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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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portrait of Napoleon which is now at Petworth ;
it has been engraved. Phillips wrote many of the
articles on the fine arts in Rees's Cyclopedia, and
in other publications. He was one of the great pro-
moters of the Artists' General Benevolent Institu-
tion. His Diploma picture at Burlington House is a
' Venus and Adonis.' The following portraits were
painted nearly in the order in which we give them.

Lord Thurlow.

William Blake {engraved ly Schiavonetti).

Lord Byron {twice).

Count PlatofE.

The poet Crabbe.

Earl Grey.

Lord Brougham.

Sir Joseph Banks,

Joshua Brookes, the celebrated lecturer on surgery.

Major Denham, the African traveller.

Lord Stowell.

Sir B. Parry.

Sir J. Brunell.

David Wilkie. {Nov) in the National Gallery^

Sir F. Burdett.

Lord Lyndhurst.

Dr. Arnold.

The Duke of Sussex.

Sir Nicholas Tlndal, Chief Justice of the Common

Dr. Shuttleworth, Bishop of Chichester.
Sir "Walter Scott, Thomas Moore, Thomas Campbell,

Southey, and Coleridge, /or Mr. Murray.
Dr. Bucklaud.
Professor Sedgwick.
Davies Gilbert.
Mrs. Somerville.
Mr. Hallani, the historian.
Francis Baily, the astronomer.
Michael Faraday.
Sir Humphrey Davy.

PHILOCHARES, abrother of the orator ^schines,
was one of the last of the Greek painters previous
to the decline of the art in the 3rd century B.C.
Another painter of the same name is mentioned by
Pliny as the author, about 50 B.C., of a 'Glaucon
and his Son,' for the comitia.

PHILOXBNBS, a native of Eretria, was a dis-
ciple of Nicomachus, and adopted the expeditious
style of his instructor. According to Pliny, he
painted for Cassander a picture representing the
'Defeat of Darius by Alexander,' which was con-
sidered one of his most important works.

PHRYLUS, an ancient Greek painter of some
repute, is mentioned by Pliny as a contemporary
of Aglaophon the younger, Cephisodotus, and
Evenor. He flourished about 420 B.C.

PIACENZA,Bartolino da. This name is found on
some wall-paintings, executed in the 14th century,

in the Baptistery at Parma. The town of Piacenza
also possesses some works attributed to the same man.

PIAGALI, Peancesco, a native of Saragossa,
who flourished in the 17th century, and is placed
by Palomino among the good Valencian painters.

PIAGGIA, Teramo, (or Eeasmo da Zoagli,) was
a native of Zoagli, in the Genoese state, and flour-
ished about the year 1547. He was a disciple of
Lodovico Brea. In conjunction with Antonio
Seraini, he painted several works for the churches
at Genoa, of which one of the best was a ' Martyr-
dom of St. Andrew.'

PIANE, Giovanni Mabia dalle, a painter called
Molinaretto, was bom at Genoa in 1660. He
studied at Rome under G. B. GauUi, and painted
historical pictures and portraits. He visited Parma
and Piacenza, and Charles Bourbon of Naples
appointed him court painter. He died in 1745.

PIANORO, II. See Mobelli, Baetolommeo.

PIASTRINI, Giovanni Domenico, was an his-
torical painter of Pistoia, and flourished at the
beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil of
Luti. He painted several frescoes in the porch of
the Madonna della Umilta, at Pistoia, and also
worked in S. Maria in Via Lata, at Rome.

PIATTI, Francesco, is said by Fuessli, in his
Supplement, to have been born at Teglio, in the
Valteline, in 1650. He does not acquaint us by
whom he was instructed, but informs us that he
painted a great number of altar-pieces and pictures
for the churches and galleries of the neighbourhood,
and highly commends a picture of ' Cleopatra,' by
him, in the possession of a noble family at Delebio.
Zani says he was living in 1690.

PIA'TTOLI, Gaetano, a Florentine painter, was
born in 1703. He was a pupil of Riviere, a French
painter, and painted portrait? and mythological
scenes. He died about 1770. His wife Anna was
also a portrait painter, and died in 1788.

PIAZZA, Albeetino, commonly called Toccagni,
was living at Lodi in the 16th century, and died
there in 1529. He was the father of Calisto Piazza,
commonly called Calisto da Lodi, and had a brother
called Mabtino Piazza, with whose co-operation
he painted all his pictures. Their first authentic
altar-piece is in the Berinzaghi Chapel, in the
church of the Incoronati, at Lodi. It is in two
stages, and represents the • Virgin and Child,
between Saint Anthony and the patron ' ; and the
' Crucifixion, between SS, Roch, Sebastian, James,
and John Baptist ' ; the predella contains the twelve
apostles. The two brothers likewise are the authors
of the fresco decorations in the same chapel.
Martino is said to have died in 1527. The following
are also their works :

Castiglione S. M. In- \ Virgin and Child between SS

d'Adda. coronata. J Boch and John Baptist.

Lodi. S. Agnese. St. Augustine in Glory, and

other subjects.

In the National Gallery there is an example of
Martino Piazza, a ' St. John the Baptist in the
Wilderness,' which is signed with the painter's

PIAZZA, Cavaliere Andeea, was the nephew of
Cosimo Piazza, by whom he was instructed in the
art, and he accompanied his uncle to Rome, where
he had the advantage of studying after the great
masters. He passed some years in the service of
the Duke of Lorraine, and on his return to Venice
painted a large picture of the ' Marriage at Cana,'
for the church of Santa Maria, which, according
to Lanzi, is his most celebrated work. He died at





Venice in 1670. There is a picture by him dated

PIAZZA, Bebnaedino, a painter of Lodi, and
father of Albertino and Martino Piazza. No work
of his is known to exist.

PIAZZA, Calisto, called Calisto da Lodi, was
the son of Albertino Piazza, and a pupil of
Romanino. He practised his profession at Brescia,
and paintings by him are known that were executed
between 1521 and 1556. In 1529, after his father's
death, he went to Lodi, where he joined in partner-
ship with his brotliers, and with their united aid
finished the altar-piece in the cathedral of Lodi,
representing the 'Massacre of the Innocejits,' and
other subjects, left incomplete by Albertino's death.
He also worked in the churches at Breno, Erbano,
Edolo, and Crema, all of which possess altar-pieces
by him. In 1544 he went to Milan, and decorated
the monastery of San Maurizio with a series of
frescoes showing great power and freedom. Many
of the churches and private collections in Brescia
possess examples by this master. The following
also remain :

Milan. Brera. Marriage of Cana in Galilee.

„ „ Madonna, Child, and Saints.

Vienna. Mehedere. Decollation of St. John the


PIAZZA, Mabtino. See Piazza, Albeetino.

PIAZZA, Paolo Piazza, called Padre Cosmo,
was born at Castel Franco, in the Venetian terri-
tory, in 1557, or, according to Zani, in 1547. He
was a scholar of the younger Palma, although he
did not imitate the style of that master, but formed
a manner of his own. He had acquired consider-
able reputation as a painter of history, when he
became a Capuchin, friar, and took the name of
Padre Cosimo. He continued, however, to exercise
his talents as a painter, and in the pontificate of
Paul V. visited Rome, where he executed several
considerable works for the churches and public
edifices, particularly a picture of the ' Deposition
from the Cross,' in the Capital, and the ' History of
Antony and Cleopatra,' in a saloon of the Palazzo
Borghese. He was invited to the court of Germany
by Rodolph II., by whom he was employed for
some years, and on his return to Venice was
patronized by the Doge Antonio Priuli. He died
at Venice in 1621.

PIAZZETTA, Giovanni Battista, was born at
Venice in 1682. He was the son of a sculptor in
wood, by whom he was taught the rudiments of
design, and then studied under G. B. Molinari. On
visiting Bologna he was so struck with the extra-
ordinary effect of the works of Guercino, that he
adopted him as his model. He became first director
of the Acadenjy of Venice in 1750, and was enrolled
an honorary member of the Clementina Academy
of Bologna. He died at Venice in 1764. One of
his best pictures is the ' Decollation of St, John,' in
the church dedicated to that saint, at Padua, His
pictures partake of the fluttered manner of his con-
temporary, Tiepolo. He is best known in England
by his chalk drawings of heads, which are not held
in great estimation. He was successful, however,
in caricature. He may be reckoned among the
last of the Venetian painters of any note. Pitteri
and others have engraved after him, and mention
is made by Nagler of two etchings by himself.

PICARD, AijEXANDBE Noel, a French painter,
born in Paris in 1813. He chiefly painted land-
scapes. He died in 1869.


PICART, Beenaed, an engraver, and the son of
Etienne Pieart, was bom in Paris in 1673. He was
instructed in design and engraving by his father,
but obtained further help from Le Brun and
Jouvenet. At the age of sixteen he gained honours
at the Academy of Paris. He distinguished him-
self both as designer and engraver, and executed
a vast number of plates. He used both the point
and the burin ; but in his larger plates the exe-
cution was not equal to the drawing, and his later
productions were inferior to his earlier ones. His
works chiefly consist of plates for books, and other
ornamental engravings. In 1710 he left Paris, and
settled at Amsterdam, where he was greatly em-
ployed by the booksellers, and died there in 1738.
He engraved a set of seventy-eight plates in
imitation of the difierent styles of the old engravers,
which were published after his death, in 1738, in
one volume, entitled ' Les Impostures Xnnocentes.'
The following are his most esteemed works :


Charles I. j after Van Syck. VIM.

Charles II. ; after Kneller. 1724.

James II. ; after Largilliere. Vi24i.

William III. ; after Van der JVerf.

George I. ; after Kneller.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon ; after Zoust. 1724.

■William, Lord Eussell ; after Kneller. 1724.

Frederick, Duke of Schomberg ; after the same. 1724.

Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury ; after Hoadly. 1724.

Eugene Francois, Prince of Savoy ; after Van Sehuppen.

Don Luis, Prince of the Asturias.
Jan de "Wit, Grand Pensionary of Holland. 1727.
Fran9ois Pierre, Cardinal de Foix. 1713.
Philip, Duke of Orleans, supported by Minerva and

Apollo; after A. Coypel. 170S.
Etienne Pieart, the Roman, Engraver to the King.
Roger de Piles ; ipse pinx. B. Ficartfec. aquaforrti. 1704.


The Murder of the Innocents, The first impressions are
before the crown was placed upon the head of Herod.

A set of twelve Prints, called the Epithalamia.

Truth, the Research of Philosophy ; a Thesis in honour
of Descartes.

The Triumph of Painting.

The Death of Niobe's Children.

The Feast of the Gods and the Cjesars.

A set of Prints for the Annals of the Dutch Republic.

The Frontispieces to ' C&6monies Religieuses,' 11 vols.
1723 — 1743 ; and to various other works.


Time discovering Truth ; after the picture 5y Pmsdn,m.^

the Louvre.
An Allegory on human Life ; aftex the same.
Arcadia ; after the same.

Two Muses, Calhope and Terpsichore; after J^ Sueur.
Abraiham dismissing Hagar ; after Le Brun.
The Discovery of Calisto's shame ; after Ann. Carracci.
Neptune calming the Sea; after An. Coypel.

PICART, Chables, an English engraver and
draughtsman, born about 1780. He practised in
London, and died about 1837. Specimens of his
work will be found in :

Dibdin's ' Decameron.'

' Description of the Ancient Marbles In the British

Lodge's ' Portraits.'

He also engraved several dramatic portraits after
Clint and Wivell.

PICART, Etienne, called ' Le Remain,' was born
in Paris in 1632, After a long sojourn in Rome
he was employed, with several other artists, to




engrave the pictures in the King of France's col-
lection. His plates are sometimes executed with
the burin only, in the style of Poilly ; but he also
engraved a few in which the point is predominant.
He died at Amsterdam in 1721. His prints are
extremely numerous ; the following are the most
deserving of notice :


Jean Fran9ois Paul Gandy, Cardinal de Eetz. 1652.
Bust of Cardinal Fachenettus ; after Morand.
Melchisedeck de Thevenot, the traveller ; after Chaveau.
Nicolas Ohoart de Busenval, Bishop of Beauvajs.
Claude de Brion, President of the Parliament.
Pierre Loisel, Doctor of the Sorborme.
Fran^oise Athenais de Eooheohouart, Marquise de


The Eoce Homo, vrith three Angels ; after Albani.

The Birth of the Virgin ; after Guido.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Correygio.

Triumph of Virtue; after the same.

Triumph of Vice ; after the same.

St. Cecilia; after Domenichino.

A Concert of Music ; after the same.

The Infant Jesus sleeping, with the Virgin holding up

her finger to St. John ; called ' Silenzio ' ; after Ann.

The Holy Family ; after Palma. ,

The Parting of SS. Peter and Paul ; after Zanfranco.
The Plague among the Philistines ; after JV. JPoussin,
Christ curing the Blind ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same.
The Martyrdom of SS. Gervais and Protais ; after Le

St. Paul burning the Books of the Ephesians ; after the

The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after Ze JBrun.
The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after the same.
The Adoration of the Magi ; after Courtois.
The Virgin and Infant ; after Noel Goypel.
St. Anthony of Padua adoring the Infant Jesus; after

Van Dyck.

PICART, Jean, was a French engraver, who
resided in Paris about the year 1640. He is sup-
posed to have been a pupil of Crispin van de Pass,
as he engraved from the designs of that master,
and imitated his style, though not very success-
fully. He appears to have been principally em-
ployed in engraving ornaments for books, and a
few portraits. We have by him a portrait of
Edward, prince of Portugal, a half-length, with
emblems ; that of Erasmus, a whole-length, forming
the frontispiece to an edition of part of his works,
published in Paris in 1639 ; and several other plates
for books, &o.

PICART, Jean Michel, was a Flemish painter,
born about 1600. He painted flowers and land-
scapes, but his chief employment was selling
pictures. He established himself in Paris, where
he employed many young artists to make copies
which he sold as originals. He died in 1682.

PIGAULT, Pierre, a French engraver, was born
at Blois in 1680. It is probable that he was a pupil
of Gerard Audran, as he copied, on a small scale,
the celebrated ' Battles of Alexander,' from the
plates engraved by that artist, after Le Brun. He
also engraved some portraits, and the ' Visitation
of the Virgin to St. Elisabeth,' after Carlo Maratti.
He died young in 1711. He usually signed his
plates P. Picault, Blesensis, sculp.

PICCHI, Giorgio, a painter of Castel-Durante,
who flourished about 1569. He sojourned for a
time in Rome, where he was employed in the
Vatican. He worked in the manner of Baroccio.

PICCHIANTI, Giovanni Domenico, an Italian
designer and engraver, was born at Florence about
1670. He was taught the rudiments of drawing
by G. B. Foggini, a sculptor, and applied himself
to engraving, both with the point and the burin.
In conjunction with Lorenzini, Mogalli, and other
artists, he executed several plates from the pictures
in the Gallery of Florence. We have, among
others, the following prints by him :


Sebastiano del Kombo ; after Titian.
Cardinal Bentevoglio ; after Van Dyck.
Pope Leo X. with the Cardinals Kossi and Giulio de'
Medici ; after Raphael.


The Madonna della Seggiola ; after Raphael.

The Virgin and Infaut Jesus, with St. John ; after Ann.

The Tribute Money ; after Titian.
The Virgin and Child ; after the same,
Abraham sending away Hagar ; after Pietro da Cortona

PICCINI, GlACOMO, an engraver, was born at
Venice in 1617, but it is not known by what master
he was instructed. Zani says he was still working
in 1669 ; but the latest date on his prints is 1665.
We have several plates by him, executed in a stiff,
disagreeable style ; among them a set of thirty
portraits of the principal painters of the Venetian
school for the account of their Lives published by
Ridolfi in 1648. We have also the following prints
by him :

The Portrait of Alessandro Farnese.

Diogenes, with his Lantern ; after F. Liheri.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

Judith, with the Head of Holofernes at her feet ; after

The Holy Family ; after the same.

PICCINI, GuGLiELMO, was the brother of Giacomo
Piccini, and among other prints etched a plate after
a ' Piet4,' by Rubens. He bad a daughter, Isabella
Piccini, who was a nun, and engraved a set of
portraits of the illustrious personages of Italy, for
the ' Conohilia Celeste ' of G. B. Fabri.

PICCININO; Niocol6, an obscure Milanese
painter, who was at work at Milan about 1500.

PICCIONI, Matteo, an Italian painter and en-
graver, was born at Ancona probably in or about
1615. Of his works as a painter little is known ;
but he was made a member of the Academy of St.
Luke in 1666. We have a few spirited etchings by
him, two of which are dated 1641. The following
are among them :

St. Luke painting the Virgin ; after Raphael.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Paolo Veronese.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

The Virgin and the Infant Jesus, with St. John ; after

A. Gamxtssei.
Moses exposed on the Nile ; after the same.

PICCOLA, NiocoLA La, u native of Crotona, in
Calabria, He was born in 1730, and worked in
Rome, where he painted some decorative pictures
in the Vatican, which have since been copied in
mosaic. Some of his work is also to be seen at

PICENARDI, Caelo. Two artists of this name
painted in Cremona early in the 17th century. One
was a pupil of Lodovico Carracci, and painted
church pictures and burlesque histories. These
were imitated by the other Picenardi, who, however,
died young.




Picou '

PIOHLER, JoHANN, gem-cutter, painter and en-
graver, was born at Naples in 1734. He was a
pupil of his father, Anton Piohler, and the painter
Corvi. In 1761 he painted several pictures for
the Franciscans and Augustinians, and made ex-
periments in encaustic and mosaic. In 1763_ he
joined his father in Rome, after which he visited
England, returning to Rome in 1775. _ Most of his
time was given to gem-cutting, in which he.rose to
such excellence, that many of his intaglios were
sold as antiques. It is said that even Winkclmann
was deceived by them. He died in Rome in 1791.
PIOHLER, JoHANN Peter, mezzotint engraver,
was born at Botzen in 1765, and studied at Vienna
under Professor Jakobe. He worked for the Prince
of Anhalt Dessau in Dresden, and died at Vienna
in 1806. Among his best plates are :

Portrait of the King of Poland ; after Lumpi.

The Fruit Girl ; after Murillo.

Venus ; after Titian.

Omphale ; after X^.omenichina.

Perseus and Andromeda.

Magdalene and St. John ; after Batoni.

Eembraudt's portrait of himself.

PICKAERT, PiBTEK, who was probably a
native of Holland, has left a set of coarse etchings,
published in Holland, and representing the flight
of James II. from England. They are probably
from his own designs, as he adds, the vioxA fecit to
his name. Neither the time of his birth or death
are recorded, but he must apparently have been
living in 1688.

PICKEN, Andrew, an English lithographer,
born in 1815. He was a pupil of Louis Haghe,
and had much employment in illustrating books of
travel. Through ill-health he made two sojourns
in Madeira, and published a fine work, 'Madeira
Illustrated.' In 1835 he exhibited at the Academy
a 'Tomb in Narbonne Cathedral.' He died in
London, amid much promise, in 1845.

PICKERING, Henry, an English portrait painter
in the early part of the 18th century. He was a
follower of Kneller, and painted portraits " in cha-

PICKERSGILL, Henrt Hall, an English sub-
ject and portrait painter, the eldest son of H. W.
Pickersgill, R.A. His studies were completed in
the Netherlands and Italy, and he first exhibited at
the Academy in 1834. About 1844 he spent two
years in Russia, which furnished him with subjects
for some pictures. On his return he practised as a
portrait painter in the midland counties. He died
in 1861. His picture ' The Right of Sanctuary ' is
in the South Kensington Museum. Other works :

The Troubadours.

Holy Water.


Fishermen of Eabatsky, on the Neva.

Ferry on the Neva.

Cupid and Psiyche.

Finding of Moses.

llomeo and Juliet.

PICKERSGILL, Henry W^illiam, an English
portrait and subject painter, born in London in
1782. He was originally intended for a silk manu-
facturer. Preferring art, he became a pupil of George
Arnald, A.R.A., and in 1805 entered theschools of the
Academy. Here he first exhibited in the following
year, and was elected an Associate in 1822, and a
full member in 1826. His practice became very
large, and most of the eminent persons of the day
sat to him. Up to 1872, when he retired from


work, he exhibited no less than 363 pictures at the
Academy. These were chiefly portraits, with the
exception of a few landscapes and fancy subjects.
He died at Barnes April 21, 1875. Amongst his
works are :

Bowood. Lady playing Guitar.

Loudon. Nat. Gallery. Portrait of E. Vernon. 1848.
„ „ A Syrian Maid. 1837.

„ „ The Nun.

„ National Portrait Portraits of Wordsworth,
Gallery. Jeremy Bentham, Hannah

More, W. Godwin, ' Monk '
Lewis, G. Stephenson, and
Sir T. Talfourd.

Incorporated; 1 ^ord Chancellor Truro.
Law Society, j
„ Boyal Institution. Professor Faraday.
„ „ Dr. Brande.

Longleat. Portrait of second Marquis of

Windsor Castle. Portrait of Loird Hill.

PICOLET, CoRNELis, a painter of portraits and
conversations, flourished at Rotterdam from about
1670 to 1690. His reputation rests rather on the
circumstance of his having been the first instructor
of Adrian van der Werf than on any particular
work that can be with certainty ascribed to himself.

PICOT, PBANgoiS Edouabd, a French historical
painter, bom in Paris in 1786. He studied under
Vincent, and in 1811 obtained the second ' Prix de
Rome' for his 'Lycurgus,' In 1813 he obtained
the same award by his ' Death of Jacob.' As he
could not be sent to Rome, he was awarded a prize
of 3000 francs. Many commissions for decorative
works were entrusted to him : the chief of these
were for the Louvre, for Versailles, and for the
churches of St. Vincent de Paul (in conjunction with
Plandrin) and St. Clotilde. He was elected to
the Institute in 1856. He died in Paris in 1868.
Amongst his works are :

Amiens. Museum. Cephalus and Procris. 1824.

Brussels. Museum. .Sneas and Venus. 1815.

Grenoble. Museum. The Plague at Florence. 1839.

Paris. Louvre. Orestes and Electra. 1822.

„ Comedie Franqaise. Portrait of Talma.

„ N. D. de Lorette. Coronation of the Virgin.

„ S. Sulpiee. Death of Sapphira. 1819.

Versailles. Siege of Calais. 1838.

PICOT, VjOTOR Marie, a French engraver, was
horn at Abbeville in 1744, and studied in Paris.
He came to London in the year 1766 with Wynne
Ryland, and about 1770 he was living with Ravenet,
whose only daughter, Angelica, he married. In
1766 he was elected a member of the Incorporated
Society of Artists. He engraved several plates after
Serres, Barralet, Loutherbourg, and others, some of
which were for the collection of Boydell. He re-
turned to France in 1790, and died about 1805. We
have, among others, the following prints by him :

The Four Evangelists ; after Euiens.

Diana and her Nymphs ; after'the same.

The Nurse and Child ; after Schedone.

A young Man holding a Flute ; after B. Luti,

Apollo holding a Branch of Laurel ; after S. Cantarim.

A Landscape and Figures ; after Zuccarelli.

Two Sea-pieces ; after X>. Seites.

Two Landscapes, Morning and Evening ; after Barralet

Several other subjects ; after the same.

PICOU, Robert, (or Piquot,) a French engraver,
was, according to Marolles, a native of Tours, and
flourished about the year 1630. He enjoyed the
title of Peintre du Boi : he visited Italy, and re-
mained some time at Rome. Dumesnil describes
seven rare prints by him, of which the last,
executed from a picture by Jacopo Bassano, is the




best ; tlie others are evidently from his own de-

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