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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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style was founded on that of the classic school,
and especially that of Richard Wilson. He was
also an amateur architect and a good scholar.
Butterton Hall, Staffordshire, was built from his
designs. He died at Chevet Hall, Wakefield, in

PILLANS, R., an English marine painter, who
practised in the second part of the 18th century.

PILLEMENT, Jean, was born at Lyons about
1728 (some say 1719), and after receiving his
education in that city, went to Paris and Vienna,
and after 1763 to London. He painted in oil or
pastel a few pictures of landscapes and fancy sub-
jects, which were composed and coloured in a
theatrical, gaudy style ; he treated similar subjects
in pencil drawings and water-colours, which were
finished with great neatness and labour. Between
1773 and 1780 he occasionally exhibited at the
Free Society of Artists, but in the former year he
dropped for a time the practice of his art on account
of ill health, and returned to Avignon. He became
painter to Marie Antoinette and to the last king of
Poland, but finally settled again at Lyons, where (?)
he died early in the present century (? 1808).
Several of his designs have been engraved by
Canot, Ravenet, WooUet, Mason, Elliot, and other
eminent engravers. He himself etched a few plates
of flowers, &o.

PILLEMENT, Victoe, designer and engraver,
was born at Vienna in 1767. He was a son and
pupil of Jean Pillement, and worked with the
graver and point combined. He died in Paris in
1814. Among his best plates may be mentioned :

The Banks of the Bosphorus ; after Melling.
Travels iu Egypt ; after Denon.
CEdipus Colonneus ; after Valenciennes.

PILO, Gael Gustav, a Swedish painter, was
born near Euntuna, in Siidermanland, in 1712 or
1718. He first studied under his father, Oluf PilO
(a portrait painter), then under Crisman at Stock-




holm, and was at Vienna from 1734 to 1736. He
next travelled widely in Germany, and on returning
to his own country settled for a time at Schonen,
where he successfully practised portrait painting.
In 1741 he went to Copenhagen, and was
appointed drawing-master to the Cadet Corps,
and after painting the Crown Princess Louise, was
in 1745 made court-painter, and three years later
professor at the old Academy. In 1771 he became
director, but by accepting the Order of Vasa from
his own sovereign, Gustavus III., he fell into dis-
favour with the Danes, and returned to Sweden.
Here, too, he was chosen a director of the Academy.
He died at Stockholm in 1792. Among his best
pictures we may note :

Frederik V. of Denmark on Horseback.
Karoline Mathilda, his Consort.
Coronation of Gustavus III.
Portrait of Lieut.-General Lerche.

PILOTTO, GiROLAMO, was a native of Venice,
and flourished about the year 1590. He was a
scholar of the younger Palma, and, according to
Zanotti, a faithful follower of his style One of
his best performances is a ' St. Biagio,' over the
high altar of the Fraglia at Rovigo ; but his most
celebrated work is the ' Marriage of the Adriatic by
the Doge,' in the grand saloon in the ducal palace
at Venice. Zani places his death in 1649.

PILOTY, Gael Theodob von, a Bavarian painter,
was born at Munich in 1826. After studying under
his father he entered the Munich Academy, and be-
came the pupil of his brother-in-law. Car] Sohorn.
In early manhood he visited Paris, England, and
Brussels, and soon after his return to Bavaria, was
commissioned by the king to paint, for the Maxi-
milianeum, ' The Elector Max adhering to the
Catholic League in 1609.' This was completed in
1854. Piloty formed a large class of pupils, and for
the greater part of his life was both a member and
a professor of the Munich Academy. Lenbach,
Defregger, and Hans Makart were among his
scholars. He died in 1886. Works :

Death of 'Wallenstein.
Seni before "Wallenstein's corpse.
Battle of the White Mountain, Prague.
Galileo in Prison.

Wallenstein marching against Egger.
Discovery of America.
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn.
Nero among the ruins of Eome.

Thusnelda at the Triumph of Germanicus. (New Pina-
cothek, Munich.)

PILOTY, Ferdinand, lithographer, was born at
Homburg in 1785. He was instructed in painting,
but after the invention of lithography he devoted
himself exclusively to that,art. In 1836 he asso-
ciated himself with Joseph Lohle for the production
of a series of copies from the Munich Pinakothek
and the Schleissheim Gallery. After the death of
Gottlieb Bodmer the two artists continued the
publication of his works, and the lithographic
establishment of Piloty and Lohle is still one of
repute in Germany. Piloty died at Munich in

PILS, Isidore Alexandre Auguste, a French
historical painter, born in Paris in 1813. He studied
in the ilcole des Beaux Arts, and was a pupil of
Lethi^re and Picot. In 1838 he gained the Grand
Prix de Rome for his ' St. Peter healing the lame
man at the gate of the Temple.' For some years
his attention was chiefly devoted to Scriptural
subjects, and he spent much time in travel. The

Russian War gave a new turn to his art, and
he henceforth painted those military subjects on
which his reputation rests. He went to the
Crimea, and depicted several incidents of the cam-
paign for Napoleon III. Besides medals in 1846,
1855, 1857, and 1861, he received the Legion of
Honour in 1857, becoming an officer of the order
in 1867. He became Professor of Painting at the
:ilcole des Beaux Arts in 1863, and was elected a
member of the Institute in 1868. There are deco-
rative paintings by him at the churches of Ste.
Glotilde and St. Eustache in Paris ; but his greatest
work of this kind is the ceiling over the grand
staircase in the New Opera House. Pils died of
chest disease at Douarnenez (Brittany) in 1875.
Amongst his chief pictures are :

Christ preaching in Simon's Boat. 1846.

Death of the Magdalen. (1847.)

Bacchantes and Satyrs. (1848.)

Kouget de I'IsIe singing the Marseillaise. 1849.

Death of a Sister of Charity. 1850.

Athenian Slaves at Syracuse. (1852.)

Prayer at the Hospital. (1853.)

A Trench before Sebastopol. 1855. {Bordeaux Museum.)

Disembarkation of the French Army in the Crimea.

School of Musketry, Tincennes. (1859.)
Battle of the Alma. 1861. (Versailles GaUery.)
Fete to the Emperor and Empress in Algiers in 1860.

Apollo with the Chariot of the Sun.
Fame crowning Wisdom.
Apollo charming the Beasts with his Lyre.
The City of Paris encouraging the Arts. {This and the

three preceding for the Stairs of the Grand Opera.)
Portraits of Lecointe and Castelnau.

His brother, Edouakd AisnIi Pils, born 1823,
died 1852, was a pupil of the School of Arts, and
from 1846 onwards painted religious and military
subjects with some success.

PILSEN, Frans, was bom at Ghent in 1700,
and died in 1786. He studied painting and en-
graving under Robert van Auden-Aerd. _ We have
among others, the following prints by him :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus ; after Rubens.

The Conversion of St. Bavon ; after the same.

The Judgment of Midas ; after the same.

The Martyrdom of St. Blaize ; after G. de Crayer.

St. Francis ; after Eubens ; inscribed F. Pilsen, sculp.
G. 1770.

PINACCI, Giuseppe, an obscure Italian painter,
a native of Siena, flourished about 1642. He was
a pupil of Borgognone, and painted historical and
battle scenes. He resided at Naples, and after-
wards at Florence, at the Court of Prince Ferdinand.

PINAIGRIBR, Thomas, a French landscape
painter, born in Paris in 1616. He was received
into the Academy in 1648, and died in 1658.

PINAS, Jacob, was the younger brother of Jan
Pinas, and was instructed by his brother, whose
style he imitated.

PINAS, Jan, was an historical pamter of
Haarlem early in the 17th century. It is not
known under whom he learned the rudiments of
the art, but in 1605 he travelled, in company with
Pieter Lastman, to Italy, where he studied some
years. On his return to Holland he distmguished
himself as a painter of history and portraits. Of
his historical productions, one of the most esteemed
was a picture in the great church at Haarlem of
' Joseph and his Brethren.' He was living in that
city up to at least 1621, and in 1623 a landscape
by him, with the story of Salmacis and Herma-
phroditus, was engraved by Magdalen van de Pass.




_ PINCHARD, P., is said by Strutt to have re-
sided at Genoa, where he engraved several plates
for books, about the year 1687.

PINE, John, an engraver, and a man of letters,
was bom in 1690. He kept a printshop in St.
Martin's Lane, and became intimate with Hogarth,
who introduced his portrait as the friar in his
picture of ' Calais Gate,' from which circumstance
he went often by the name of ' Priar Pine.' He
brought out several handsome works illustrated
with plates of his own engraving. Tlie principal
of them were a series representing the ceremonies
used at the revival of the order of the Bath, by
King George I. (published in 1725) ; also his
prints from the tapestry in the House of Lords,
representing the ' Destruction of the Spanish Ar-
mada ' ; and a superb edition of ' Horace,' the text
engraved, and illustrated with ancient bas-reliefs
and gems. The 'Pastorals' and ' Georgics' of Virgil
were published by his son, after his death, orna-
mented in a similar manner, with a printed type.
Pine also engraved a few portraits, among which
are an etching of himself and a mezzotint bust
of Garrick, taken from a cast. He received the
appointment of Blue Mantle in the Heralds' Col-
lege, and there died May 4, 1766. Pine was one of
the committee of artists who attempted, in 1755, to
found a Royal Academy.

PINE, Egbert Edge, son of John Pine, was born
in London in 1742. It is not known by whom he
was instructed, but he gained the premium for the
best historic design, given by the Society of Arts,
with his ' Surrender of Calais' in 1760, and again
with 'Canute and his Courtiers' in 1763. He
afterwards practised as a portrait painter, and
occasionally exhibited at Spring Gardens and the
Royal Academy. In 1782 he exhibited a series of
pictures of scenes from Shakespeare. He after-
wards went to America, and portrayed Washing-
ton and other leaders of the revolution. He died
at Philadelphia in 1790. His principal works are
subjects from Shakespeare, and theatrical portraits,
which have been engraved by M'Ardell, V. Green,
C. Watson, Aliamet, Lomax, and Dickinson. His
' Surrender of Calais ' was preserved in the Town-
hall of Newbury, and mention may be made of
the following portraits :

George II. (at Aiidley End).

The Duke of Northumberiaud {Middlesex Hospital),

Garrick (National Portrait Gallery),

PINE, Simon, an English miniature painter in
the 18th century, the son of John Pine. He
practised in Ireland and at Bath, and exhibited at
Spring Gardens, and at the Academy. He died in

PINEDA, Francisco Perez de, a Spanish painter,
was born at Seville about the year 1640. He was
a scholar of Murillo, whose style he followed, and
there are several of his works in the churches and
convents at Seville. There was also an Antonio
Peeez db Pineda, who lived about 100 years

PINELLI, Antonia BERTUCCI. See Bektucci-


PINELLI, Bartolommeo, an Italian painter,
etcher, and modeller, was born at Rome in 1781.
He studied when young at the Academy of Saint
Luke, and then went to Bologna, where he ob-
tained honours, after which he returned to Rome.
He was very successful vrith his sketches from
popular life, and then took to painting views at
Rome and Tivoli in aquarelle. He also etched


(1810-22) a number of plates illustrating Italian
life and costumes, as well as Grecian and Roman
history and the works of classic authors. Be-
sides these original designs lie engraved after
other artists. His drawings in chalk and in
water-colours are much esteemed. The works by
which he is best known are, ' Istoria degli Imperi-
tori, inventata ed incisa in cento rami ' ; ' Rao-
colta di Costumi pittoreschi' ; ' Nuova Raccolta
di cinquanta Costumi pittoreschi'; 'Istorica Greca,'
with 100 etchings ; ' Istorica Romana,' 152 etch-
ings ; Illustrations to Virgil, Dante, Tasso, Aretino,
and Cervantes ; and some others, of which the
plates were brought to England, and printed here.
He also engraved the frescoes painted by Pintu-
ricchio in the cathedral of Santa Maria Maggiore ;
the illustrations of the ' Life and Miracles of St.
Francis di Paula,' after Marco da Faenza and
others ; the friezes by Giulio Romano in the Far-
nesina ; Picturesque Views of Tivoli, &c. ; and
lithographed illustrations to Manzoni. He died at
Rome in 1835.

PINGRET, Edotjard Henei Th^ophile, a French
painter, and native of St. Quentin, who ilourished
about 1785. He was a pupil of David and also of
Regnault. Works :

Louis XIV. and Moliere.
Siege of Oourtrai. ( Versailles.)

PINO, Marca da, (or Maeco da Siena,) a painter
and architect, is stated to have been born at Siena
about the year 1520. He was a pupil of Buonao-
corsi and Ricciarelli, but chiefly followed the style
of Michelangelo. He painted some pictures for
the churches at Rome, of which one of the most
esteemed was a ' Dead Christ, with the Virgin and
St. John,' in Santa Maria di Ara Cseli. Much of his
work in Rome was done in collaboration with
Daniele da Volterra. From Rome he proceeded to
Monte Cassino, where, in 1557-8, he painted for
the church of the Benedictines some large frescoes
from the Lives of Christ and of SS. Mauras and
Placidus, But the chief scene of his activity was
Naples, where he established himself in 1560.
During a residence of twenty-seven years, he
decorated the principal churches with several of
his finest works. Of these, the most famous and
perhaps the best is a ' Deposition from the Cross,'
in the church of San Giovanni de' Fiorentini,
painted in 1577. In the same church is a fine
picture of the ' Annunciation,' and in the cathedral
an ' Incredulity of St. Thomas ' (1573). A _' Christ
on the Cross,' an ' Assumption of the Virgin,' and
an ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the church of San
Severino, may also be named. Pino died in 1587.
His art has much that is clever and energetic about
it,,but it has also the aflFectation and insipidity of
the decadence.

PINO, Paolo, an unimportant Venetian painter,
who flourished about 1565. His style was founded
on the followers of Bellini. There is a portrait of
the physician Coignati by him, in the Df&zi, at


PINSON, Nicolas, was born at Valence, in the
Dr^me, about the year 1640. He studied at Rome,
where he remained a considerable time, and imi-
tated the manner of Pietro da Cortona. Scarcely
anything more of his history, or of his works, is
known, except that Coelemans has engraved his
picture of 'Tobit and the Angel,' which was in
the collection of Boyer d'Aguilles ; and that he




etched two priijts, a ' Dead Christ ' and the ' As-
sumption of the Virgin,' which are both of ex-
treme rarity. The first is marked N. P. In. /.,
and the second N. Pinson. Inuent. ef Sculp.

PINSSIO, Sebastiano, who was born in Paris in
1721, and flourished in 1765, is mentioned by
Strutt as the engraver of a few portraits.

PINTURICCHIO. See Biagio, Bernardino.

PIN US, Cornelius, a Roman painter of the reign
of Vespasian, was engaged with Accius Priecus in
the Temple of Virtue and Honour.

PINWELL, George John, an English draughts-
man and water-colour painter, born in London in
1842. He studied in Heatherley's Art School,
Newman Street. In the early part of his career he
practised much as a book-illustrator, and specimens
of his work are to be found in 'London Society,
' Good Words,' ' Once a Week,' ' Sunday Magazine,'
Dalziel's ' Vicar of Wakefield,' &c. His first appear-
ance in water-colours was at the Dudley Gallery in
1865, but his best pictures were exhibited at the-
Water-Colour Society, of which he was elected an
Associate in 1869, and a member in 1871. He died
of lung disease in 1875, in the midst of great
promise, and was buried at Highgate. Since his
death his work has increased enormously in popu-
larity. Together with Frederick Walker, who also
died young, and Mason he may be considered the
leader of one of the most interesting of the modern
developments in British painting. Pinwell was an
honorary member of the Belgian Society of Water-
Colour Painters. Amongst his best works are :

The Pied Piper of Hamelin. 1869.
The Great Lady.
A Seat in the Park. 1869.
At the Foot of the Quantocks.
The Elixir of Love. 1870.
The StrolUng Player. 1872.
Gilbert a Beckett's Troth. (1872.)
The Beggar's Boost, Tangier. (1874.)
We fell out, my Wife and I. (1875).

Many of Pinwell's best works have been etched by
B. W. Macbeth, A.R.A.

PINZ, JoHANN Geohg, (or PiNTZ,) was an engraver
of Augsburg, who died in 1767, at the age of 70.
He is said to have been chiefly employed by the book-
sellers, for whom he engraved several prints, in the
style of those which ornament the numerous pub-
lications of Van der Aa. He engraved, among
others, an emblematical print, entitled ' Gallus and.
Germanus,' in honour of the Bang of France, after
P. Decker.

PIO, Giov. DEL. See Bonatti.

PIOLA, DoMBNico, the younger brother of Pel-
legrino Piola, was born at Genoa in 1628. He
received his first education in art from his brother,
but after his death he became a scholar of Gio-
vanni Domenioo Capellini. In conjunction with
Valeric Castelli, he executed some works for the
public edifices in Genoa and the state. For some
time he followed the style of Castiglione, and after-
wards that of Pietro da Cortona. He was particu-
larly happy in the representation of children, which
he designed from the casts of Fiammingo. One of
his best productions is the 'Miracle of St. Peter
at the gate of the Temple,' at Carignano, which is
not degraded by its vicinity to an admirable picture
by Guercino. He died in 1703. He is known
to have produced the following etchings : two
' Nativities ' ; ' The Virgin on the throne with the
Infant Jesus on her knees, and St. John kneeling ' ;
• Paris holding the Apple ' ; and an ' Old Man with
a long beard.' Domenico Piola had three sons, An-

tonio, who abandoned painting in early life after
showing some promise, Giovanni Battista, who
never developed any original talent, and Pablo

PIOLA, Domenico, the younger, was a grand-
son of Domenico Piola, the elder, and was born in
1748. He painted historical subjects with mediocre
talent, and was the last of the family. He died
in 1774.

PIOLA, Giovanni Gregorio, a successful minia-
ture painter, born at Genoa in 1683. He died at
Marseilles in 1625.

PIOLA, Pablo Geronimo, historical painter, son
of Domenico Piola, the elder, was born in 1666.
He was a pupil of his father, but imitated the style
of Carlo Maratti and the Carracci. He died in 1724.

PIOLA, Pellegro, or Pellbgeino, was bom at
Genoa in 1617. He is supposed to have been a
pupil of Capellino. Though the world was de-
prived of his talents at the premature age of
twenty-three, when he was assassinated, a ' Ma-
donna,' painted by liirn, which was in the
collection of the Marchese Biignole, was thought
by Franceschini to have been painted by Andrea
del Sarto ; and his picture of St. Elogio, in one of
the churches of Genoa, was" mistaken by Mengs for
a work of Lodovico Carracci. He died in 1640.

PIOLA, PiBTEO Fbanoesco, historical and portrait
painter, was born in 1565. He was a pupil of
Sofonisba Anguisciola, and a successful imitator of
Cambiaso. He died in 1600.

PIOMBO, Seb. del. See LuciANl.

PIORT, v., an obscure artist, mentioned by
Strutt as the engraver of a plate from Rubens, re-
presenting an old woman holding a pot on a fire
from which a boy is taking a lighted coal.

PIOTROWSKY, Maximilian Anton, (or Pie-
TEOWSKi,) was born at Bromberg in 1814, and
studied at the Berlin Academy under Hensel. He
afterwards became Professor in the Academy at
Konigsberg. He at first painted romantic subjects
from Polish history, and other historical pieces, one
of which was ' Marie Antoinette in the Temple.'
Later on he took to genre painting from Polish
popular life. He died at Konigsberg, the 29th
November, 1875.

PIPER, F. lb. See Lb Piper.

PIPPI, GiuLio (Romano). See Dei Giannuzzi.

PIQUOT. SeePicou.

PIKANESI, Fkancbsco, son and pupil of Giam-
battista Piranegi, was bom at Rome in 1766, and
was instructed in design and architecture by his
father. The Revolution drove him to Paris, where,
with his brother Pietro, he essayed in vain to
found an Academy, and to start a terra-cotta
manufactory. He died in 1810. We have by him
several plates of architectural views, and also of
antique statues ; among them, the following :

Jupiter enthroned ; from the statue in the Capitoline

Museum ; after a drawing hy PiroU.
The Venus of Medici ; after the same.
Oupid and Psyche ; from the Group in the Oapitol.
Papirius and his Mother ; from the group in the Villa

Portrait of his Father, with Title-page to his 'Worlcs ;

the latter after Cades.
The Illumination of the Ohapel of St. Paul in St. Peter'i.

(See also the list of plates by G. B. Pieanesi.)

PIRANESI, GiAMBATTiSTA, etcher and archi-
tect, was born at Venice in 1720, and having there
studied drawing and architecture, went to Rome,
where he at first devoted himself to theatrical
painting under Valerian, and in 1738 received





instructions in engraving from Giuseppe Vasi, a
Sicilian. After twice attempting to start as an
architect at Venice, he returned both times to Rome,
and settled down to engraving. He died in that
city on Nov. 9, 1778, having in 1761 been admitted
a member of the Academy of San Luca. He also
held the Order of Christ, and was an honorary
member of the Society of Antiquaries, in London,
a distinction of which he seems to have been proud,
as he always carefully added that title to his name.
He was also a member of the Academy of the
Aroadi, by the name of ' Salcindio Tiseio,' as he
has given it in one of his frontispieces, according
to the fantastic custom of that Society of giving
new names to the persons admitted. All who
knew him agree that he was of a fiery and im-
petuous temper, but full of genius. As a practical
architect it is only stated that he was employed to
repair and ornament, at the particular desire of
Clement XIII., the church of Santa Maria del
Popolo, and the priory of Malta, at Rome ; in the
latter of which his son erected a statue to his
memory, which was executed by Angolini. His
portrait, engraved by Polanzani, in 1760, in the
style of a mutilated statue, is prefixed to some of
his works. Piranesi was made ' Cavaliere ' by
Clement XIIL

Piranesi was one of the best draughtsmen and
engravers of architecture and ancient ruins of his
time. His skill in combining objects from different
localities, and the force and vigour which he
gave to the most important, obtained for him the
sobriquet of ' The Rembrandt of Architecture.'
His works fill upwards of twenty folio volumes,
mostly published during his life, but a few sub-
sequently by his son, Francesco Piranesi, who had
an establishment at Rome for the express purpose.
The following list of his works is taken from Mr.
Henry Bohn's Catalogue. The differences which
occur in some of the titles, or frontispieces, to
copies of his Antichith Romane, arise from a
disagreement that occurred between Piranesi and
Lord Charlemont, who was to have been his patron.

Antichita Eomane, 4 vols. 1756.

Raccolta di Tempi Antichi, viz. di Vesta ; della Sibilla ;

dell' Oaore e della Virtu. 1776.
Panteon di Marco Agrippa, detto la Rotonda.
Monumenti degli Scipioni. 1785.
Eomanorum Magnifloentia et Architectura. 1761.
Opere Varie di Architettura Grotescha.
Trofei di Ottaviano Augusto.

"Vedute di Archi Trionfali.
Eovine del Castello del Acqua Giulia. 1761.
Lapides Capitolini, sive Fasti Gonsulaxes, &c.
â– Antichita di Cora. 1762.
Oampus Martius. 1762.

AntioMtS, d' Albano e di Oastel Gandolfo. 1764-5.
Vasi, Candelabri, Cippi, Sarcofagi, Tripodi, Lucerne ed

Ornamenti Antichi, 2 vols. 1778.
Colonna di Trajauo. 1770. Colouna Antonina. Colonna

deir Apoteosi di Antoniuo Pio.
Eovine di Pesto.
Vedute di Eoma, 2 vols.
Teatro S Broolano. 1783.
Diverse Maniere d' Adornare i Camini. 1769.
Statue Antichi. 1781-84.
Varije Tabulae celeberrimorum Piotorum: Eaooolta di

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