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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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of paintings, and in 1553 published a treatise on
'Perspective.' He died at Frankfort in 1590.
Some plates are attributed to him, but on very
insufScient grounds ; they are in the style of Hans
Sebald Behara, though much inferior.

LAUTENSACK, Paul, a German painter and
organist, was born at Bamberg in 1478, but in
1525, on account of his having embraced the
reformed religion, he left that city and settled in
Nuremberg, where he painted many subjects from
the Apocalypse, and also wrote some treatises upon
it, which were collected and published at Frank-
fort in 1619. He, however, became so troublesome
by reason of his fanaticism, that he was in 1542
expelled from the city, but after a time he was
allowed to return, and is believed to have died
there in 1558. There are still in Bamberg some of
his paintings, chiefly copies of the prints of
Martin Sohongauer and the woodcuts of Albrecht
Diirer. His portrait, dated 1529, is in the Germanic
Museum at Nuremberg.

LAUTERER, Adam, was born at Vienna in 1700.
He studied under Joseph Orient, and painted
animals in the style of Berchem and Poelenborch.
He died at Vienna in 1733. There is a piu ure
by him in the Vienna Gallery, and others are at
Augsburg and at Prague.

LAUTERS, Paul, a Belgian painter, etcher, and
lithographer, was born at Brussels in 1806. He
studied under Malaise, and at the school of en-
gravers at Brussels, of which he became a pro-
fessor in 1836. He died at Brussels in 1875.
Among his paintings are :

View in the Pyrenees.
Valley of the Heuss, Switzerland.
A Hollow Way. {Brussels Gallery.)
View in the Forest of Mariemont.

Among his plates are a series of twelve, repre-
senting Brussels and its environs ; a series of
twenty-six, representing the banks of the Saone ;
fifty plates for the ' Views of Java, Sumatra, &c., '
by C. W. M. van de Velde, and the ' Entrance into
the Forest,' for which he obtained the prize at the
Ghent Academy in 1852.

LAUVERGNE, BAKTHiLEMT, a French marine
painter, was bom at Toulon in 1805, and died in
Paris in 1875.

LADW, PiBTEB. See Louw.

LAUWERS, CoENEAED, the younger brother of
Nicolaes Lauwers, was born at Leuze, about the
commencement of the 17th century. He learned
engraving at Antwerp, and executed several plates
after the Flemish masters, and others, with the
graver, in the style of his brother, though inferior
to him. He was living in 1660-61. The following
are by him :


Aertns Quellinus, architect ; after J. De Duyts.

Pieter Verbruggen ; after E. Quelh'rms.

Marius Ambrosias Capello, Bishcp of Antwerp; after

Aatoine Vigier, Jesuit ; after J. Cossiers.


Elijah in the Desert, with an Angel bringing him food ;

after Rubens.
Christ bearing His Cros? ; after the same.
The Penitence of St. Peter ; after Cossiers.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.
The Virgin, with the InPant Jesus, St. Elizabeth, and

St. John, in a landscape ; after ischiavone.

LAUWERS, Jakob Jan, was born at Bruges in
1754. After studying at the Academy of hia
native city, he went to Italy, where he only
remained a short time. He then went to Paris,
where he met wilh a rich Dutchman, who placed
him at Amsterdam. He at first painted landscapes,
and afterwards interiors. There is an interior by
this artist in the Amsterdam Museum. He died at
Amsterdam in 1800.

LAUWERS, Nicolaes, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Leuze, near Tournay, towards the close of
the 16th century. He studied at Antwerp, under
the celebrated engravers af te"r Rubens, and attached
himself pnrticularly to the style of Paulus Pontius,
which he imitated with success. He was already
a master in the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in
1620, and became dean in 1635-36. He died at
Antwerp in 1652. There are several prints by him
from various masters, but his best plates are thosj
he engraved after Rubens. The following are hia
principal works :


Isabella, Infanta of Spain, with two Children, one hold-
ing a crown, the other her arms ; after Sniens.

Pra Lelio Blancatcio, commander of Malta ; after Van


The Adoration of the Magi ; after Rubens.

Christ before Pilate ; after the same. In the later im-
pressions of this print, the name of Bolswert is sub-
stituted for that of Lauwers.

The Descent from the Cross ; after the same.

The Dead Christ on the knees of the Virgin, with Mary
Magdalene ; after the same.

The Triumph of the New Law ; in two sheets ; after
the same.

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Gerard Seghers.

Gamesters and Smokers in a Tavern ; after the same.

Jupiter and Mercury, with Baucis and Philemon ; after
J. Jordaens,

The Virgin appearing to a Carmelite ; after Diepenbeeck.

St. Agabus before the Virgin ; after the same.

LAVAL, PiEEEE Louis de, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1790. He was a
pupil of Forestier and of Girodet, and exhibited at
the Salon from 1810 to 1865. There htp Pcripiural
subjects by him in some of the churches of Paris,
and ' Psyche abandoned by Cupid ' is in the
Museum at Grenoble. He died in Paris in 1870.

LAVALLEE-POUSSIN, Etienne de. See De


LAVAUDEN, AltHonse, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born at Lyons in 1796.
He studied under Revoil and Gros, and painted the
' Battle of Beaug6 ' and two portraits for the
Versailles Galleries. He died in Paris in 1857.

LA VEEQ, Jakob. See Levecq.

LA VILLA-AMIL, Geronimo Peeez de. See
Perez de la Villa- Amil.

LAVILLE - LEROUX, Maeie Guilhelmine.
See Benoits.

LAVIT, Jean Baftiste Omee, a French land-
scape painter, who was a pupil of Duval, was born
in Paris in 1771, and died in 1836.

LAVREINCE, Nicolaus. See Lafrensen.

LAWLESS, Matthew James, a subject painter,
was born in 1836. He was a student of the Lang-
ham school, and a pupil of Gary and Leigh. He
executed the drawings for many of the wood-cuts
in ' Good Words ' and ' Once a Week,' and was
a member of the Etching Club. Among his
pictures exhibited at the Royal Academy may be
mentioned, 'The King's Quarters at Woodstock,'





exhibited in 1861, and ' A Sick Call,' in 1863, whioli
was his last contribution, as he died at Bayswater
in 1864. Some of his earlier works were rather
vulgar in subject and treatment, but those of a
later date showed more refinement.

LAWRANSON, Thomas, an Irish portrait painter,
who practised in London, was a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he ex-
hibited from 1764 to 1773. In the National Por-
trait Gallery is a portrait by him of O'KeafEe.

LAWRANSON, William, was a portrait and
subject painter, who practised in London in the
latter half of the 18th century. He was the son of
Thomas Lawranson, and like him a member of the
Incorporated Society of Artists, where he exhibited
from 1765 to 1770. He also exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1774 to 1780. Amongst his works
were :

Nan Oatley, as Eiiphrosyne.
Palamon and Laviuia.
Ro-salind and Gelia.
Cymon and Iphigenia.
Lady haymaking.

LAWRENCE, Andrew, (known in Paris as
Ande£ Laurent,) an engraver, was born at West-
minster in 1708, and was taught drawing by M.
Regnier, who was then residing in Soho. He also
worked in crayons and in oil, but devoted himself
likewise to other accomplishments, being skilled in
languages and in music. Unfortunately he gave
his mind also to alchemy, and by its means got
through the fortune left him by his father, and had
to leave the country. After proceeding to Bologna
he came to Paris, where he worked at etching for
very slender daily wages under Philippe Le Bas,
and then under A. Pond. He died in Paris in
1747. He engraved the plates of the great gal-
lery at Versailles, after the drawings of Cochin.
There are also by him some plates after De Louther-
bourg, and the following :

Saul consulting the "Witch of Endor ; after Salvator

A Conversation ; after Tenters.
The Hay Harvest, and its companion; after Womoer-

Halt of Officers ; after the same.
Le Soir ; after Berchem.

LAWRENCE, Mary, (afterwards Kearsb,) was
a flower painter, who exhibited at the Royal
Academy under her maiden name from 1794 to
1813, and under her married name of Kearse
from 1814 to 1830. She drew and engraved the
illustrations for her ' Various Kinds of Roses in
England,' published in 1797.

LAWRENCE, Samuel, a portrait painter, was
born in 1811. His first appearance in London was
at the Exhibition of the Society of British Artists
in 1834, when he contributed two portraits. In
1836 he sent to the Royal Academy portraits of
Matthew Gisborne, Mrs. Somerville, and another.
He died in 1884. His portraits are mostly in
crayons, and among them may be named :

Eight Honourable J. Erskine.
Charles Dickens (' Boz '). 1838.
Thomas Carlyle. 1841.
Sir Frederick Pollock.
John HuUah.
Professor Sedgwick.
Lord Ashburton.
Eev. Frederick Denison Maurice,
Sir Henry Taylor.
Dr. "Whewell.
Leigh Hunt.
George Grote.

James Spedding. , „ , . ^ 77

Charles Babbage. (^National Portrait Gallery.)
Captain Bourchier. (The same.)
Professor "Wheatstone. (The same.)
"William Makepeace Thackeray. (JThe same.)
Robert Browning.

LAWRENCE, Sir Thomas, was bom at Bristol,
on the 4th of May, 1769. Soon after his birth, his
father, who had been a solicitor, and afterwards a
supervisor of excise, took the White Hart Inn at
Bristol, but not prospering there he went to
Devizes, where at ' The Black Bear ' young Tommy
used to recite before the customers, and draw their
portraits. From Devizes they went to Oxford,
and from Oxford to Bath, at each of which places
young Lawrence was fully occupied in draw-
ing in chalks pastel portraits. In 1787 he first
visited London, where he received much valuable
advice from Sir Joshua Reynolds, who was then
near the end of his career. In his first years in
London he attempted classical art, but this proving
a failure, he devoted himself to portrait painting,
induced thereto by his portrait of Miss Farren,
afterwards Countess of Derby, painted in or about
1790. After this he soon began to make his way.
The King had already patronized him, and indeed
went so far as to insist upon Lawrence being made
an extra Associate of the Royal Academy, when
he was only twenty-one. In 1792, on the death
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was appointed to the
office of painter in ordinary to His Majesty, as also
to that of painter to the Dilettanti Society. In the
same year he was commissioned to paint the por-
traits of the King and Queen as a present for the
Emperor of China. In 1792 also he exhibited ten
portraits, one of which was that of the King.
In 1794 he was made an Academician, his pre-
sentation picture being ' A Gipsy Girl.' In this
year also Lawrence removed from Old Bond Street
to Piccadilly, from whence in 1797 he removed to
Greek Street, Soho. From 1798 to 1813 he exhibited
ninety portraits at the Royal Academy. In 1813
he removed to 65, Russell Square, where he spent
the remaining years of his life, and amassed
a matchless collection of drawings by the old
masters, of which those by Raphael and Michel-
angelo are nowinthe University Galleries at Oxford.
In 1814 Lawrence paid his first visit to the
Continent, but he was recalled from Paris by
comm and of the Prince Regent to paint the portraits
of the allied Sovereigns, their statesmen and
generals, which formed the commencement of the
Waterloo Gallery at Windsor Castle. In the
following year he was knighted by the Prince
Regent. During the Congress that met at Aix-la-
Chapelle in 1816, Lawrence was commissioned by
the Prince Regent to paint its chief members for
the Gallery. From Aix-la-Chapelle he went to
Vienna, and from "Vienna to Rome, where he
painted the portraits of the Pope (Pius VII.),
Cardinal Gonsalvi, and Canova. Leaving Rome
in December 1819, he returned in the following
year to London to find himself the elected President
of the Royal Academy. Between 1825 and the
year of his death, some of the finest of his works
were painted and exhibi|;ed, and none more beauti-
ful than his groups of mothers and children, in
portraying whose beauty and vivacity no Eng-
^ lish portrait painter except Reynolds has been
'happier. In 1829 he received the freedom, of
his native city, Bristol. To the exhibition of
this year— the one destined to be his last— he
contributed eight paintings, and on the morning of



January 7th, 1830, he expired suddenly from ossi-
fication of the heart. He was interred with nauoh
pomp in St. Paul's Cathedral, wtere he rests by the
side of his predecessor. Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Among the honours conferred on him in his life-
time were : — Member of the American Academy of
the Fine Arts, 1818 ; of the Academy of St. Luke,
1816; of the Academy of Vienna, 1820; of the
Academies of Florence, Venice, and Copenhagen,
1823 ; and of that of Bologna, 1824. The King
of France in 1825 sent him the Cross of the Legion
of Honour, and a set of Sevres china. The
following are some of his principal pictures :

Bristol. Corporation. .William, third Duke of Port-

Dulwich. CoUec/e. William Linley.

Hampton Court. JPalace. Baron Geatz.
London. St. Sartholomcw's I t i „ ai, ™ n.
Hospital. I ^"^""^^^"^^^^y-
„ Duke of Wellington \ q -pr

{Apsley House). J ^^°''S^ ^ ^ •
„ „ „ Marchioness of Worcester.

„ „ „ Thomas Graham, Lord Lyne-

„ „ „ Arthur, Duke of Wellington.

„ „ „ Duchess of WelMugton.

„ „ „ Henry William, Marquis of

„ „ „ Marchioness Wellesley.

„ „ „ Henry, third Earl Bathurst.

„ Sir R. Feel. Lady Peel.

" ''''ltS!''-^lM''t'l^-BaiUie,M.D.

„ Dilettanti Society. Richard Payne Knight.

„ „ Sir H. Englefield.

„ „ Thomas, first Lord Dundas.

„ Soyal Academy. A Gipsy Girl.

„ „ His own Portrait.

„ Em/al Society. Sir Humphrey Davy.

„ United Service Club. Lord Saltoun.

" "'"^^^-r"-^} Sir Astley Cooper.

„ Nat. Portrait Gall. George IV.

„ „ Queen Caroline.

„ „ Thomas Campbell.

„ „ Elizabeth Carter.

„ „ Earl of Bldon.

„ „ Warren Hastings.

„ „ His own Porbrait.

„ „ Sir James Mackintosh.

„ „ Samuel Rogers.

„ „ William Wilberforce.

„ „ Et. Hon. W. Windham.

„ Rolls Court. Sir William Grant.

„ „ John Kemble, as Hamlet.

„ „ Mrs. Siddons.

„ • ,, John Fawcett, comedian.

„ National Gallery. John Julius Angerstein.

„ „ Mrs. Robertson.

„ Benjamin West, P.R A.

„ „ Countess of Darnley. (Lent

to the Walker Art Gallery,
Liverpool. )

„ „ Mrs. Siddons.

„ A Child with a Kid. (Lady
Georgiana Fane.)

„ British Museum. Sir Joseph Banks.
„ South ICennngton | q^^^^ Caroline.

Museum, j ^

„ „ SirCodringtonE.Cairington.

,, „ Lady Carrington.

Liverpool. Corporation, Rt. Hon. G. Canning;

Oxford. Christ Church. Wm., first Lord Auckland.

„ University College. Et. Hon. W. Windham.

Paris. Louvre. Lord Whitworth.

Windsor. Castle. Getrge IV.

„ „ Prince Metternich.

„ „ General TchernichefE,

„ „ General Overoff.

„ Earl Bathurst.


Windsor. Castte. Prince Blucher.

" „ Cardinal Gonsalvi.

,) Duke of Wellington.

.. „ Pope Pius VII.

" „ The Hetmaun Platoff.

j» „ Earl of Liverpool.

j> I, Baron Hardenburg.

" „ Count Capo d'lstria.

>' „ Count Nesselrode.

i> „ Marquis of Londonderry.

!, Frederick William III., King
of Prussia.

>• !> Francis II., Emperor of


" ,! Charles X., King of France.

!> . „ Archduke Charles.

», „ Alexander, Emperor of


» „ Donna Maria da Gloria,

Queen of Portugal.

» ,1 Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R. A.

» ,. Prince George of Cumber-

land, afterwards King of

.. „ Sir Jeffry Wyattville, R.A.

>> „ Duke of Cambridge.

>^ „ Duke of York.

» ,) Prince Schwarzeuberg.

» „ Et. Hon, George Canning.

>i „ Princess Amelia.

!; „ Sir Walter Scott.

i> „ George III.

I, „ William IV.

t» I, Princess Charlotte.

,) „ Earl of Eldou.

LAWRIE, Robert. See Laukib.

LAWSON, Cecil Goedon, was born at Welling-
ton in Shropshire in 1851. His father, William
Lawson, is a portrait painter, from whom he learnt
the elements of painting. He was always inclined
to art, and from fourteen years of age till he was
seventeen he employed himself in making careful
studies of fruit and flowers, bits of landscape, and
special clouds, or blossoms, or grasses. In 1866
he took his first sketching tour through Kent,
Sussex, and Surrey. His first appearance in public
was at the New British Institution in Bond Street,
where he exhibited a grey landscape called ' Ice
on the River.' In 1870 he took to drawing on
wood for the engravers, and made his first appear-
ance at the Academy with ' Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.'
In the Royal Academy of 1871 he exhibited ' The
River in Rain ' and ' Summer Evening in Cheyne
Walk.' In 1873 he made ii tour in Ireland, and
in 1874 he went to Holland, Belgium, and Paris.
In the same year he settled down at Wrothara,
and there commenced his picture of the ' Hop
Gardens of England,' which was in the Academy
of 1876. In 1878 'The Minister's Garden,' in the
Grosvenor Gallery, excited much attention. In
1879 he married, and went to live at Haslemere,
where in 1880 he painted 'The August Moon,'
which was presented by his widow to the National
Gallery. His health, however, began to fail, and
though he was in the Riviera in the winter of 1881,
he returned too soon, and died at Chelsea in 1882.
Besides those already mentioned he painted the
following pictures:

A Lament. 1872.

A Pastoral in the Vale of Miefod, North Wales. 1873.

The Voice of the Cuckoo. 1880.

Wharfedale, Yorkshire. 1881.

The Storm-Cloud, West Lynn, North Devon. 1882.

The Wet Moon, Old Battersea. 1882.

An Autumn Sunrise.


Strayed ; a Pastoral.

On the Road to Monaco.




Le Bag

LAZINSKY, GuSTAV, an historical painter, was
born at Coblenoe in 1811. He was a brother of
Johann Adolf Lazinsky, and with him went to
Diisseldorf in 1829. He died at Mayence in 1870.
Among his pictures are :

Death of Tell.

The Cross-Bearer.

Departure of Gustavus Adolphus.

Death of Prince Ludwig.

LAZZARI, DoNATO, commonly known as Bea-
■ MAN'J'E, the ai'chitect of the basilica of St. Peter
at Rome, and whose name has now been proved to
have been Donato Bramantb, was born at Castle
Durante, now Urbania, near Urbino, in 1444. Of his
early life little is known ; but he i.s recorded to have
been from about 1472 to 1499 in Milan, where he
executed numerous architectural works of note.
Of his paintings, some damaged frescoes in the
Casa Prinetti (formerly Pauigarola), Milan, are
all that remain ; though he is recorded to have
decorated the facades of houses in that city, where
for a long time the ' Four Evangelists ' were pre-
served in a church as specimens of his bold fore-
shortening. Bramante was also an engraver ; there
exist three impressions of a plate by him, represent-
ing persons standing and kneeling around an altar
in a chapel ; it has been engraved in outline in
Roeini's ' Storia della Pittura Italiana.' One of
these is in the British Museum. Bramante died at
Rome in 1514, and was buried in the crypt of St.

LAZZARINI, Giovanni Andeea, a painter, poet,
and art- writer, was born at Pesaro in 1710. He
was instructed in painting by Francesco Mancino,
and studied at Rome under Fantuzzi from 17.^4 to
1749, and subsequently at Venice and Forli after
Gignani. He distinguished himself as a fresco-
painter : his design is correct and his compositions
are excellent. He was, however, a better teacher
than artist. His chief works are to be met with
at Gualdo, near Riiuini, at Osimo, Foligno, Ancona,
and Pesaro. He died at Pesaro in 1801.

LAZZARINI, Greqobio, was born at Villanuova
in 1657. He was a pupil of Francesco Rosa, a
Genoese painter, who resided some time at Venice,
but he soon abandoned the dark and gloomy style of
his instructor, and aimed at the higher excellences
of the simple and natural. On viewing the works
of Lazzarini, one would suppose him to have been
educated in the Bolognese, or rather in the Roman
school. Lanzi, however, asserts that he never
quitted Venice, and that by the impulse of his
genius alone he conciliated the esteem of the most
distinguished professors of his time, particularly
Carlo Maratti, who was not much accustomed to
over-rate the talents of his contemporaries. When
the Venetian ambassador, then resident at Rome,
proposed a commission to the Roman artists to
paint a picture for the Sal a dello Sorutinio, at
Venice, Carlo Maratti had the generosity to refuse
the offer, expressing his surprise that the ambas-
sador should apply to the painters of Rome while
Venice possessed such an artist as Lazzarini. Of the
justice of Maratti's appreciation of his talents, Laz-
zarini has given proof in the picture he painted on
that occasion, representing the triumphal memorial
of the Morosini. He distinguished himself still more
in his picture of ' St. Lorenzo Giustiniani,' at the
Patriarcale, which is esteemed by Lanzi the finest
oil painting of the Venetian school of the period in
which he lived, whether in regard to the grandeur
of the composition, the elegance of the contours,


or the variety in the heads and attitudes. In the
Academy at Venice there are four paintings by
him. Tiepolo was one of his pupils. Lazzarini
died at Venice in 1735.

LEADER, William, was a mezzotint engraver,
by whom there are a few prints after the old
masters ; among others, a small upright plate,
representing 'Samson,' after Rembrandt. He
was working in London about the middle of the
18th century.

LEAHY, Edward Daniel, a portrait and subject
painter, was bom in London in 1797. He exhibited
at the Royal Academy portraits and subject pic-
tures from 1820 to 1853. He died at Brighton in
1875. In the National Portrait Gallery is a
portrait by him of Father Mathew, the Apostle of
Temperance in Ireland.

LEAKE, Henry, an English portrait painter,
flourished in the latter half of the 18th century.
He studied under William Hoare, and practised in
London about 1764-6. He then went to the Bast
Indies, where he died.

LEAKEY, James, a portrait and landscape
painter, was born at Exeter in 1773. He was about
to enter the studio of Sir Joshua Reynolds, but was
unfortunately prevented by that artist's death. He
painted also a good many miniatures, and was
much patronized in the West of England. From
time to time he exhibited pictures at the Royal
Academy, amongst others ' The Fortune Teller,'
and ' The Marvellous Tale.' His style was much
after the manner of the Dutch School, and he
was called on one occasion by Sir Thomas Lawrence
the ' English Wouverman.' He died at Exeter in
1865, after having for many years been obliged to
give up the practice of his art.
LEAL, Juan de Valdes. See Valdes Leal.
LEAL, Simon de Legit. See Leon Leal.
LEANDER. See Redbe.
LEBARBIER, Jean Jacques FaANgois, called
Lebarbier l'aIn:!^, a French historical painter, was
born at Rouen in 1738. After gaining prizes in
his native city, he studied painting under Pierre,
first painter to the king. He next made drawings
in Switzerland for Zurlauben's 'Tableau topo-
graphique de la Suisse,' and afterwards went to
Rome. On his return he was elected an acade-
mician in 1785, on which occasion he painted
' Jupiter asleep on Mount Ida,' now in the
magazines of the Louvre. His works prepared
the way for the revolution begun by Vien and
carried out by David. He made designs for the
illustration of editions of Ovid, Racine, Rousseau,
and Delille, and also published some works on art.
The Louvre contains his ' Courage of the Spartan
Women,' dated 1787. He died in Paris in 1826.

LE BAS, Jacques Philippe, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1707. He was instructed in
the art of engraving by H4risset and N. Tardieu,
and was one of the best artists of his time. He
excelled in landscapes and small figures, which
he touched with infinite spirit and neatness. _ He
availed himself much of the freedom and facility
of etching, which he harmonized in an admirable
manner with the graver and dry point. The popu-
larity of his works procured him a number of
scholars, whose talents were employed in advanc-
ing the plates which he afterwards finished and
published with his name. He became an acade-

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