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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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signs. They are executed partly with the point,
partly with the burin. We have also several frontis-
pieces and other book ornaments by him, from his
own designs. The following are the titles of the
seven plates above alluded to :
Love asleep; B. Picou.fe.
Two Cupids caressing ; R. Picou. fe. EonuB.
Two Infants ; U. Picou.fe. Roma.
Three Infants ; R. Picou.fe.
The little Wrestlers ; R. Picou. fecit.
Two couples of Infants ; R. P. ^c.
Jesus Christ delivered to His Enemies. On the margin
to the left inscribed Jacobus de poto Hassan pinxit, R.
Picou sculpsit ; and on the right, dartres formis Cum
Priuilegio. In a second impression, dartres fomiis
is erased, and Mariette Excudit substituted.

PICQU^, Chaeles, a Flemish painter, born at
Deynze in 1799. He painted portraits, still-life,
and historical pictures. He died at Brussels in 1869.
PICQUET,J. In Dubrayet's drawing-book there
is a print by this artist, representing ' Juno, Pallas,
and Venus,' half-length figures, executed with the
graver. It is inscribed Joan Picquetft.

PICQUET, Thomas, a French painter of the 17th
century, quoted by MaroUes.

PICQUOT, Henei, supposed to be the brother
of Thomas Picquot, was a scholar of Simon Vouet,
at Paris, and flourished about 1640, as appears by
that date on one of his prints. Dumesnil describes
three prints by him ; the first two after Ohapron,
etched with the point in a style analogous to that
of Michel Dorigny, the other from his own design,
also with the point, in a very light and spirited
The young Virgin ascending the steps of the Temple ;
a composition of many figures, with a glory of angels
and cherubim above ; Chapprov. jnuen. et ■piru>it ; H.
Picquot Jncidit Cum Priuilegio Regis. 1S40. In a
second ii^pression, Coi/pelj ex. avec privilege^ was sub-
The Virgin giving the breast to the Infant Jesus;
Joseph, Elisabeth, and the infant St. John are intro-
duced. Although this print bears the name of Gueri-
nean, and not of H. Picquot, Dumesnil is of opinion
that it is by the latter,
A sick Frog a,ttended by others ; one acts as a physician,
two seem to pray, another is bringing a potion, and
four frogs are dancing to the sound of a violin. In
the margin are six lines of French verse, moralizing on
the brutalizing propensities of man. S. Picquot jnven.
et fecit. F. L. D. dartres excudit avec Privilege du

PICQUOT, Thomas, an engraver of goldsmiths'
work, designs for embroidery, damascening, and
other ornaments, flourished, according to Zani,
from 1623 to 1645. Dumesnil conjectures that he
was a scholar of Marin le Bourgeois, painter and
valet de chambre to Henry IV. and Louis XIII.,
and describes fourteen prints by him, the first of
which is a portrait of the aforesaid Marin le Bour-
geois ; the others consist of arabesque designs for
goldsmiths' and armourers' work, book and other
decorations. The portrait is etched in the manner
of a painter, and is the best piece ; the ornaments
are etched with an extremely delicate point, and
appear in white on a dark ground.

PIDDING, Heney J. , an Enghsh subject painter,
born in 1797. He was the son of a Cornish lottery-
office keeper, and studied under Aglio. His works
appeared at the Academy from 1824 onwards, and
also at the Society of British Artists, of which latter
body he was elected a member in 1843. He fre-
quently chose humorous subjects, and some of his
pictures enjoyed considerable popularity. He died

VOL. II. u

at Greenwich in 1864. His best-known works
are :

The Gaming Room at Homburg. 1860.

The Fair Penitent.

Negro in the Stocks.

Greenwich Pensioners refighting the battle of the Nile.
( Woburn Abbey.)
The two last-named were engraved by himself.

PID6E0N, H. Clark, painter in water-colours,
was born in 1807. Origmally intended for the
Church, he at first directed his attention to litera-
ture, but subsequently adopted art as a profession.
He was for a time Professor of the School of Draw-
ing at the Liverpool Institute ; and was at the time
of his death one of the oldest members of the
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours. He was
elected an Associate in 1846, and a full member in
1861. He was also President of the Sketching
Club. Pidgeon was a constant exhibitor at the
Institute, and was also successful as a draughtsman
on wood. He died in 1880.

PIEMANS, an obscure Dutch artist of the 17th
century. He painted somewhat in the manner of
Velvet Breughel, and formed one pupil, his nephew,
Jan de Baan,

PIEMONT, Nicolaas, called Opqang, was born
at Amsterda^i in 1659. He at first passed some
tinje under Marten Zaagmolen, an obscure artist,
but he afterwards became a scholar of Nicolaas
Molenaer. He visited Italy, where he passed seven-
teen years, and improved his talents for landscape
painting, by designing from nature in that country.
From Rome he returned to Holland, where he
painted pictures from his Italian sketches and
gained a great reputation. His landscapes bear a
strong resemblance to the works of Jan Both. He
died at Vollenhove in 1709. The sobriquet ' Opgang '
(up-going) was bestowed upon him in consequence
of his marriage with the landlady of the Guild.

PIENE, A. DE, a French engraver, produced,
among other plates, a portrait of the ' Duchess of
Savoy,' after Sacohetti, for a book published in 1672.

PIENEMAN, Jan Willem, a Dutch historical,
portrait, and landscape painter, born at Abcoude
in 1779. He was a pupil of the Amsterdam
Academy, and subsequently taught drawing in the
military school at Delft. The appointments of
Director of the Hague Museum and of the Amster-
dam Academy were afterwards conferred upon
him. He died at Amsterdam in 1853. The follow-
ing pictures by him are in the Rijks Museum,
Amsterdam :

An Arcadian Landscape.

Portrait of Joanna Cornelia Ziesenis.

„ „ „ „ asAgrippina.

„ Andries Snoek.

„ Albertus Bernardus Edothaan and Louis

Battle of Waterloo. (Signed J. W. Pieneman, a.d. 1824.)

PIENEMAN, Nicolas, a Dutch historical painter,
the son and pupil of J. W. Pieneman, was born at
Amersfoort in 1809. He died at Amsterdam in 1860.
Amongst his chief works are :

The Death of Admiral De Euyter.

William I. of Orange wounded by Jaurequi.

The Condemnation of Barneveldt.

Portrait of J. W. Pieneman. (Saarlem Pavilion.)

J. S. de Eyk in presence of Eequessens.

The Death of Archimedes.

Portrait of William III. .

Portrait of C. J. Fodor. (Fodor Museum, Amsterdam.)

PIEPBNHAGEN, August, landscape painter,
was born at Soldin, in Prussia, in 1792. He was





originally a button-maker, but raised himself, by-
no other assistance than the diligent study of
nature, to a distinguished rank in art. He died at
Prague in 1868. Three of his best pictures are :

Winter Landscape.
Landscape in a Storm.
Sketch of Forest Scenery.

PIERA, P., a Dutch painter, and a native of
Amsterdam. He painted landscapes and portraits,
and had two sons who followed in their father's
steps. He died in 1784.

PIERCE, Edward, was an English artist, who
flourished in the reigns of Charles L and II. He
was eminent as a painter both of history and of
landscapes, and also excelled in architectural and
perspective views. For some time he was an
assistant to Van Dyok, and after the Restoration
he was employed to repair the altar-pieces and
ceilings in London churches, damaged by the
Puritans. He died soon afterwards, and was
buried at Stamford. Few of Pierce's works now
remain, the far greater part being destroyed in the
fire of London in 1666. Lord Orford attributes to
him a set of friezes, in eight plates, etched in 1640.
His son John is said to have attained some eminence.
Another son, Edward, became a successful sculptor.

PIERI, Antonio di, called Lo Toppo, was a
native of Vicenza. He worked about 1738, and
painted landscapes and frescoes.

PIERI, Stefano, was a native of Florence, and
a disciple of Battista Naldini. Zani places his
birth in 1513, and his death in 1600. According
to Baglione, he visited Rome in the pontificate of
Clement VIII., and was taken under the protection
of Cardinal Alessandrode' Medici, by whom he was
employed in the church of San Prassede, where he
painted some pictures of the Apostles, and an 'An-
nunciation.' In Santa Maria in Via Lata is a picture
by him of the 'Assumption of the Virgin.' He
assisted Giorgio Vasari in the Cupola of Santa
Maria del Fiore, at Florence, and painted for the
Palazzo Pitti the 'Sacrifice of Isaac,' one of his
best works.

PIERINO DEL Vaqa. See Buonaccoesi.

PIERINO DB Nova. See Nova.

PIERO, Giovanni di. See Giovanni.

PIERO DI LORENZO, the son of Lorenzo di
Piero, was born at Florence in 1462. He became
an assistant to Cosimo Roselli, and accompanied
the latter when he was summoned to Rome by
Sixtus IV. Hence the name Pieko di Cosimo,
by which he is known. In 1485 he returned to
Florence, and was employed with Fra Bartolommeo
in the Convent of Sant Ambrogio. The connection
with Roselli, however, seems to have lasted till the
death of the latter, which took place in 1506, and
so Piero may be considered to have taken a share
in several altar-pieces in S. Spirito at Florence,
and other works of Roselli.' Piero did not confine
himself to sacred subjects, but took pleasure in
classic fable, especially when he was able to dis-
play animal life in natural or fantastic shapes.
This may be seen in 'The Wedding of Perseus
disturbed,' 'Sacrifice to Jove for the Safety of
Andromeda,' and two 'Rescues of Andromeda,' in
the Uffizi, and in a splendid ' Death of Procris '
in the National Gallery. A picture by hira of
' Venus playing with Cupid and a sleeping Mars '
is in the Berlin Museum. He was the inventor of
the strange masque called ' The Triumph of Death,'
which became the fashion in the Carnival at
Florence. Besides the picture already named,

which is, perhaps, Piero's master-piece, the
National Gafiery possesses, according to the best
connoisseurs, a second example of him, in a
picture now ascribed to Lorenzo Costa, and called
the portrait of Francesco Ferrucci. This is a
work of much power, and besides its undoubted
affinity with the acknowledged productions of
Piero, it ofiers a curious confinnation of his
asserted authorship, in the introduction of the
Palazzo Vecchio, with Michelangelo's David at its
portal, into the background. For Piero di Cosimo
was a member of the committee appointed in 1504
by the Signory of Florence to choose a site for that
statue. Many of his pictures, most of them, per-
haps, pass under other names. The ' Vierge au
Pigeon,' in the Louvre, and two fine Holy Families,
both ' tondos,' at Dresden and in the Borghese
Gallery, Rome, are among the best of these. Piero
was a man of curious interests and habits, caring
much more for the strange traditions of the pagan
mythology than for the tales of his own Church.
He was the master of Andrea del Sarto. He died
at Florence in 1521.

PIERO DA PERUGIA, a miniaturist of the 16th
century, many of whose works are preserved in the
Duomo at Siena.

PIERO DI RIDOLFO, an obscure painter who
flourished in Tuscany at the close of the 16th

PIERON, GuSTAVE, a Flemish landscape painter,
who studied at the Antwerp Academy, and resided
in that city. He died in 1864.

PIERONI, Adolfo, painter, engraver, and medal-
list, was born at Lucca in 1832. He studied under
Onestini and Casale, though he was best known as
a medallist. He died at Florence in 1875.

PIERRE, a native of Troyes, who designed and
painted the fine series of windows in the cathedral
dealing with the parable of the Prodigal Son.

PIERRE. A painter of this name is mentioned in
the Belgian archives as the author of a portrait,
painted in 1417 or 1418, of Margaret of Burgundy,
the eldest daughter of Philip the Bold and the wife
of William IV., Count of Hainault. In 1418 this
portrait was placed in the Chapel of St. Anthony in
Barbefosse, near Mons.

PIERRE, maitre, a painter of this name was at
work in 1486 in the Monastery of the CordeUers, at
Nancy, He was a native of Strasbourg.

PIERRE, Andes, a native of Blois, who, in 1472,
painted a large ' Nativity ' for the chapel of the
Chateau de Montilz.

PIERRE DE COMPlfeGNE a native of Com-
piegne, (?) who was at work on miniatures and illum-
inations for the Chapter of Troyes in the year 1387.

PIERRE DB COPIAC, a glass-painter, who
painted the windows in the Cathedral of Montpellier,
his native place.

PIERRE DEST. CATHERINE, a native of Lille,
who painted in the year 1365 an altar-piece for the
church of St. Maurice in that city.

PIERRE, DiEUDONNi, the son of Etiennb Pierre,
a fruit and flower painter, was born at Nancy in
1807. He was a pupil of Hersent, and painted
historical subjects. In the Museum of Nancy there
is a ' Christ in the Garden of Olives ' by him. He
died in 1838.

PIERRE, Jean Baptistb Marie, was born in
Paris in 1714 (or 1713). He was at first a pupil
of Natoire, but went to Italy when young, and
studied some years at Rome under De Troy. On
his return to Paris he distinguished himself as a




painter of history, and was employed for some of
the public buildings, particularly on a large ceiling
in the chapel of the Virgin at St. Roch. He painted
an excellent picture of ' St. Nicholas and St. Francis,'
for the church of St. Sulpice, which has been en-
graved by Nicolas Dupuis. He was made director
of the Academy in Paris, and was appointed prin-
cipal painter to the Duke of Orleans and to the
king. He died in Paris in 1789. Among his best
paintings are, ' Peter curing the Lame Man,' and
' The Death of Herod ' (in St. Germain des Pr^s).
Pierre left several etchings, among which we may
name the following ;

The Village Entertaioraent ; after his own design.
Several Studies of Heads ; made by him in Italy.
Some PUtes of subjects from ' Fontaine's Fables ' ; after
designs by iSvMeyras.

PIERSON, Cheistoph, was born at the Hague
in 1631, and was destined by his parents for mer-
cantile pursuits, but became a scholar of Bar-
tholomaus Meyburg, whom after some time he
accompanied to Germany, but after an absence of
three years returned to Holland, and established
himself at Gouda, where he met with immediate
employment as a painter of history and portraits.
Notwithstanding the reputation he had acquired,
the encouragement given to the pictures of Lee-
rnens, a painter of dead game, guns, &c., induced
him to adopt similar subjects, in which he sur-
passed his model. He died at Gorcum in 1714.

PIET, — , was a native of the Low Countries,
and flourished about the year 1600. He engraved
the plates for a work entitled ' Le Maniement
d'Armes de Nassau,' &o., by Adam V. Brien, pub-
lished in 1608.

PIETERS, Geertje, or Gektrude, was a fruit
and flower painter, and was working at Delft at
the beginning of the l&th century. She was a
pupil of Maria van Oosterwyck, and was of good
repute in her day, though most of her productions
have been attributed toDe Heem^ The Suermondt
Collection had a ' Plateof Fruit ' byher, dated 16«0.

PIETERS, Gi^BARD, a Flemish historical painter,
who was a native of Bruges. He was received as
master painter in 1562, but in 1690 be left Bruges
and settled at Ghent, where he was often employed
by the town authorities.. He died in 16-12. His
son Pierre worked with his father.

PIETERS, Jan, or John, was born at Antwerp
in 1667, and was a scholar of Pieter Eyckens. He
came to England in 1686, when he was eighteen
years of age, and finding no employment for a
painter of history, he offered his servicea to Sir
Godfrey Kneller, who employed him. to paint the
draperies and backgrounds of his portraits. He
excelled in copying the works of Rubens. He died
in London in 1727, and was buried in the church-
yard of St. Martin 's-in-the-Fields.

PIETERS, PiEEKB, the son of Gerard Pieters,
accompanied his father to Ghent in 1590, and was
admitted to the freedom of that city. In 1609 he
was at work for the magistracy of Ghent,, but must
have been already dead in 1612, for in that year his
wife is spoken of as a widow, in a document still

PIETERS, Simon, a Flemish historical painter,
received as master painter at Bruges in 1521. He
was Dean of St. Luke's Guild in 1649. In 1553 he
restored the 'Last Judgment' of Walens, and painted
several pictures for the city. He died in 1566.

PIETERSZ, RoELOP, an obscure painter who
worked at Utrecht about 1517.

PIETERZEN, Abraham, a Dutch painter who
flourished at Middelburg early in the present
century. He was a pupil of Van Regemorter, at

PIETERSZEN, Aeet, the son of Pieter Aertszen
(known as Lange Peer), was born at Amsterdam
in 1650. He deserves great praise for his picture
of the 'Lesson of Anatomy,' which hangs in the
same room as the world-famous picture of the same
subject by Rembrandt, in the Surgeons' Guild-Hall
at the Hague. It represents the professor Sebastiaen
Egberts lecturing over a dead body to twenty-eight
eager listeners, much in the same way as Rembrandt
has depicted Tulp. It is now in the Rijks Museum,
Amsterdam. Pieterszen's picture is vigorously exe-
cuted in a brown tone, and exhibits, more especially
in the countenances, much vivacity, facility of
drawing, and general truth to nature. It bears the
painter's monogram of A. F. and the date 1603,
which is twenty-nine years earlier than Rembrandt's
work. Besides this, the Rijks Museum possesses
two more excellent examples of Pieterszen, both
groups of portraits. Pieterszen died at Amster-
dam, and was buried there on the 12th June, 1612.

PIETERSZEN, Gbekit, (Pieters, or Peetees,)
was a painter and etcher, who flourished at Amster-
dam at the end of the 16tli century and beginning
of the 17th. He was first instructed by Jacob
Lenartszen and Cornelis van Haarlem, and after-
wards went to Antweip and Rome. After a
residence of some years in the latter city he re-
turned to Amsterdam, where he distinguished him-
self as one of the ablest artists of his time.
Unfortunately he devoted himself principally to
portraiture, and the rapid production of small
pictures, but his talents fitted him for higher
efforts. He was particularly successful with the
nude, and is also celebrated as a painter of
gallant assemblies and conversations, which he
composed in a very agreeable style, and finished
with great neatness and delicacy. Accordhig to
Balkema he died in 1626. There is a beautiful
landscape drawing by him in the cabinet at
Munich. He etched several plates, among them :

St. Cecilia, with Angels.

St. John in the Wilderness.

The three Theological Virtues.

PIETERSZOON, Pieter, a glass-painter of
Haarlem, who was received into the Guild of St.
Luke in 1619, and formed a large class of scholars.

PIETRASANTA, Anbelo, a painter, was born
at Milan in 1837. He was a pupil of Hayez, and
worked from 1869 to 1861 in Rome and Florence,
where he won a considerable reputation as a fresco
painter. He painted ' The Eucellai Gardens,' the
' Borgia Family,' and figures of ' Europe ' and
' Science ' in the Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele, at
Milan. His last work was the decoration of the Sanc-
tuary of the Incoronata, at Lodi. He died in 1876.

PIETRO BORGHESE. See Dei Feanoeschi.

PIETRO DI PIETEI, an Italian painter, born at
Novara in 1671, He was a pupil of Carlo Maratti,
and painted historical subjects. He died in 1716.

PIETRO, Giovanni di. See Giovanni.

PIETRO DI BENEDETTO. See Dei Feanoeschi.

PIETROLINO, an Italian painter of the 12th
century, who was at work at Rome, with Guido
Guiduccio, between 1110 and 1120. In a MS.
preserved at Venice it is stated that Pietrolino's
home was at Siena. Some remains of his work are
said to be visible in the Church of the Santi Quattri
Coronati, in Rome,





PIETROWSKI. See Pioteowrky.

PIGAL, EdmiS Jean, a French painter of still-
life, was born in Paris in 1794. He was a pupil
of Gros. Among his works is a ' Consultation of
Doctors.' He died in 1872.

PIGEON, Jean Baptists, a Flemish painter,
horn at Bure in 1823. He was a pupil of Marinus
Van der Haert and Mathieu, and painted portraits
and historical suhjects. His chief work is the ' In-
stitution of the Rosary,' in the Church of Anhee,
near Dinant. He died in 1868.

PIGNATELLI, Vicente, a Spanish amateur
landscape painter, born about 1700. He was a
noble. He showed a decided inclination for the
arts, and took a prominent part in founding an
Academy at Saragossa, of which he became the first
President. He died in 1770.

PIGNE, Nicolas, a French engraver, was born
at Chalons in 1690, and is said to have been a pupil
of Bernard Picart. He appears to have been in
England, as there is a portrait with his name, of
Eichard Fiddes, B.D., prefixed to ' Divinity,' by
the latter, and dated 1718. We have by this artist
a few plates in line, among which are the following :

The Virgin, with the Infant sleeping in a cradle, with
St. John standing by her side, attended by four
angels ; after F. Tremsani ; for the ' Crozat Collection.'

The Woman of Canaan kneeling at the feet of Christ ;
aft&r Ann. Carraeci,

PIGNONE, SiMONE, was born at Florence, accord-
ing to Oretti, in 1614. After being instructed in
the elements of art by Domenico Cresti, he became
a scholar of Francesco Furini. He afterwards lived
for a time in Venice, where he improved his
colour by studying the works of Titian and
Tintoretto. On his return to Florence he painted
several pictures for the churches, of which the
most admired are the pictures of ' St. Michael dis-
comfiting the Evil Spirit,' in the church of the
Nunziata ; and ' St. Louis distributing his Wealth
to the Poor,' in Santa Felicita. He also excelled
in painting mythological subjects, which, however,
he sometimes treated with too much licentiousness.
He died in 1698.

PIJNAGKER, Adam, sometimes erroneously
called AdbiAen, was born at Pijnacker, near Delft,
in 1621, and went when young to Rome, where for
three years he studied the works of the most dis-
tinguished landscape painters, and made designs of
the most picturesque objects in the environs of
that capital. On his return to Holland he soon
gave proof of how much he had profited by his
travels, and became one of the most admired and
best employed artists of his country. It was at
that time the practice to ornament the apartments
of important houses with the works of the most
eminent landscape painters ; and Pijnacker was
much engaged in works of that description.
His style has something in common with that of
Jan Both. It is, however, at once more decor-
ative and less true to nature. His composition is
excellent, but his colour too cold, and his texture
metallic. In the Gotha Gallery there is a ' Land-
scape with a Ruin ' by him, which is signed with
the initials A. V. F. P. He was a fine draughts-
man of trees. Almost all of liis pictures contain
men and animals. Pijnacker died at Amsterdam,
where he was buried on March 28, 1673. Among
his best works we may name :

Amsterdam. Museum. Four Landscapes.
Beriin. „ Landscape with Shepherds.

Cassel. Cows and Cowherds.


Dulwioh. Gallery. An Italian Landscape.

„ „ Landscape, with Sportsmen. {A

fint-<rate example.')
Hague. Museum. A Torrent. {Very fine.)

St. Petersburg. Her- Igea-coast.

mitage. }
Vienna. Academy. Mountainous Landscape.

PILAJA, Paolo, an Italian engraver, flourished
at Rome from 1727 to 1747. He executed a set of
plates for a book entitled ' Storia di Volsena,' by
the Abate Adami, published at Eome in 1737. We
have also, among others, the following prints by
him :

The Portrait of Pope Benedict XIII. ; after Brughi.

The Martyrdom of St. Fedele ; after S. Conca.

A Miracle wrought by St. Thoribio ; after the same,

S. Liberale, with two Children ; after the same.

Statue of the Prophet Elijah; after the sculpture h/
Ayost. Comachinif in St. Peter's at Kome.

PILEN, Hans, an unimportant Dutch landscape
painter, flourished toward the close of the 16th
century. He painted somewhat in tlie style of
Pieter Lastmann.

PILES, EoGEE DB, painter, etcher, and writer on
art, was born at Clamecy (Nievre) in 1635, and
died in Paris in 1709. He was a pupil of Claude
Franfois, and travelled in Italy and Holland. His
fame depends chiefly on his voluminous writings
on art.


PILKINGTON, Sir William, Bart., an English
amateur landscape painter, born in 1775. He suc-
ceeded to the title as eighth baronet in 1811. His

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