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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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his ' Meleager murdered by his mother in his wife's
arms.' In 1820 he became professor to the Aca-
demy, and in 1828 director. He died at Vienna in
1858. His principal historical pictures are :

MaximUian's meeting with his Bride, Mary of Burgundy.
{In the Johanjieum at Gratz. )

Meeting of the same Eoyal Couple, the Oonsort holding
their little eon Philip in her arms, after the Battle of
Gainegate. (Belvedere.)

Joanna of Aragon by her husband's coffin.

Charles V.'s visit to Francis I.

Budolf of Hapsburg by Ottokar's corpse ; mth other
suijeets from, Pyrker's ' Rudolphias.'

FETTER, Franz Xaver, flower painter, was
born at Vienna in 1791, and died in 1866. He was
a pupil of Drechslerin the Academy, and afterwards
became a professor there. The Belvedere possesses
a ' Vase of Flowers ' by him ( 1833).

PETTIT, JosEi'H Paul, a landscape painter who
died at Balsall Heath near Birmingham in 1882.
He was a member of the Society of British Artists,
and an exhibitor at the Academy, British Institu-
tion, and SufEolk Street Exhibitions from 1845 to

PETTY, Robert, painter, was born in London
about 1740. He resided mostly in Hamburg, where
he painted birds, fruits, and flowers in water-colours.
He died in Holland in 1789.

PETZHOLDT, Ernst . Christian Frbderik,
landscape painter, was born at Copenhagen in
1805, and studied from 1825 at the Academy and

under Eokersberg. He won medals in 1827 and
1828, and in the following year travelled in the
Harz mountains. From 1830 to 1835 he was
occupied in a visit to Italy and Sicily, and went in
1836 to Munich, and thence to Italy a second time,
and to Greece, where he died suddenly at Patras in
1839. Among his best paintings are :

Sketch at Capri.

Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli. (Copenhagen Gallery.)

View from the Villa Pamfih.

View on the Pontine Marshes.

PETZL, Joseph, genre painter, was born at
Munich in 1803. After studying under Langer in
the Munich Academy, he placed himself under
Begas in Berlin, and afterwards set off on a journey
through Bohemia, Saxony, Hanover, Schleswig,
and Sweden. In 1832-4 he went to Rome, and, in
the suite of the King of Greece, to Constantinople.
He afterwards spent two years at Venice. He died
at Munich in 1871. His principal pictures are :

Greek Chieftains. (In possession of H.Jdnisch, Hamlmrg.)

Greek Wedding.

The Division of an Inheritance.

The runaway Daughter among Actors.

Slave-dealer and Eunuchs bringing Female Slaves be-
fore the Pacha. (Eosenstein, Stuttgart.)

The Novice (engraved by £ahl).

Scene in an Inn (lithographed by Letter).

Tyrolese Fugitives (lithographed by Zimmermann).

The Invalid (lithographed by Hohe),

The Crack Shot (lithographed by Bergmann).

PEUTEMAN, PiETEE, (or Nicolaas,) was born
at Rotterdam in 1650 or 1657. He excelled in
painting objects of still-life, such as musical instru-
ments, books, vases, &o. Balkema attributes his-
torical works also to him. His death is said to
have been occasioned by terror. One day in 1692
Peuteman fell asleep in the dissecting room of the
Rotterdam Hospital, where he was studying
anatomy. He was awakened by a movement a-
mong the bones and skeletons in the room, which
had been set in motion by a sudden earthquake.
Prom the fright thus caused he never recovered.
Peuteman engraved many of his own works.

PEYNATJD, Jacques Feanqois, was born at
La Fert^ St. Aubin in 1771. He was a pupil of the
Academy of Orleans, and of Girodet and Aubry,
and for eighteen years was director of the free
school of design at St. Malo. His principal works
are, the ' Martyrdom of St. Clement,' at Cauoales ;
' Souls in Purgatory,' atPleustuis ; and a portrait of
Maupertuis, now at St. Malo. He died at St. Malo
in 1829.

PEYRANNE, Philippe, a French painter who
flourished at 'Toulouse about 1780. He was a
pupil of Saa,u,p^re, and of David, and painted his-
torical and still-life pictures. Works :

Young Girls studying Art.

Martyrdom of St. Stephen. (Mouchy.)

PEYRE, Antoinb Fbanqois, an architect, and
brother of Matbieu Joseph Peyre ; he painted a few
pictures. He was born in 1739 ; died in 1823.

PEYRON, Jean FBAN901S Pierre, a French his-
torical painter and engraver, was born at Aix in
1744, and died in Paris in 1820. He was a scholar
of Arnulfi and of the elder Lagren^e. His subjects
are from the ancient poets, and from Greek and
Roman history, occasionally also from events oc-
curring in his own time, such as the death of
General Walhubert at the battle of Austerlitz. In
1773 he obtained with his ' Death of Seneca ' the
Grand Prix de Rome, and accordingly went to that
city, where he studied from the antique and from





nature ; painting also his picture of ' Cimon allowing
himself to be taken Prisoner in order to see after
his Father's Faneral.' In 1781 he returned to
Paris, and was in 1787 admitted a member of the
Academy, with a picture of ' Dentatus,' now at
Fontainebleau. The greater number of his pictures
were executed between 1780 and 1800, but he con-
tinued to exhibit till 1812. He engraved several
subjects after Raphael, Poussin, and after his own
designs. He was director of the Gobelins Manu-
factory in 1787, and executed many cartoons for
that establishment. The Revolution caused him
much privation and suffering, which he bore with
exemplary patience. Works :

The Funeral of Miltiades. (Paris.

Alcestis and Admetus.

Paul Bmilius, the conqueror of Perseus.

PFANSTILL, LuDWiG, (Pfanstil, or Pfannen-
STIL,) a. painter and engraver who was born at
Vienna at the beginning of the 17th century, and
died at Frankfort in 1665. He painted portraits
and allegories, and engraved a ' Pieta ' in mezzotint.

PFEFFEL, JoHANN Andreas, a German en-
graver, was born at Bischoffingen in 1674. He re-
sided at Vienna, where he produced among other
plates a portrait of the Emperor Leopold. He after-
wards removed to Augsburg, where he followed
the business of a printseller. His works, as an
engraver, were chiefly coniined to architecture and
ornamental foliage, which he executed in a neat
style. In conjunction with C. Engelbrecht, he en-
graved a set of plates of jewellery ornaments, from
the designs of A. Morison ; and executed part of
the plates for the ' History of Architecture,' pub-
lished at Vienna in 1721 by John Henhard Fischers.
Scheuchzer's Bible was one of the works issued
from his establishment at Augsburg. Finally he
became Court engraver at Vienna, where he died
in 1750. His son Johann Andreas Pfepfel the
younger was bom at Augsburg in 1715, and died
in 1768. He also worked upon the plates of
Scheuchzer's Bible.

PFEIFFER, FRANgois Joseph, a portrait painter
and engraver, born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1741.
He practised for many years at Amsterdam, but
late in life he settled at Brussels, where he died in

PFEIFFER, Fkanqois Joseph, a designer, en-
graver, and lithographer, the son of the preceding,
was born at Liege in 1778. For several years he
was engaged as a scene-painter at Amsterdam.
He died at Terburg in 1835.

PFEIFFER, Karl Hermann, an engraver, was
born at Frankfort in 1769. He studied at the
Royal Academy at Vienna, under the Professor Ch.
Brand. He worked with point and burin, in the
English manner, and was a very industrious artist.
He died at Vienna in 1829. His engravings are
numerous, particularly of portraits, which are
chiefly of German nobility, and persons of science
and letters, of his time. He also engraved after
some of the older Italian and other painters, such as
Raphael, Correggio, Fra Bartolommeo, Giuliano da
Parma, Sassoferrato, Rubens, Lampi, Oelenhainz,
and Fiiger. Among his plates we may mention :

Virgin with the Child and St. John ; after Raphael.
Venus and Cupid ; after Correggio.
Eubens's Portrait ; after Suhens.

PFENNINGER, Elizabeth, the niece of Hein-
rioh Pfenninger, was born at Zurich in 1772, and
died after 1836. She was a miniature painter, and


studied in Geneva under Boileau and Bouvier, and
in Paris under Renault and Augustin. Her minia-
tures are well-handled.

PFENNINGER, Heinrioh, a Swiss painter and
engraver, born at Zurich inl749. He was a scholar
of Jan Balthasar Bullinger, under whom he spent
five years, and afterwards went to Dresden, where
be worked under Zingg and Graf, and by virtue of
his access to the Electoral Gallery, devoted himself
to a study of the best masters, particularly Van
Dyck and Rembrandt. On his return to Switzer-
land, he was engaged by Lavater to make the
designs and engrave some of the plates for his work
on Physiognomy. In 1795 he visited Paris, and
in 1808 Hungary. He died in 1815. He was
much employed as a portrait painter, and has
etched a great number of plates of portraits and
views in Switzerland. He engraved some of the
portraits for Fiissli's ' Supplement to the Lives of
the Swiss Painters.' We have also the following
by him :

A set of seventy-five Portraits of Illustrious Personages
of Switzerland, accompanied with an abridged history
of their lives by Leonard Meister. 1781.

Thirty-four Portraits of the most celebrated German
Poets, with their characters, by L. Meister. 1785.

A set of six Views in Switzerland.

He signed his work Z?. iy. ; H.Ff. fecit; Heinr.
Pf. ; and Pfen. fee.

PFENNINGER, Johannes, painter and engraver,
was born at Stafa, by Lake Zurich, in 1765. Ha
learnt engraving under H. von Mechel in Basle,
and painting in Rome (1794-9). After this he re-
turned to Zurich and occupied himself on portraits,
principally miniatures in water-colour. He died
at Zurich in 1825. Among his works are :

The first Navigator (engraved, hy Hegi).

The Laocoon Group, in sepia.

The Dismissal of Hagar ; the same.

The Crucifixion ; after Michelangelo ; in Indian ink.

PFLUG, Johann Baptist, genre painter^ was
born at Biberach in 1785, and studied at the Munich
Academy in 1805-9. After this he became a
teacher of drawing in his native town, and devoted
himself to painting humorous scenes from the
popular life of Upper Swabia, and also military
pictures and a few portraits. He died at Biberach
in 1865. Several of his works are at the Rosenstein,
near Stuttgart. Noticeable among his productions
are :

A Peasants' Wedding.

The Gip.sy Family.

The Gamesters.

The Village Alehouse.

"Washing Day.

The Battle of Stookach. 1842.

Distribution of Medals to Veterans. 1843.

Austrian Hussars. 1844.

March of the Bussiaus from the Waldsee.

PFORR, Franz, historical painter, was born at
Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1788. He was the son
of the better known Johann Georg Pforr. His
first master was his uncle, Tischbein, the in-
spector of the Cassel Gallery. In 1805 he went
to the Academy of Vienna, and studied under
Fiiger, and it was there that he made the acquaint-
ance of Overbeok. In 1810 he went to Rome.
Cornelius, too, entered into friendship with Over-
beck and Pforr, and both of these artists, who
outlived Pforr, spoke in high terms of his talent,
and confessed themselves indebted to the taste
which he always displayed in his works. Pforr




died at Albano in 1812. His subjects were taken
from Scripture, from German legends, or from
his own fancy. The Stadel Institute has a picture
by him entitled ' Rudolf of Hapsburg presenting
his Horse to an Ecclesiastic'

PFORR, JoHANN Geoeg, animal painter and
etcher, was bom at Upfen, near Eisenach, in 1745.
He was working at the mine at Richelsdorf, when
the Hessian minister, Waitz, discovered his talent,
and placed him in his own porcelain factory. In
1777 he entered the Academy at Cassel, where in
the following year he obtained the first prize, and
in the next year was admitted a member. In 1781
he settled in Frankfort, where he died in 1798.
He had a passionate fondness for horses, which led
him to paint them with a success hardly sur-
passed. He worked well in sepia and Indian
ink, and was a good etcher; but he could not
render the human figure with freedom. The Stadel
Institute at Frankfort possesses eight of his pictures.

PFRtJNDT, GEone, (or Pfrdnd,) was bom at
Plachslanden, in Bavaria, in 1603, and died at
Diirlach in 1663. According to Sandrart, he en-
graved a considerable number of architectural and
geographical subjects. He was an engineer,
sculptor, modeller in wax, and steel engraver, and
served the Duke of Weimar in the first of these

PHEIDIAS, the celebrated sculptor, who was
born at Athens about 500 B.C., and died about 430,
is said by Pliny to have painted at Athens a picture
of Pericles as the Olympian Jupiter.

PHELPS, RiCHAED, a portrait painter who prac-
tised in England in the first half of the 18th century.
J. Faber engraved after him a portrait of Bampfield
Moore Oarew.

PHILESIUS, RiGMANN, a German engraver on
wood, resided, according to Papillon, at Strasburg
in the beginning of the 16th century. He executed
a set of twenty-five cuts of the Life and Passion of
our Saviour, published at Strasburg, by John
Knoblauch, in 1508. He was also a carver of wood.
Zani notices him under the names Migman, Phi-
lesivs, and Philery, or PhiUery.

PHILIP IV. of Spain (1605-1665) was an
amateur painter. He produced among other pic-
tures a ' St. James with the Lamb,' ' Jesus with St.
John,' and a ' Magdalen in the Desert.' Philip V.
(1683-1746), according to Palomino, was also an
amateur artist, drawing in pen and ink with skill
and facility.

PHILIPPE, Jean B. C. See Chatelain.

PHILIPPE, PlETEB, was a Dutch engraver, who
flourished at the Hague about the year 1660. We
have by him a few plates of portraits and festivals,
among which are the following :


Loais Henri, Prince of Nassau ; P. Philippt fee.
Henri Charles de la TremouiUe, Prince de Tarente ;
ajter Van der Bank.

The Assembly of the States-General of Holland ; after

A grand Festival ; after the same.
A set of Merry-makings ; after Van der Venne. 1600.

PHILIPPI, Heineioh, was born at Gleves in
1838, and studied in Dijsseldorf, Munich, and
Rome. He joined the German forces in 1866 and
1870-1 as a Landwehr oflScer, and at Koniggratz
was wounded in the foot. After leaving the army
he devoted himself entirely to art, and produced

historical, genre, and animal pictures. An early
death at Dusseldorf in 1874 interrupted his success-
ful career. Among his best compositions are :

Thusnelda in the Triumph of Germanicus.
Scenes from the Peasant "War.
Scenes from the Life of the Eomans and Pompeiaus.
Soldiers of the Landwehr returning home.
Choice Ewes.

PHILIPPOTEAUX, Henei Emmanuel Felix, a
French battle painter, was bom in Paris in 1815.
He studied art under Leon Cogniet. He painted
military scenes with great success, though some-
times with a curious dryness. Late in life he pro-
duced one or two excellent panoramas. He died in
Paris in 1885. Works :

ChassLurs d'Afrique at Balaclava.



The Death of Turenne.

The Retreat from Moscow.

Surrender of Antwerp.

Henry IV. and Sully at Ivry.

The English Cavalry at Balaclava.

The English squares at Waterloo receiving the French
Cuirassiers. {South Kensington Museum.)

Battle of Fontenoy. (South Kensington Museum^

PHILIPS, Ghaeles, an English portrait painter,
the son of Richard Philips, was born in 1708. His
practice was among the nobility, and he had a
large clientele at an early age. He married in
1738, and lived in Great Queen Street, St. Giles's.
His portraits are generally of a small size, and
though well painted and good likenesses, do not
show him to have been possessed of any high art
qualities. This is especially evident in his portrait
groups. Several of his portraits have been en-
graved. He died in 1747. Works :

KnolePark. Lady Betty Germaine. 1731.

Knowsley Hall. Wilson, Bishop lof Sodor and

London. National yWaxbaiton, Bishop of Glou-

Portrait Gallery. ) cester.
Thornton-le- Hall. Duke of Cumberland and Lord

Street. Cathcart.

„ „ The Family of Lord A. Hamil-

ton. 1731.
Wobum Abbey. The Second Duke of Marl-

borough. 1731.

PHILIPS, RiCHAED, an EngliRh portrait painter,
born in 1681, who enjoyed a large practice in the
early part of the 18th century. He died in 1741.
Amongst his works are :


Woburn Abbey.

Ironmongers' | g;^ jj q^q^^


Unknown male Portrait. 1731.

PHILLERY, Anton, an old engraver on wood,
lived at Antwerp about 1530, and has left a middle-
sized print representing two soldiers standing
before a woman, who is seated, holding a dog
upon her lap. It bears the following inscription
in old Flemish characters, ffi=[)£ptint t'mnttnetptn Jb
me IBI&tllers ire figursnittfr, printed at Antwerp, hy
me PhiUery, thejigure-cutter. There is also known
a 'Genealogia illustrissimse Domus Austrise' by

PHILLIP, John, was bom at Aberdeen April
19th, 1817. His parents were of humble condition,
but from his youngest days he showed a strong
inclination for art. He was apprenticed early in life
to a house painter, where he made his first effort
in art by trying to copy a portrait of Wallace
from a sign-board which hung on the opposite side
of the street. He is said to have received some





instruction from Mr. Forbes, a local portrait painter,
but in 1834 he went to London as a stow-away on
a brig belonging to a friend of his father. On
arriving in London he was kept hard at work, but
contrived to visit the exhibition of the Royal
Academy at Somerset House. He attracted the
notice of a Major Pryse Gordon, who recommended
him to Lord Panmure, by whose generosity he was
placed as a pupil with T. M. Joy. In 1837 he
entered the Academy as a student, and in 1839 he
exhibited two pictures, 'A Moor' and a portrait.
In 1840 he exhibited his first subject picture,
'Tasso in disguise, relating his persecutions to
his Sister,' and in the same year he returned to
Aberdeen, where he was principally employed in
painting portraits. In 1846 he again sought Lon-
don, where he continued to have his domicile till
his death. In 1847 he exhibited at the Academy
'A Presbyterian Catechising,' and at the British
Institution 'Courtship' and 'The Grandfather.'
In 1848 he exhibited a 'Scotch Fair'; in 1849,
' Drawing for the Militia ' ; in 1850, ' Baptism in
Scotland,' and in 1851, 'Scotch Washing," 'The
Spae Wife,' and ' A Sunbeam.' In this year he
went to Spain and lived for a time at Seville,
where he made numerous sketches, and began
several pictures, one of which, ' The Spanish Gipsy
Mother,' was purchased by the Queen on the
recommendation of Sir E. Landseer. He also
painted for Her Majesty ' The Letter- Writer of
Seville.' In 1856-67, in company with his friend
Richard Ansdell, he made a tour through Spain,
and in 1857 sent home to the Academy ' Charity '
and ' The Prison Window ' ; and in the same year
he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy.
In the year 1858 he painted ' Spanish Contraban-
distas' for the Queen, a portrait of the Prince
Consort for the city of Aberdeen, ' Bl Cortejo,' and
'Youth in Seville.' In 1859 he became a full
Academician, and exhibited ' Huff,' and a portrait
of A. L. Egg, R.A. In 1860 was exhibited his
picture of ' 'Ihe Marriage of the Princess Royal,'
ordered by the Queen, and ' Prayer,' his diploma
picture ; and in the autumn of the same year he
was again in Spain. In 1861 he exhibited 'Gossips
at a Well'; in 1862 'Doubtful Fortune,' or 'The
Fortune-Teller,' ' A Spanish Volunteer,' ' Water
Drinkers,' and 'Dolores.' In 1863 was exhibited
his ' House of Commons,' painted for the Speaker,
Mr, Denison, afterwards Viscount Ossington, repre-
senting a debate on the French Treaty, 1860 ; and
' Agua Bendita.' In 1864 appeared ' La Gloria — a
Spanish Wake,' and a portrait of the Earl of
Dalhousie; and in 1865 'The Early Career of
Murillo, 1634.' In 1866 he produced a portrait of
Duncan McNeill, of Colonsay, Lord Justice of
Scotland, and ' A Chat round the Brasiero.' In the
spring of this year he went to Rome, for the winter,
but ill health brought him back to London, where
be was attacked by paralysis, and died February 27,
1867. Phillip married a sister of Mr. Richard Dadd.
A large collection of his works was exhibited at the
London International Exhibition in 1873. Besides
those already mentioned we may name :

The Brig Manly. 1834.

Portrait of himself at the age of twenty-three. 1840.

Sketch portrait of Sir J. B. Millais, Bt., E.A. 1843.

(2'. Oldham Barlow, Esq., B.A.)
The Miller's Daughter. 1847.
Girl tending Cattle. 1850.
The Gipsy Queen. 1853.
The Highlander's Home. 1855.

Richard Ansdell, B.A. 1856.

S. Bough, A.E.S.A. 1856.

The Evil Eye. 1858.

H.E.H. The Princess Beatrice. 1860.

The Toilet. I860.

A Spanish ■Widow. 1861.

La Bomba, or the Wine-Drinkers.

The Grape-Seller. Seville. 1862.

La Loteria National. 1862.

Breakfast in the Highlands. 1865.

A large number of his unfinished pictures were sold
after his death ; among them :
Spanish Boys playing at Bull-Fighting. (Scottish
JVational Gallery)

PHILLIPS, Chaeles, a mezzotint engraver, was
born in 1737. He studied in London, and was in
1765 employed by Boydell. The latest date known
on his works is 1770. He worked also in the dot
manner. We have, among others, the following
prints by him :

Portrait of the Daughter of N. Hone, E J..

A Boy holding a Pigeon ; after Mola.

A Woman plucking a Fowl ; after Bemhrandi.

The Philosopher ; after the same.

The Holy' Family; after Farmigiano,

Venus and Oupid ; after Salviati.

Isaac blessing Jacob ; after Spagnoletto.

And others, after Loutherboarg and Sir Joshua Eeffnolds.

PHILLIPS, Giles Firman, an English landscape
painter, born in 1780. His practice was confined
to river scenes, and, living at Greenwich, these
were chiefly furnished by the Thames. He ex-
hibited at the Academy from 1836 to 1858, and
published ' Principles of EfEect and Colour' (1838),
and 'Practical Treatise on Drawing' (1839). He
died March 31, 1867.

PHILLIPS, Henry Wtndham, an English por-
trait painter, born in 1820. He received his art
instruction from his father, T. Phillips, R.A., and
exhibited at the Academy from 1839 to 1868.
Though his works were chiefly portraits and he
had a large circle of sitters, he painted a few
Scriptural subjects. For several years he was
secretary to the Artists' Benevolent Institution. He
died December 5, 1868. Amongst his works are :
Loudon. GarricTc Club. Charles Kean as Louis XI.

" C.-5"r{j«°''-'Stephenson. 1866.

PHILLIPS, S., an English engraver, practising
in London at the close of the 18th century. Amongst
his plates are :

The Birth of Shakespeare ; after Westall.
The Guardian Angel ; after Maria Comay.

PHILLIPS, Thomas, a well-known portrait
painter, was born at Dudley, in Warwickshire, in
1770. He was placed with Eginton, tlie glass
painter, at Birmingham, and came to London in
1790 with a letter of introduction to Benjamin West,
who employed him on the windows in St. George's
Chapel at Windsor. In 1792 he commenced as an
exhibitor, with a ' View of Windsor Castle ' ; and in
the two following years he exhibited the ' Death of
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, at the battle of Cas-
sillon,' ' Ruth and .Naomi,' ' Elijah restoring the
Widow's Son,' ' Cupid disarmed by Euphrosyne,'
and other subject pictures. Soon afterwards he
devoted himself chiefly to portrait painting. Not-
withstanding that he had to compete with Hoppner,
Owen, Jackson, Lawrence, and Beechey, he kept
steadily progressing in public favour, and seemed
to be the selected painter for men of genius and




talent. In 1804 he was elected an Associate of the
Academy. In 1806 he painted the Prince of
Wales, Lord Bgreniont, the Marquis of Stafford,
and the Stafford Family. In 1808 he became an
R.A.,-and in 1824 succeeded Henry Fuseli in the
professorship of painting, which office he held till
1832. On his appointment to the professorship he
made a tour in Italy, in the company of Hilton, in
order to enable him to discharge the duties of the
office more efficiently. He delivered ten ' Lectures
on the History and Principles of Painting,' which
he afterwards published in one volume (in 1833).
These lectures are clear and simple in their style,
and instructive in substance and arrangement,
especially in those parts where he gives an exposi-
tion of his views of the principles of art. He died
in London, April 20, 1845. In 1802 he painted by
stealth, but with the connivance of Josephine, a

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