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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Cambridge. These pictures showed wonderful
precocity ; but in 1800 he astonished the public by
the exhibition of ' The Storming of Seringapatam,'
a picture 120 feet in length, representing with
much animation the details of an exploit never
surpassed in its way. It is said that he was only
ten weeks employed on the work. Unfortunately
this picture was destroyed by fire, but the sketches
exist, and the engravings by Vendramini preserve
some_ evidence of its merits. He painted several
other fights, among which are the ' Battle of Agin-
oourt,' for the city of London ; the ' Battle of
Alexandria,' and the ' Death of Sir Ralph Aber-
crombie.' In 1804 he went to Russia, and was
appointed historical painter to the emperor. He
then travelled in Finland and Sweden, where the
king knighted him. In 1808 he accompanied Sir
John Moore to the Peninsula, and attended that hero
to his end at the Battle of Corunna. After this he
paid a second visit to Russia, where he married the
Princess Mary, the daughter of Prince Theodore de
Schertkoff. After his return to England he pub-
lished, in 1813, an 'Account of the Russian Cam-
paign,' and was re-knighled, by the Prince Regent,
in the same year. In the course of 1817-20 he
travelled in the East, where he made numerous
sketches, which are now in the British Museum.
He afterwards published an account of his travels
in Georgia, Persia, America, Ancient Babylon, and
other places, with numerous engravings of por-
traits, costumes, and antiquities. In this work are
excellent designs, in outline, from the fine charac-
teristic sculptures of Nakshi Roustan, Nakshi
Rajab, Shiraz, and Persepolis. The book is ex-
tremely valuable, as in many cases it corrects the
statements of preceding travellers. Being in 1826
appointed British consul at Venezuela, he resided
at Caracas until 1841, and continued to employ his
pencil. He painted while there three pictures of
sacred subjects : ' Christ instituting the Eucharist,'
' Christ blessing a little Child,' and an ' Ecce Homo.'
He also painted the portrait of Bolivar. In 1841
he paid his last visit to St. Petersburg, where
the cold proved too intense for his constitution,
after being inured to the warmth of Venezuela.
He was preparing for his return to England when
he was struck by a fit of apoplexy, and expired on
the 2nd of May, 1842.





PORTIO, Aniello, was an engraver, who worked
at Naples from 1690 to 1700. His name is affixed
to a few portraits and other plates for books.

PORTO, Giovanni Battista del. See Del


PORTUGAL, — , according to Strutt, was the
engraver of a small upright plate, representing a
female figure weeping, and pouring water from
a cup.

PORZEL, Elias, (or Poecelios,) a German en-
graver on wood, was born at Isny, in Swabia, in
1C62. He was a pupil of Jakob Enderlein, and
about 1682 was working in Switzerland, after
which he travelled in Italy, and finally settled at
Nuremberg, where he died in 1722. He executed
several plates for Enderlein's ' Picture Bible,' after
designs by Sandrart.

POSADAS, Miguel, a Spanish painter, was born
in Aragon in 1711. He was a Dominican monk
living at Valencia, and painted historical pictures.
He died in 1753'.

POSCH, Laubenz, a Swedish portrait painter,
was born in 1733, and died in 1786. At Stockholm
there is a portrait by him of Gustavus IV. as a
child, in uniform.

POSE, Eduaed Wilhelm, was born at Diisseldorf
in 1812. He entered the Academy at Diisseldorf,
where after studying for some time he went with
And. Achenbach to Munich, and in 1836 to Frank-
fort, whence he visited Italy. He painted land-
scapes and figure pictures of a serious cast. His
care for details was great. He died in 1878.
Among his works wo may name :

Castle Eltz. {Stadel M. FranlcfoH.)

Castle iu Tyrol. (Kintj of the Belgians.)

The Konigssee. (Ch-ancl Duke of Hesse.)

The Falls at Tivoli. (H. Hauck, Frankfort.)

The Theatre at Taorraina. {FraLfue Gallert/.)

The Temples of Psestum. {Heydt collection, Elberfeld.)

The Homburg Forest.

POSSENTI, Benedetto, was, according to Mal-
vasia, a native of Bologna, and was brought up in
the school of the Carracci. He excelled in painting
landscapes, seaports, embarkations, fairs, festivals,
and battle-pieces.

POSSENTI, Giovanni Pieteo, the son and
scholar of Benedetto Possenti, was born at Bologna
in 1618. He painted battles and attacks of cavalry,
in which he not only sui-passed his father, but was
regarded as one of the ablest painters of Iris time
in that genre. His talents were not confined to
such subjects, and he acquired some reputation by
altar-pieces for the churches at Bologna and Padua.
One of his best productions is a picture in the
church of San Lorenzo, in the latter citj', repre-
senting the martyrdom of that saint. Possenti died
in 1669.

POST, Frans, (or Poost,) was bom at Haarlem
about the year 1612. He was the son of Jan
Post, a glass-stainer of some celebrity, who died
while he was still young. It is not known how
Frans was taught, but before he was twenty years of
age he discovered suffiiient ability to recommend
him to the protection of Count Maurice of Nassau-
Siegen, who took him into his service, and he
accompanied that prince in the voyage he under-
took to the West Indies and South America.
During a residence of two years, he made
numerous drawings of the most interesting views
in these countries, from which, on his return to
Plolland, he painted several large pictures for the
palace of Byksdorp, near Wassenaer. He died at

Haarlem, and was buried there on the 16th February
1680. Among his works we may name :

Portrait of Count Maurice of KTassan-Siegen. (Amster-
dam Museum.)
View in Brazil. {The same.)
View of a Native Village in Brazil. (Uampton Court.)

There are also several etchings by him, among
which are the following :

A set of Views in Brazil ; from designs made Im himself
A View of the Gulf of AU Saints ; Fr. Poost fee. 1645'.
A View of Cape St. Augustine ; the same inscription.
A View of the Isle of Thamaraca ; the same,

POST, Kael Bobeomads, an engraver, was born
at Prague in 1834. He studied at the Academy at
Prague in 1852 under Haushofer, and at Vienna in
1853 under Stober. He engraved after Marko,
Achenbach, and Pausinger landscapes and animal
pieces. He was custodian of the Emperor's private
library at Vienna, where he died iu 1877.

POSTL, Kael, a painter and etcher, who was
a teacher of landscape painting at the Prague
Academy, and painted panoramas, &c., was burn
in 1768, and died after 1815.

POT, Hendeik Geeeitsz, was born at Haarlem
in 1600. It is not known under whom he studied,
but it is supposed that he received some instruction
from Frans Hals. He died in 1656. Houbraken
praises a picture by this master, representing
' Judith with the Head of Holofernes ; ' and men-
tions in very favourable terms a large picture of a
' Triumphal Car of one of the Princes of Orange,'
which is now in the gallery at Haarlem as the
' Apotheosis of William the Silent.' The frame is
the work of a well-known sculptor, Dom. Janss.
Pot was also a distinguished portrait painter, of
which he has given proof in a large picture in the
Hall of the Archers, at Haarlem, in which he has
represented the principal ofiScers of that society.
At Hampton Court there is a curious picture by
him called 'A Startling Introduction.' It seems
to represent Charles I. making his court to a lady
into whose room he has made his way by the
chimney. Various explanations have been offered
of it, but none quite satisfactory. In the Louvre
there is a portrait of Charles I. by Pot. It is
signed and dated UP. FESIT., 1632, but was
nevertheless ascribed formerly to a mythical N.

POTENZANO, Feancesco, painter, poet, and
improvisatore, called ' The Great,' was a native of
Palermo. He travelled to Rome, Naples, Malta, and
through a large part of Spain. He died in 1599.

POTERLBT, a French painter, born at Epernay
in 1802. He was a pupil of Hersent and a student
of the Flemish School. He painted historical and
still-life subjects, but devoted most of his time to
making sketches from the most remarkable pictures
in European collections. He died in Paris in 1835.
The Louvre possesses a ' Dispute of Trissotin and
Vadius,' from the 'Femmes Savantes,' by him.

POTPIEUCK, Jan, was a member of a Protestant
family, which left Verviers and settled at Leyden
at the beginning of the 17th century. Born in
1626, he was admitted in 1652 into the Guild of
St. Luke at Leyden, of which he became the head.
He died in 1 669. His portraits of the ' Four Regents
of the Pesthuis,' in the Leyden Museum, is perhaps
his best work. (^S'ee Obreen's 'ArchiefvoorNeder-
landsche Kunstgeschiedenis.' )

POTHOVEN, Hendeik, was born at Amsterdam
in 1725, and was a scholar of Philip van Dyk.




He painted portraits and cabinet pictures in the
raanner of his master. He imitated satin, velvet,
lace, and carpets very successfully, and the other
accessories which he introduced in his small family
pictures. It is said that as late as 1791 he painted
the portrait of Professor David Ruhnkenius. He
also engraved, in mezzotint, an ' Old Man reading
a Book by the light of a Candle ; ' and, if Balkema
is correct, many other plates. He died about 1795.

POTLEPEL. See Jordaens, Jan.

POTMA, Jacob, was born at Workum, in Fries-
land, about the year 1610, and was a scholar of
Wybrandt de Gheest. He painted history and por-
traits, but was most successful in the latter. The
greater part of his life was passed at the dififerent
courts in Germany, where he was much employed
as a portrait painter. He died at Vienna in 1684.

POTRELLB, Jean Louis, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1788, and was a scholar of
David, Tardieu, and Desnoyers. He gave early
proof of his talents, and in 1806 obtained the
second grand prize for engraving. He exhibited
for the last time at the Salon of 1824, and died
probably about that date. He has produced
several plates of subjects by the Italian masters,
and also of portraits of distinguished persons.
Among them are :

Portrait of Giulio Bomano ; after himself.

Portrait of Michelangelo,

Louis XVIII. ; after Gerard.

Cupids ; after the same.

Portraits of Raphael and N. Poussin.

Portrait of David; after Aavet.

Prince Schwartzenberg ; after Gerard,

Cupid and Pysohe ; after David.

Portrait of Dr. Dubois.

The Coarse of Love, in six plates ; afier Gerard.

POTT, JOHN, is said to have been a mezzotint
engraver, who practised in London towards the end
of the 18th century. There is a good plate of
Lady Charles Spencer after Sir Joshua Reynolds,
which bears his name, but as it is very similar
to that by Finlayson, Mr. Chaloner Smith sug-
gests that it may be a retouched plate,' and that
the engraver's name may be fictitious. This sus-
picion is strengthened by the fact that the name
of Pond has been found substituted for that of
Benjamin Green upon later impressions of that
engraver's plate of Miss Baldwin after Kettle.

POTTER, Paulus, was born at Bnkhuizen on
Nov. 20, 1625. In 1631 Pieter Potter, his father,
left Enkhuizen and settled at Amsterdam, where
he bought the right of citizenship. He seems to
have instructed his son, though the latter is
supposed to have also studied at Haarlem under
Jacob de Wet the elder. To 1643 belongs his first
signed picture, called ' The Herdsman.' It was to
a constant study of nature that Potter chiefly owed
his success, and he devoted himself especially to
the study of animals. In 1646 Paul Potter went
to Delft, where he was received as a member of
the Corporation of S. Luke. There he seems to
have studied to the utmost of his power, and in
1647 he produced ' The Young Bull.' In 1649 he
removed to the Hague, as appears from the registers
of that town. There his pictures were so much
sought after, that he could with difiiculty keep
pace with the demand. In 1650 he married
Adriana Balcheneynde, the daughter of an archi-
tect in the Hague. To this period belong
' Orpheus,' and the ' Shepherds and their Flocks.'
In 1652, having cause, it is said, to mistrust the
fidelity of his wife, he suddenly left the Hague and

returned to Amsterdam. Th!s and the following
year saw the production of many famous works,
but his unremitting attention to his art exhausted
a constitution naturally weak, and he died in 1654,
in the twenty-ninth year of his age. As an artist
Paul Potter by no means deserves the universal
fame he has won. But as a sincere and patient
student of nature few men can be placed before
him. The best collection of his works is that in
the Hermitage, at St. Petersburg. But his art at
its best is to be seen in a picture in the Peel Col-
lection, in the National Gallery. He seldom painted
on a large scale, but his Bull, more famous than fine,
is almost life-size, and in the Six Collection there is
an equestrian portrait of Tulp on the same scale.
Among his principal pictures are the following ;

The Shepherd's Hut.

The Bear Hunt.

Eight Shepherds and their

Orpheus and his Lute. 1650.
The Straw-cutters.

t Horses in a Field.

Cows in a Field.
Equestrian portrait of Tulp.
Dairy Maid washing her Milk

The Wood and Hunters at the

Hague. 1652.

i Landscape and Cows. 1644.

Landscape and Cattle. 1648.

Figures and Cattle.


Forest and Hunters. 1652. (An
inferior repetition of the pic-
ture at Berlin.)

Cattle at Pasture. 1652.

Cattle, Sheep, and a Horse.

Sheep in a Field.

The Young Bull. 1647.

Meadows and Cattle (oxen and
swine). 1652.

A Small Example.

A Country Scene, representing
two Cows and a young Bull
in a Pasture.

The Halt.

Cows in a Field.

Landscape with Cattle. 1651.

The old Urey Hunter.

> Cows and Sheep.

Amsterdam. Museum.





Van der Hoop


Six. Coll,




Boyal Museum.





Copenhagen. Gallery.
Dresden, Gallery.

Gotha. Gallery.

Hague. Royal Museum.

„ Steengracht Coll.
London. JBuckingham

„ Nat. Gallery.

'» " .

„ Wtstmmster,

Duke of.

Munich. Pinakothek.

Paris. Louvre.

Eome. Sorghese Palace.
Petersburg. Hermitage.



Landscape with Cattle.
Animals in a Landscape (three

oxen and three sheep). 1652.
The Field.
A Grey Horse.
Cattle under Trees.
Landscape and Cattle.
Dog and Kennel. 1650.
Landscape. 1650.
Cows. 1651.
The Life of a Huntsman {in

fourteen compartments).
Huntsmen Halting. 1650.
The Cow. 1649. With cows,

horses, a<ises, sheep, hens, a

cat and a dog, and human

A Bull in a Meadow.
The Stable Boy.
Cattle in a Landscape.
Landscape and Cattle. 1647.
Field and Cattle.

The works of this artist have been engraved by
Bartolozzi, Le Bas, Danckerts, Vissoher, Huygens,
Couchd, Zeeland, and others. We have some





charming etchings by Potter, drawn with great
spirit and correctness, and executed in a very
masterly style ; they are as follows :

A set of eight plates of Cows, Oxen, and other animals,
with a Bull on the title ; Paulus Potter, f.

A set of five plates of Horses ; the same inscription,

A Mountainous Landscape, with cattle and a herdsman ;
Paulus Potter, in et f. 1649.

A Landscape, with a shepherd playing on a pipe, and a
flock of sheep and goats.


' Paulus Potter, Sa Vie et ses CEuvres,' par I. van West-

rheene. La Haye. 1867.
' Journal des Beaux Arts.' 1S70.
' Kunstkronik,' II. xiv.
'Eau-fortes de Paul Potter,' Texte par Georges Gratat

Duplessis. Paris.

POTTER, PiBTBB, was born at Enkhuizen in
1587, and died about 1655, at Amsterdam. He
painted landscapes, soldiers, animals, and still-life,
and at first betrayed the influence of F. Hals, after-
wards of Rembrandt. Little is known of this artist.
He painted a series of landscapes, with figures,
which, if we may judge from the prints engraved
from them by Peter Nolpe, .must have possessed
considerable merit. They represent the ' Four
Seasons ' and the ' Four Elements,' the ' Prophet
Blias speaking to the Woman of Sarepta,' and ' St.
Paul the Hermit nourished in the Desert by an
Eagle.' Among his better pictures we may also

Amsterdam. Museum. Strawcufcters.
Berlin. Museum. Still Lite. (P. Potter, 1636.)

Copenhagen. Gallery. Players at Tric-trac (P.

POITEK, 1629.)
London. Ufat. Gallery. Stag Hunt. (P. Pottbk, 165-.)

POTTEY, Jan, a Dutch portrait and historical
painter, born at Haarlem in 1615. In 1641 he
came to England, but seems to have returned to
Haarlem in the following year. He was also an
engraver, and one plate by him is known.

POTTGIESSER, Johann Wilhelm, probably a
son and pupil of Dietrich Pottgiessee, was
working at Cologne in the second half of the
17th century, being in 1656 upon the Guild, and
in 1683 a town councillor. There remain by him :

A young "Woman handing an Orange to her Child.
(j. J. Merlo's, Cologne.)

Alexander's Visit to Diogenes. {Leuchtenlerg Gallery.)

Hagar ; after Post. ( Wallraf Museum.)

The Finding of the Cross. {Fonnerly in the Dominican
Church, Cologne.)

POTUIL, Henbi, was a painter who, it is said,
imitated Gerard Dou with much skill. Only one
picture, however, is recorded as by him, and that in
the catalogue of Hoet and Terwesten, who say it
represents an animated ' Conversation of Peasants.'

POUGENS, Maeie Charles Joseph db, a French
jiainter, was born in Paris in 1755. He was chiefly
devoted to literature and philology, and was a
member of the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles
Lettres. In 1784 he published Recreation de
Philosophie et de Morale, and, in 1821-5, ArcM-
ologie Frangaise. He died in 1 833.

POULLEAU, — , a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1749. He engraved several plates of
ruins and architecture, among which are the
following :

Euins of a Temple ; after De Machy.

A View of the Interior of the Church of the Magdalene,
at Ville I'EvSque ; after Contau d'lvry.

POUNCY, B. T., an English engraver, flourished
in the latter part of the 18th century. He was the

brother-in-law of Woollett, by whom he was taught.
Antiquarian work first engaged his attention, but
he subsequently devoted himself to landscape, in
which he produced some excellent plates. He
exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1782 to
1789, and died in Lambeth in 1799.

POURBUS, Frans, the elder, (or Poerbusse,)
the son of Pieter Pourbus, was born at Bruges
in 1545, and was first instructed by his father,
but he afterwards had the advantage of study-
ing under Frans Floris. He painted history,
landscapes, and animals, and was one of the most
distinguished portrait painters of his time. There
are several of his works in the churches at Antwerp,
where he chiefly resided, and where he was received
into the Academy in 1564. In the cathedral is an
altar-piece representing the ' Circumcision,' witli
two shutters, on which he painted the portraits of
the donors of the picture. One of his most esteemed
works is the ' Adoration of the Magi,' in the churcli
of the convent at Oudenarde. He died at Antwerp
in 1581. His widow married the painter Hans
Jordaens. There are portraits by him in various
private collections in . England ; particularly at
Castle Howard and at Luton. Other works by
him are as under;

St. Aloysius preaching.

General in Armour.

Three Portraits.

Male Portrait. 1575.

St. Matthew inspired by the
Angel. 1573.

Male portrait.

Christ on the Cross.

The Last St'ipper

Isaiah and Ezekiel.

Twenty small pictures from the
Lives of Christ and the Virgin.


Four Portraits.

POURBUS, Frans, the younger, was bom at
Antwerp in 1569, and was the son of Frans
Pourbus the elder. As to who his instructor was
is unknown, but in 1591 he became a master in the
Guild of St. Luke. In 1600 he was employed by
the Archduke Albert at Brussels, where he resided
for some time before undertaking a journey into
Italy. From Italy he went to Paris, where he
resided for the remainder of his life. In 1611 he
was appointed painter to Marie de' Medici. He
was also painter to the Duke of Mantua, and ac-
companied Eleanor of Mantua, sister of Marie de'
Medici, in her progress through France. In 1609
he left the court of Mantua, and died in Paris in


Antwerp. Academy.

Augsburg. Gallery.

Berlin. Museum.

Brunswick. Gallery.

Brussels. Museum.


Petersburg. Hermitage.
Vienna. Belvedere.



A Man's Portrait.

London. Hamp. Court.

Marie de' Medici.



Henry IV. (signed and dated F.
P. Faciebat, 1610, the year of
Henry's death).



Portrait of Marie de' Medici.

Portrait of Anne of Austria.

Another Female Portrait.



Two Portraits.



The Last Supper.



St. Francis receiving the Stig-



Two Portraits of Henry IV.


Portrait of Marie de' Medici.


Portrait of Gillaume de Vajr.

The Hague.


Moses presenting the Tables of
the Law to the Israelites (many
of the figures ace portraits of
the van Panhuys and van Bick-
lenberg families).




The Hagae. Museum. A Ball at the Court of Albert
and Isabella (with many por-

Vienna. Liechtenstein 1 -n 4. -t. c -rrr

Collection. / Portrait of a Woman.

POUKBUS, PiETER, (or Poerbusse,) the younger,
was born at Gouda about 1510. He came early to
Bruges, where he probably studied under Lancelot
Bloudeel, whose daughter he married. Like his
father-in-law, Pourbus gave some attention to en-
graving, architecture, and topography. He was
also a good geometrician. He painted for the
magistrates of Bruges a large chart or picture,
on canvas and in oil, of the whole of the territory
within their jurisdiction, in which he represented
the minutest details. This immense work still
exists in the H6tel de Ville. Pourbus was originally a
mason ; and when he became eminent as a painter
and architect, marked his works with a trowel.
He was President of the Corporation of Painters
at Bruges, where he died in 168-t. By some
writers it is stated that he died at Antwerp. He
painted many altar-pieces in that city for the
churches, particularly the ' Crucifixion,' still pre-
served, in the church of Nfitre Dame. In the great
church at Gouda was a picture by him representing
' St. Hubert.' His portraits are of a rare perfection ;
tho Academy at Bruges possesses two painted in
1661. There are three pictures by him in the
private collection of the King of Holland, and
pictures also exist in the churches of St. Saviour
and St. James at Bruges. To these may be added :
Bruges. Convent of the \ Portrait of Charles V. ; upon
Annunciata. j glass. 1551.

„ „ The Annunciation.

„ „ The Nativity.

„ Toim Hall. The Last Judgment.

Brussels. Gallery. Portrait of J. Van der Gheenste
{dated 1583, the latest year
that appears on any work of
Paris. Louvre. The Eesurrection of Christ.

Botterdam. Museum. Portrait of a Lady.
Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of Don Pedro Guzman.

„ „ Four Male Portraits.

POURBUS, PlETER (or Poeebusse), the elder, is
supposed to have been bom at Gouda in 1463, and
to have been the father of Pieter Pourbus. Nothing
is known of his life.

POUSSIN, Gaspard. See Dhghet.

POUSSIN, Lavall^e. See Db la Vall&e,

POUSSIN, Lemaiee. See Lemaiee, Pierke.

POUSSIN, Nicolas, painter, who has been
called the head of the French school, was born in
June, 1594, at Villers, a hamlet in the district of Les
Andelys, in Normandy. It was at one time sup-
posed that his father, Jean Poussin, was of gentle
birth, and had served in the wars of the League,
but recent researches have thrown much doubt
upon that idea. Although not encouraged by his
parents, the young Nicolas early showed a predi-
lection for art. After some opposition he succeeded
in obtaining their consent to his receiving in-
struction from an artist named Quentin Varin.
This painter, a native of Beauvais, passed some
time, about 1610, at Les Andelys, where he left a
reminiscence of his sojourn in two pictures, still to
be seen at the church of Le Grand Andely. From
him Poussin learnt to paint in distemper, and also
in oils. This instruction only served to whet his

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