academy, the church of San Isidro, and the
hospital of Monserrate, also a copy of Raphael's
' Assembly of the Gods ' to the palace of San

PERNOT, FBANgois Alexandee, was born at
Wassy (Haute Marne) in 1793. He was a pupil




of Victor Bertin and Hersent. He travelled from
1818 to 1828, through Switzerland, the Vosges, the
Rhine Provinces, Belgium, England, and Scotland.
He worked to some small extent as a sculptor
also. He died in 1865. Among his pictures we
may name :

Eighty sketches of old Paris.

A series of picturesque Views in Scotland.

The Trenches of Vincennes. ( Versailles Gallery.)

Marius in Carthage.

Tell's Cliapel.

£uins of the Chateau de Pierrefonds.

PEROLA, Jdan, Francisco, and Est^fano,
painters, sculptors, and architects, were three
brothers, natives of Almagro, in La Mancha, who
are supposed to have studied in the school of
Becerra. In 1586 they were employed by the
Marquis of Santa Cruz, with Cesare Arbasia, an
Italian, to paint in fresco the staircase, halls, and
court of his palace at El Viso. In the adjacent
conventual church of the Franciscans were some
oil pictures and various marble tombs attributed to
the Perolas ; they also assisted Mohedano in paint-
ing frescoes for Cordova cathedral.

PERON, Dal. See Cusighb.

P^^RON, Louis Alexandkb, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1776. He was a,
pupil of David, and among his works are ' The
Capture of Toulon ' and ' The Murder of the Inno-

PERONI, Giuseppe, according to Abate Affo,
was born at Parma about the year 1700. He first
studied at Bologna, under Felice Torelli and Do-
nate Creti, and afterwards went to Rome, where he
became a scholar of Agostino Masucci. He was a
tolerably correct designer, and, in his best perform-
ances, imitates the style of Carlo Maratti. Such
are his pictures in the church of San Satiro, at
Milan ; and the ' Conception,' at the Padri dell'
Oratorio, at Turin. In competition with Pompeo
Batoni, he painted in fresco for the church of Sant'
Antonio Abate, ' The Crucifixion,' which places him
among the most respectable artists of his time.
He died in 1776-

PEROTTI, PiETEO Antonio, portrait painter,
was born at Verona in 1712, and died there in
1793. He was a pupil of Balestra, and painted
pastel portraits at Venice, Rome, and London.
He married Angelica Legru (born 1719, died
1776), who executed works of a similar class.

PEROU, Antoinb, an obscure painter, who was
appointed concierge to the Acadtoie in Paris, in
the time of Louis Testelin, whose pupil he had been.

PEROUX, Joseph Nicolaus, was born at Lud-
wigsburg in 1771, and after studying at Stuttgart,
became the first teacher of Overbeck, and came in
1806 to Frankfort, where he died in 1849. He
painted portraits in oil and miniature, an allegor-
ical Reformation picture, and a ' Christ as the
Children's Friend ' (now in the City Collection at

PEROXINO, Giovanni, a painter who was active
at Alba, in Piedmont, in the year 1517. He
painted an altar-piece for the oonventuali, in that

PERRACINI, Giuseppe, an historical painter,
called II Mirandolese. He was born in 1672, and
died in 1754. His talent was very slight, and he
should not be confounded with Pietro Paltronieri,
who was also called II Mirandolese.

PERRE, Jan. See Van der Peebe.

PERREAL, Jehan, called Jean db Paris, was

court painter to Charles VIII., Louis XIL, and
Francis I., from 1483 to 1528, and produced numer-
ous pictures of battles and sieges. His father,
Claude de Pebeeal, painter and poet, in whose
honour C14ment Marsh wrote some verses, was
valet to Louis XL in 1474. Jean's name occurs for
the first time in 1483, as that of a valet-de-chambre
to Charlotte, the wife of Louis XI. He followed
the French army into Italy, and was commissioned
to paint some of its feats. Jean was employed by
the municipality of Lyons in 1489 and 1493 to
organize the fetes given by the town in honour
of the visit of Charles VIII. In 1496 he was the
first to sign the act of incorporation of the Lyons
artists. He was the friend and protector of the
poet, Jean Lemaire, whom he presented to Anne of
Brittany. After Anne's death Perreal was charged
to paint her portrait, which he did, from the corpse.
The miniatures in a manuscript relating to the
Queen's obsequies are also ascribed to him. Per-
real, who was en engineer and architect as well as
a painter, died in 1528 or 1529.

PERRET, PiETER, (or Pedro Pbeet,) an en-
graver, was born about 1550 : it is uncertain
whether he was a native of France or of the Low
Countries. He studied at Rome under Cornells
Cort, and was engraver to the Duke of Bavaria
and the Elector of Cologne. In 1589 he settled at
Antwerp, where he engraved some views of the
monastery of San Lorenzo in the Escurial, from
drawings by Juan de Herrera, which gave so
much satisfaction to Philip II. that be invited him
to Spain, and appointed him his engraver; an
olBce which he retained under Philip III. and IV.
He was called to Madrid in 1596, and resided there
till his death in 1637. His chief performance was
a set of portraits of the Kings of Portugal, pub-
lished in 1603, which he inscribed Pedro Ferret
sculptor Regis fecit. He also engraved several
plates of historical subjects, among which are :

The Woman taken in Adultery ; after Brueghel.

The Chastity of Joseph ; after Speeckaert.

Four subjects from the Lite of Ignatius Loyola, with
his portrait.

PERRIER, FRANgois, called Le Boueguignon,
was a French painter and engraver, who was bom
either at Saint Jean de Losne or at Macon, in Bur-
gundy, about the year 1584. He was the son of a
goldsmith, who had him instructed in the elements
of design ; but as he opposed his desire of becoming
a painter, the young Perrier secretly left his home,
and, without the means of subsistence, associated
himself with a blind mendicant, who was on his
waj' to Italy, and by this means arrived at Rome.
He accidentally became acquainted with Lanfranco,
who encouraged him in his pursuit, and admitted
him into his school. After a residence of several
years at Rome, he returned in 1630 to France, and
passed some time at Lyons, where he painted a
set of pictures for the cloister of the Carthusians.
He then visited Paris, where Simon Vouet, who
was then in possession of every commission of
importance, employed him in painting the chapel
of the chateau of Chilly, from his design. Finding
little employment in Paris, he returned to Rome m
1635, where he applied himself to engraving the
principal antique statues and bas-reliefs, and exe-
cuted several plates after the Italian masters, as
well as from his own designs. After the death of
Simon Vouet, he returned to Paris in 1645, when
he was employed to paint the gallery of the H6tel
de la Vrilliere, and was one of the twelve professors




who in 1648 founded the Academy. He died in
Paris in 1650. Some of his best paintings are the
frescoes in the above hotel, and his pictures of
' Apollo in the Chariot of the Sun,' ' The Tempta-
tion of St. Anthony,' and ' Acis and Galatea ' — tliis
last in the Louvre. "We have by him also a con-
siderable number of etchings, from his own designs,
and after other masters. He sometimes signed his
name Faria. The following are his principal
plates :

A set of one hundred prints from antique statues,
published at Kome.

A set of fifty, from ancient bas-reliefs.

Ten plates of Angels from the Farnesina ; after Raphael.

Two plates of the Assembly of the Gods, and the Mar-
riage of Oupid and Psyche ; after the paintings by
Raphael, in the Farnesina.

The Oommuuiou of St. Jerome ; after Agost. Carraoci.

The Flight into Egypt ; after the same.

The Nativity ; <^ter S. Vouet.

The portrait of Simon Vouet ; F. Perrier fecit. 1032.


The Holy Family, with St, John playing with a Lamb.

The Orueiflxion ; inscribed Franciscus Perrier, Sur-
gundius, pinx. et seul.

St. Koch curing the Plague-stricken.

The Body of St. Sebastian, supported by two Saints.

Venus and the Graces,

Time clipping the Wings of Love, engraved in chiar-

PERRIER, GuiLLAUME, born at Macon about
1600, was the nephew and scholar of Franjois
Perrier, whose style he followed. Of his works as
a painter the most considerable are his pictures in
the sacristy of the Minimes at Lyons, where he
took refuge, having killed a man in a duel. We
have by this artist several etchings, executed in
the style of his uncle. He died in 1655. Among
his best plates we may name :

A Holy Family.

The Death of the Magdalene.

Portrait of Lazarus Meysonnier,

An allegorical subject.

PERRIN, Jean, was an obscure engraver on
wood, who, conjointly with Jean Munier, executed
a set of cuts for a work entitled ' La Morosophie
de Guillaume de la PerriSre Tolsain, contenant cent
Emblemes,' published in 1653.

PERRIN, Jean Charles Nicaisb, a French his^
torical painter, was born in Paris in 1764. He was
a pupil of Doyen and Duraraeau. In 1787 he was
elected a member of the Academy of Painting.
Among his works are, ' Venus healing the Wound
of .iEneas,' ' The Sacrifice of Cyanippus,' and an
' Assumption.' He died in 1831.

PERRIN, Olivier Si'ANISLAS, a French painter,
bom at Rostrenen in 1761. He first studied at the
Academy of Rennes, but afterwards, through the
kindness of the Duke of Charost, he entered the
studio of Doyen. He then worked with the en-
graver Massard, after which he went on two or
three campaigns. He then obtained a Government
post at Quimper, and painted several pictures illus-
trating Breton life. He died at Quimper in 1832.

PEKRIN, Thomas, a miniatui-ist, who flourished
at Dijon about 1400. He worked for the Duke of

PBRRISSIM, Jacques, (Pbbisin, or Persinus,)
was an old French engraver, who flourished about
the year 1570. In conjunction with J. Tortorel,
he designed and engraved, partly on wood and
partly on copper, a set of twenty-four large prints,
representing subjects from the Huguenot war, 1559

to 1570. His copper-plates are etched in a coarse,
incorrect style ; the woodcuts are executed with
more attention. He sometimes signed his prints
J. Perrimim fecit, or J. Persinus fecit, and some-
times marked them with the monogram ^ . Zani

thinks that he was a German by birth, an opinion
in which Nagler seems to concur. The latter says
ho was born in 1530, and quotes the work referred
to as being published in 1567 and 1574. Brulliot

has given his monogram thus ip which agrees with

Nagler, who calls him C. Jakob. When he en-
graved conjointly with Tortorel the monogram is

See also Tortorel.

PERRONEAU, Jean Baptists, a French en-
graver, was born in 1731, and died in 1796. He
was instructed by L. Cars. He engraved also after
Boucher, Van Loo, and Bouchardon. He was a
painter in crayons, and was for a short time in
England, where he exhibited some portraits in that
medium. Among other prints, he has left two of
the elements, 'Air' and 'Earth,' after Natoire ;
the companions, ' Fire ' and ' Water,' are engraved
by P. Aveline. Perroneau is said by Siret to have
died at Amsterdam in 1783.

PERROT, Antoine Marie, a French landscape
and architectural painter, born in Paris in 1787.
He was a pupil of Watelet and Michallon. Among
his landscapes are views of Clisson and Messina.

PERROT, Catherine, aFrench miniature, flower,
and animal painter, who flourished in the 17th
century. She was a pupil of Nicolas Robert, and
was received into the Academy in 1682. She
published some works on painting in miniature.
She married one Claude Horry, a notary.

PERROT, Ferdinand Victor, a French painter,
born at Paimboeuf in 1808. At the age of nineteen
he painted for the small church of Ploudaniel an
' Assumption,' which attracted a great deal of at-
tention. He then went to Paris to study, and there
executed for M. Gudin a large number of litho-
graphs. He painted several sea-pieces, and in
1836 went to Italy, where he produced a picture of
' Susannah and the Elders ' which made some sens-
ation. In 1840 he went to St. Petersburg, and
was just about to be admitted into the Academy,
when, yielding to the severity of the climate, he
died in 1841.

PERRY, Francis, an English engraver, was born
at Abingdon in Berkshire, and was a pnpil of one
of the Vanderbanks. He was for some time under
Richardson, but made little progress as a painter.
He afterwards set up as an engraver, and for
some time worked 'for the magazines. He died in
London in 1765. His best plates are coins and
medals, which he copied with neatness and pre-
cision. He also engraved some portraits, among
which we have the following :

Dr. Ducarrel, afiixed to his Anglo-Norman Antiquities.

Matthew Hutton, Bishop of Durham.

Alexander Pope, Poet.

He also etched a series of drawings, by himself,
of Lichfield Cathedral.

PERSECOUTER (or Persecutedr). See Ser-

PERSEUS, an ancient Greek painter, who flour-
ished more than three hundred years before Christ.
He was a disciple of Apelles, and though greatly
inferior to his master, he may be presumed to have





possessed considerable talents, as he was favoured
with the particular esteem of that painter, who
addressed a treatise on art to him.

PERSBVAL, — , a French portrait painter, born
at Chamery in 1745. He was a Professor of Draw-
ing at the Royal College of Pont-le-Voy. In the
Museum at Rheims there is an old woman's portrait
by him. He died in 1837.

PBRSIJN, Reniek de, (Pbeseyn, Pbezyn, &c.,)
called Naecissus, was a painter and engraver, bom
at Amsterdam about the year 1600. He went to
Rome, where, in conjunction with Cornelis Bloe-
maert, Theodor Matham, and M. Natalis, he en-
graved the statues in the Palazzo Giustiniani. He
married the daughter of the glass-painter, Theodor
Crabeth, who brought him a fortune which enabled
him to drop the profession. He worked with the
burin in a neat, clear style. We have also the
following plates by him :

The Portrait of Ariosto ; after Titian.
Baldassare, Count Castiglione ; after Raphael.
S. Coster, Physician ; after Sandrart.
Admiral Meppel ; after Pierson.
Old Age ; after Eubens.

PERSINUS. See Pkeeissim.

PERSON, NiooLAUs, a German engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1700. He executed a set of
indifEerent prints after portraits of German Arch-
bishops ; these were published in 1696.

PERSYN, Jan, a Dutch portrait painter, born at
The Hague in 1708. He was a pupil of Constantine
Netscher. He afterwards entered the Artillery,
and became an engineer in the service of the Dutch

PBBTUS, Raphael, a Spanish painter of history
and landscape, who flourished at Saragossa about
1680. His landscapes were graceful in composition
and pleasant in colour.

PERDCCI, Oeazio, an Italian historical painter,
born at Reggio in 1548. He was a pupil of Lelio
Orsi, and was also an architect. In the church of
S. Giovanni in Reggio there is a picture of S.
Albert by him. He died in 1624. His son
Francesco was also an artist.

PERUGIA, Beenaedino da, was a painter living
in Perugia in the early part of the 16th century,
who has been often confounded with Pinturiochio.
He established himself in San Severino in 1509,
and in 1524 he painted an altar-piece, now in San
Domenico of that city, representing a ' Virgin and
Child, with four Saints.' Several paintings ascribed
to him are to be seen in Perugia. In London,
at Dudley House, is ' A Virgin holding a bird by
a string, with the Child in her grasp.' At the
Louvre, a ' Crucifixion,' with numerous figures, is
generally attributed to him.

PERUGIA, Maeiano ba, or Maeiano di dee
Edsteeio da, an obscure scholar of Perugino, to
whom Vasari refers as the author of a picture ' of
slight interest ' in S. Agostino, at Ancona. Mariotti,
however, ascribes to him a better work in S. Do-
menico, at Perugia.

PBRUGINI, a landscape painter of Milan, to
whose pictures figures were added by Alessandro

PERUGINO, Alois: (or Luigi). See Scaeamuocia.

PERUGINO, Domenico, an obscure painter, who
died in Rome about 1590, aged 70 years. He is
supposed to have been also the engraver mentioned
by Vasari as the author of certain excellent plates
after Roman antiques (see vol. v. p. 431 [Milanesi]).


PERUGINO, IL. See Santi, Pieteo.

PERUGINO, II Cavalieee. See Ceeeini.

PERUGINO, Paolo. See Gismondi.

PERUGINO, Pbteuccio. See Montanini.

PERUGINO, Pieteo. See Vanucci.

PERUGINO, PoLiDOEO, a goldsmith, who was
living about 1650 at Perugia, and who may have
also engraved. It has been suggested that he may
be the Perugino alluded to by Vasari in the life of
Marc-Antonio (vol. v. p. 431 [Milanesij).

PERUZZI, Baldassaee, painter and architect,
was bom at Siena, March 7, 1481 ; he was the son
of a weaver, who had settled there. In 1501 he was
employed in the chapel of S. Giovanni, in the
cathedral, receiving 42 lire for his work. His chief
instructors appear to have been Bazzi and Pintu-
riochio. About 1604 he went to Rome, where he
settled and soon obtained a good position. His
chief work in his earlier years at Rome was the decor-
ation of S. Onofrio. In the semi-dome and tribune
there are an ' Eternal,' a ' Coronation of the Virgin,'
a 'Virgin amongst Saints,' an 'Epiphany,' and
a ' Massacre of the Innocents,' by him. At S. Croce .
in Gerusalemma the vaulting of a crypt, dedicated
to S. Elena, is inlaid with mosaics after designs by
Peruzzi. In the Camera dell' Eliodoro at the Vatican
the ceiling is assigned to Peruzzi. It was at this
period that, from the study of perspective, Peruzzi
was led to architecture, and we find him employed
by Agostino Chigi to erect a palace on the banks
of the Tiber. In the flat roof of the garden lodge
of this palace Perazzi drew several mythological
subjects, as also in other parts of the palace. In
1517 he painted in a semi-dome of the Ponzetti
chapel, in S. Maria della Pace, a series of Biblical
subjects, such as ' The Creation,' ' Deluge,' ' Sacri-
fice of Isaac,' 'Virgin and Child,' and others. From
1517 till 1520, when he succeeded Raphael as
architect of St. Peter's, and from 1520 till 1527, he
did little that has not perished. From 1521-3 he
was in Bologna, but returned to Rome, and was
engaged at the festival given in honour of Clement
VII. 's coronation. In 1527, on the occasion of the
sack of Rome, he was captured and ransomed by
the Spaniards, and plundered of all he possessed.
He then went to Siena, where he was employed
by the Government in planning fortresses. About
this time he also painted a fresco in the little
church of the Madonna di Fontegiusta, at Siena ;
the subject is the ' Sibyl announcing the Nativity
to Augustus.' He remained in Siena till 1536,
when he returned to Rome, and devoted himself
entirely to architecture. He was a good mathe-
matician, and a master of perspective. He died in
Rome, on Jan, 6, 1637. Of his principal works wo
may name a figure of ' Charity with three children,'
in the Berlin Gallery ; an ' Adoration of the Magi,'
in the Bridgewater Gallery ; and a fine cartoon of
the same subject in the National Gallery in London,
where, too, there is a picture from the cartoon, but
not by Baldassare.

PERUZZINI, Domenico, an engraver, bom at
Pesaro, supposed to have been the elder brother of
Giovanni Peruzzini. He appears to have lived
mostly at Ancona, and flourished from 1640 to
1661, according to the dates on the prints attri-
buted to him by Bartsch. These prints had been
previously ascribed to Domenico Piola, but the
style is entirely difEerent, both in design and
execution. It is supposed that, like his brother
Giovanni, he was a scholar of Simone Cantarini da
Pesaro, and his etchings resemble those of that




master, and of Guido Eeni. Subjoined is a list of
their titles :

The Holy Virgin, half-length, with the infant Jesus.

D. P. 1661.
The Virgin seated, with the Infant on her knees. D.

F. 1661.
Ghrist tempted by the Devil, in the form of an old man.

Z). P. 1642.
Christ bearing his Cross, with other figures, half-lengths.

•O. P- P. F. engraved on the cross (ciradar).
The Holy Family and Saiuts. Dom". Per"". Anconae,

St. Anthony of Padua praying, and the Infant Jesus

appearing to him on a cloud supported by three

cherubim. Dom P. F.
The Assassination. A man in his shirt on a bed, assailed

by three soldiers, one of whom thrusts a lance into

his body. D. P. 1640.
Four landscapes. The first is signed D. P.f. Anconae ;

the others, D. P. only.
St. Jerome doing Penance in the Desert. The letters

D. P. F. are on a plant to the right. (Considered

' '■"!.)

PERUZZINI, Giovanni, was born at Ancona,
or at Pesaro, in 1629, and was a scholar of Simone
Cantarini. There are several of his pictures in the
churches of his native city, of which the most
esteemed are the ' Decollation of St. John,' at the
Spedale ; and a picture of ' St. Teresa,' at the
Carmelitani. He resided some time at Bologna,
where there are some of his works in the public
edifices, particularly the ' Descent of the Holy
Ghost,' in the church of SS. Vitale ed Agricola ;
and a picture of ' St. Cecilia,' in the church dedicated
to that Saint. He was invited to the court of
Turin, where he executed several works, both in
oil and in fresco, so much to the satisfaction of his
patron, that he was made a knight of the order of
St. Maurice. He died at Milan in 1694. He was
vain of his facility of execution, and inscribed on
one of the lunettes of the Portico de' Servi in Bo-
logna, "Opus 24 Hor. Eq. Jo. P." (the work of
twenty-four hours by Gio. Peruzzini, knight). Carlo
Cignani, on reading it, observed, " Leminchionerie si
fanno presto " (trifles are soon done). Giovanni's son
Paolo, and his brother, Domenico, were also painters.

PERY, Nicolas, an obscure historical painter of
the seventeenth century. He was received into
the Guild of St. Luke, at Brussels, in 1736.

PERZYN. See Pbbsijn.

PESARESB, II (or Simone da Pesabo). See

PESARI, Giovanni Battista, an Italian his-
torical painter, was a native of Modena. He lived
some time at Venice, where he died after 1650.

PESARO, Niccol6. See Teomeito.

PESCHEL, Kabl Gottlieb, a German historical
painter, born at Dresden in 1798. He was a pupil
of Vogel, and studied in the Dresden Academy.
In 1825 he went to Rome, where he remained about
a year. On his return he assisted his master Vogel
on frescoes at Pilnitz. About 1830 he was ap-
pointed a Professor in the Dresden Academy.
Considerable attention was devoted by him to
mural decoration, and good examples of his work
are to be seen in the Soman House, Leipsic ; and
at the Royal Palace at Dresden. He died in 1879.
Amongst his chief pictures are :

Bebecca at the Well. (Leipsic Museum.)

' Come unto Me, all ye that labour.' 1851. (Dresden

The Crucifixion. {Leipsic Museum.)
Ezekiel in Babylon.

Angels appearing to Jacob. 1845. (Dresden Gallery.)
Holy Family. (Leipsic Museum.)

PESCI, Gaspaeo, a Bolognese painter of archi-

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