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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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appetite for art, and to render him desirous of con-
tinuing his studies in Paris. Accordingly, at the
age of eighteen, he quitted his home secretly, and



managed to reach the capital, unaided by friends,
and with the slenderest resources.

In Paris he continued his training under Ferdi-
nand EUe, a Flemish portrait painter, and afterwards
under L'Alleniand, a Lorrainer. Though doubtless
he received some assistance from these masters, his
progress was due rather to the study of Marc An-
tonio's engravings after Raphael and Giulio Romano.
These belonged to an amateur, to whom he was
introduced by a young Poitevin, of good family,
with whom ho had formed a friendship. His studies
were interrupted for a short time by atrip to Poitou
with his friend ; but his reception by his friend's
mother, who treated him as a domestic, disgusted
him, and he painted his way on foot back to
Paris. Tliere he stayed but a short time, for an
illness, brought on apparently by the fatigues of
his journey, compelled him to seek his home at
Les Andelys, where he remained for about a
3'ear. On his return to Paris, the desire to visit
Rome, which he had always entertained, increased
so much that in 1620 he resolved to make the
attempt. But he only got as far as Florence, when
he was compelled to turn back. Settling again in
Paris, he formed an acquaintance with Philippe de
Cliampaigne, like himself a, pupil of L'Alleniand,
and the two worked for some time under Duchesne
on the decorations of the Luxembourg. But this
employment soon became irksome, and Poussin
again endeavoured to reach Rome. On this occasion
his resources failed him by the time he arrived at
Lyons, and he had to exercise his brush to procure
the means to return to Paris. Here a series of
pictures which he executed for the Jesuits attracted
the notice of the Italian poet, the Cavaliere Marini,
then in Paris. This patron gave him lodgings in
his house, and on Marini's return to Rome Poussin
followed him there in the year 1624, having re-
mained in Paris to complete a picture, ' The Death
of the Virgin,' commissioned by the Goldsmiths for
N6tre Dame.

He now began a course of study of the classic
remains around him, which continued during the
whole of his life, and rendered him the best inter-
preter of antiquity among the painters of his
country. He became intimate with Duquesnoy, tlie
Flemish sculptor, 'il Fiammingo,' and the two
artists worked together with a congenial ardour in
their study of ancient art. The rules of perspective
Poussin studied in the treatises of Matteo Zoccolino
and others. His knowledge of anatomy he improved
under the guidance of Nicholas Larcher, a surgeon
then practising in Rome. Among modern painters
Raphael perhaps exercised the greatest influence
over him, but he also received very substantial
profit from working in the studio of Domeni-
chino. So great was his ardour for work, that his
friends could with diflSculty lure him away from
his studio even on holidays. His sojourn in Rome
opened brightly and with good promise. Besides
the patronage of Marini, he was also introduced to
Cardinal Barberitii, the nephew of the reigning
Pontiff. But the death of the first, and the
departure of the Cardinal from Rome, wrought a
change in his prospects, and he had to fight a
hard struggle for the bare necessities of existence.
The prices he received for his works at this time
scarcely sufficed to procure his daily bread. _ He
has left it on record that he sold two battle-pieces
for fourteen crowns, and a ' Prophet ' for less than
two. And his troubles were not confined to narrow
means. The national jealousy between the Italians

315



Poussin



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 0^



Poussin



and the French was just then at fever-heat, and his
French costume caused him to be attacked by some
wandering swash-bucklers in tlie street. He was
fortunate enough to escape with a wound in the
hand, and thenceforth adopted the Italian dress.
Shortly afterwards he was prostrated by a serious
illness. Thanks to the care of a compatriot, Jacques
Dughet, by whose family he was carefully nursed,
his recovery was complete. The gratitude of the
painter was not evanescent. In 1630 he married
Anna Maria, the eldest daughter of his host.
Having no children, he subsequently adopted his
wife's brothers, Jean and Gaspard, the former of
whom became an engraver, and the latter, under
his fostering care, more than rivalled him in pure
landscape. With his wife's marriage portion
Poussin bought the house on the Pincian which
became his home, and with which his name is
inseparably connected. On the return of Cardinal
Barberini to Rome, the star of the painter began to
be in the ascendant. For this patron he painted
' The Death of Germanicus,' and ' The Taking of
Jerusalem by Titus.' Through him he also obtained
the commission to paint ' The Martyrdom of St.
Erasmus,' for St. Peter's. For the Commander
Cassiano del Pozzo, of Turin, who was among the
first to recognize his genius, and who always con-
tinued one of his chief friends and patrons, he
produced many works, notably the first series of
the ' Seven Sacraments.' To this period of his
career belong several other important works, such
as ' The Sabines,' ' The Philistines struck by the
Plague,' 'The Manna,' ' Moses striking the Rock,' &c.

Poussin's reputation was by this time so well
established in his own country that in 1639 M. de
Noyers, the superintendent of the royal buildings,
made overtures to induce him to come to Paris.
The painter hesitated ; he preferred the serene
artistic atmosphere of Rome to the intrigue and
disquietude of a court. Then Louis XIII. expressed
his royal wishes, and although Poussin yielded, it
was not until 1640 that he arrived in France, in the
train of his friend De Cliantelou, who had taken a
leading part in the negotiations. At first all went
well. He was presented to the great Richelieu
and to the king, and was received with great
favour. His travelling expenses were paid, a pen-
sion was bestowed on him, a residence was assigned
him for life in the garden of the Tuileries, and he
was appointed first painter in ordinary. In spite
of these advantages the reluctance which he had
shown to quit Italy again appears in the fact that
he would not bind himself for a longer period than
five years. His sojourn in France was marked by
great activity. He produced eight cartoons, founded
on sacred subjects, for tapestry, pictures for the
chapels of the' palaces at Fontainebleau and St.
Germain, and an important series of works illus-
trating the ' Labours of Hercules,' for the great
gallery at the Louvre, besides designs for book
illustrations, &c. But the two years passed by the
painter in Paris were a period of much disquiet.
The advent of such a star into the artistic firma-
ment of Paris could not fail to excite much jealousy
amongst those whose light was in danger of eclipse.
Poussin had to suffer many annoyances from their
intrigues. His chief opponents were the hitherto
all-powerful Vouet, Peuquieres, and the architect
Lemercier. Wearied at last of their cabals, he ob-
tained leave, under the pretence of fetching his wife,
to return to Rome. Thither he set out in the autumn
of 1642, and never returned to his native country.

316



The remainder of his life was spent in Italy, in
the tranquil pursuit of his beloved art. His sub-
sequent career contains no events of importance to
record. It might be summed up in a list of the
works which he produced. Of these, the following
are some of the most important. In 1648 he com-
pleted a second series of pictures of the ' Seven
Sacraments,' which had occupied him since 1644,
for his friend De Chantelou. At the repeated
request of his old friend, he painted, in his fifty-
sixth year, his own portrait, now in the Louvre.
Amongst other works executed during what is
called his middle period, when he was in the
maturity of his power, are the well-known ' Shep-
herds of Arcadia,' ' Diogenes,' ' Eliezer and Rebecca,'
'The Judgment of Solomon,' and 'The Vision of
St. Paul.' Of works produced in his third and
latest period, mention should be made of ' The
Woman taken in Adultery,' ' The Adoration of the
Magi,' and the series of pictures of the 'Seasons,'
painted for the Duke of Richelieu in 1660-64. In
the year which saw the completion of this com-
mission he lost his faithful wife, after an illness of
nine months. He touchingly expresses his grief
and bewails his lonely condition in a letter to De
Chantelou, with whom he had maintained an in-
timate correspondence for nearly thirty years. He
did not long survive her loss ; he died in Rome
the 19th November 1665, and was buried in the
church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. His property',
amounting to 10,000 crowns, was left to his poor
relations in Normandy.

The most striking characteristic of Poussin is
his intimate knowledge and appreciation of classic
art. His composition and drawing are but little
obnoxious to criticism, though it must be owned
that there is an occasional stiffness in the latter,
the result of incessant study of statues and friezes.
His colour, especially in his later works, is the
point in which he is most open to reproach. It is
generally heavy in tone, and the flesh tints are
frequently painfully hot. His failure as a colourist
is to be largely ascribed, however, to his practice
of painting upon a red ground. With the passage
of time this ground begins to assert itself through
the pigments laid upon it, and to produce heat and
opacity even in works that, when painted, were
good enough in colour. The etching, ' Children
Playing,' attributed to him, dates, most likely, from
the 18th century. There is a fine collection of
Poussin's drawings in the Royal Collection at
Windsor.

The following is a list of Poussin's pictures in
the public galleries of Europe ; a few of the more
important in private collections are also included.



Barcelona.


Academy.


Narcissus.


Basle.


Galleri/.


Bacchus.


Berlin. JVa


. Gallery.


Axmida and Einaldo.


jj


»>


Education of Jupiter.





fy


Helios and Phaethon.


»


)>


Mythological landscapes.


Bordeaux.


Museum.


Holy Family.


Caen.


))


Death of Adonis.


Cassel.


Gallev}/.


Satyrs and a Bacchante.


Cherbourg.


3fuseum.


Pyramus and Thisbe.


)j


»


Pieta.


)>


n


Landscape.


Copenhagen


'tians'!;^rl'.}^'^'^^'*'^^'^'^^St-hemnd.


ij


»»


The Burning Bush.


Dresden.


Gallejy.


Sacrifice of Noah.


»>


»


Moses exposed.


■>■>





Adoration of the Magi.


»


»)


Martyrdom of St. Erasmus



'Poussin



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Powell



Dresden. Gallery. Beign of Flora.

„ „ Narcissus.

„ ,, Venus and Cupid.

„ „ Fan and Syrinx.

Dublin. Nat. Gallery. The Entombment.

„ „ Phineus and the Gorgon's head.

Florence. Uffizi. Theseus at Troezene.

„ „ Venus and Adonis on Mount Ida.

Gotha. Gallery. Landscape.

Hampton Court. Pal. Nymph and Satyrs.

„ „ The Dead Christ.

Karlsruhe. Gallery. Virgin and Child.

Le Mans. Museum. Cupid awaking a Sleeping Child.

Liverpool. ^^^^^.^f°^^^ | Landscape with Shepherds.

London. Nat. Gallery. The Plague at Ashdod.

„ „ Bacchanalian Festival.

,, „ Cephalus and Aurora.

„ „ Sleeping Venus.

„ „ Bacchanalian Dance. {A master-

piece.)

„ „ Landscape.

„ „ The Nursing of Bacchus.

„ Bridyewater ) The Seven Sacraments. (The set

House. J painted for M. Chantelou.)

„ „ Moses striking the Eock.

„ Dulmch Gallery. Education of Jupiter.

„ „ Triumph of David.

„ „ Adoration of the Magi.

„ „ Inspiration of Anacreon.

„ „ Flight into Egypt.

,j „ Rinaldo and Aimida.

„ „ The Assumption.

{The last jive are not, perhaps, ly
the hand of the master.)

Lyons. Museum. Bacchanalian Scene.

Jila,&ndL.Royal Museum. Bacchanalian Festival.

„ „ Parnassus.

„ „ David, the Conqueror of Goliath.

„ „ Euins, with Hermit.

„ „ Meleager and Atalanta, &c., &c.

Montpellier. ifuseum. Death of St. Cecilia.

„ „ Baptism of Our Lord.

„ „ Birth of Bacchus.

„ „ Bebecca and Eliezer.

„ „ Venus and Adonis.

„ „ Adoration of the Shepherds.

„ „ Judgment of Paris.

„ „ Portrait of Cardinal Bospigliosi

(Clement IX.).

„ „ Landscapes, &c.

Munich, Pinakothek. Midas and Bacchus.

„ „ Adoration of the Shepherds.

„ „ The Sepulchre of Our Lord.

„ „ St. Norbert.

„ „ Portrait of Himself.

Nancy. Museum. Entry of Our Lord into Jeru-

salem.

Narbonne. „ Camillus and the Schoolmaster.

„ „ St. John baptizing in the Jordan.

Oldenburg. Gallery. The Israelites attacked by Fiery
Serpents.

„ „ Moses striking the Eock.

Paris. Louvre. Eliezer and Eebecca. 1648.

„ „ The Finding of Moses.

„ „ The Israelites fed by Manna.

1639.

„ „ The Philistines struck by the

Plague.

„ „ The Judgment of Solomon. 1649.

„ „ The Holy Family. 1651.

„ „ The Blind Men of Jericho. 1651.

„ „ The Assumption. 1650.

„ „ The Ecstasy of St. Paul.

„ „ Bacchanalian Scene.

„ „ Echo and Narcissus.

„ „ The Concert.

„ „ The Shepherds of Arcadia.

„ „ Portrait of Himself. 1650.

„ „ Summer : Euth and Boaz.

,, „ Autumn: The Eetum of the



Winter: The Deluge.



Paris. Lourre.

Petersburg. Hermitage.



Quimper. Museum.
Eennes. „

Eome. ■ Academy of\
St. Luke, i



Diogenes. 1648. &c., &c.
Moses striking the Rock.
Victory of Joshua over the

Amalekites.
Victory of Joshua over the

Amorites.
The Testament of Eudamidas.
Triumph of Galatea.
Esther and Ahasuerus, &c., &c.
Finding of Moses.
Euins of a Triumphal Arch.

Death of Germanicus.



'» JJ


Triumph of Bacchus.


„ Fal. Conservatori.


Triumph of Flora.


" 7»


Orpheus.


„ Vatican.


Martyrdom of St. Erasmus.


Stockholm. Nat. Gall.


Laban searching for his Idols.


Toulouse. Museum.


St. John Baptist in the Desert.


m V »


Holy Family.


Turm. Gallery.


A Hunter.


'» »


St. Margaret.


Vienna. Belvedere.


The Sack of the Temple at Jeru-




salem by Titus.



BIBLIOGEAPHT :

Gault de St. Germain, ' Vie de N. Poussin.' 1806.

Mr.-:. Graham, 'Memoirs of the Life of N. Poussin.'
1820.

H. BoueUtte, ' Le Poussin.' 1865.

E. Gandar, ' Les Andelys et N. Poussin.' 1860. &c., &c.

O.J.D.

POWELL, C. M., an English marine painter,
flourished during the first twenty years of the
present century. His vs^orks are numerous, as he
was principally employed by the dealers, but little
of his history is known, further than that he was
originally a sailor, and self-taught in the art of
painting. Many of his pictures are injured from
being varnished imprudently. Powell was a clever
artist, but a careless man ; hence he was always
in a state of thraldom, and had frequently the
mortification of seeing his pictures sold at once by
his ' patrons ' for five times the sum he had received.
He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1809, and
repeatedly afterwards up to 1820. He died in
1824.

POWELL, George William H., a portrait and
historical painter, was born in the State of Ohio,
U.S., in 1824. He was an associate member of the
National Academy, and worked in New York, where
he died in 1879. Among his works are :

The Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto (Rotunda

of the Capitol, "Washington).
The Battle of Lake Erie. (Painted for the State of Ohio.)
The Landing of the Pilgrims.
Portraits of General McClellan, Major Anderson, and

Washington Irving.

POWELL, JoH^f, sm English portrait painter and
copyist of Reynolds, of whom he was an assistant.
He exhibited at the Academy from 1778 to 1785.
There is a portrait of the Duke of Cumberland by
him in the National Portrait Gallery. It is a copy
from Reynolds.

POWELL, John, an English landscape painter,
chiefly in water-colours, born about 1780. On the
foundation of the old Water-Colour Society, he was
an unsuccessful candidate for membership. He
had a large practice as a drawing-master, and ex-
hibited at the Royal Academy from 1797 to 1829.
There are some landscape and tree etchings by
him, and the South Kensington Museum possesses
four of his water-colour drawings.

POWELL, Joseph John, an English historical
painter, born in 1834 at Douai, where, and at Lille,

317



Powis



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Pradier



he received his first instruction in art. Coming
to England in 1851, he entered the schools of the
Academy and obtained various honours, culmin-
ating in 1855 with the gold medal for his ' Death
of Aloibiades.' He suffered much from poverty
and ill-health, and his career was cut short in the
raidst of much promise. He died at Southampton
in 1856.

POWIS, William Henry, an English wood-
engraver, was born in 1808. He rapidly made him-
self a position-, but his unremitting labour sapped
his health, and he died in 1836. Specimens of his
work are to be found in :

' Illustrations of the Bible.' 1833.

Scott's Bible. 1834.
■ ' Solace of Song.'

POWLE, George, was an English engraver, who
flourished in the middle of the 18th century. He
was a pupil of Worlidge, and has engraved por-
traits, some of which he exhibited in 1776 with the
Pree Society of Artists. Among them, in the style
of his instructor, is that of Sir Robert Berkeley,
Chief Justice of the King's Bench. His only known
mezzotint plate is a portrait of Mrs. Worlidge, after
a painting by her husband. He also designed some
views of the City of Hereford, which have been
engraved by James Ross.

POZO, Pedro, an historical Spanish painter, bom
at Lucena in 1700. He studied under Luis Cancino,
and afterwards went to Rome. He, however,
eventually abandoned painting for literature. His
son Pedro, also an artist, died in America about
1810.

POZZI, Andrea, an historical painter, born at
Rome in 1778. He painted several mythological
subjects, but one of his chief works was a 'Virgin
and Saints,' painted for the City of Camerino. In
1820 he painted for a chapel of S. Maria Rotondo,
in Rome, a 'Martyrdom of St. Stephen.' He was
President of the Academy of St. Luke at Rome
for many years.

POZZI, DoMBNiCO, a painter, was born at Castel
St. Pietro in 1742. After receiving instruction
from his father and Baldrighi he entered the
Academy of Milan. After some time he went to
Rome and then to Germany, where at Mannheim,
in the Library of Count von Castelli, he executed
several paintings. He afterwards worked in Solo-
thurn, Mendrisio, and in the Palace of the Marquis
Odescalohi. He died at Milan in 1796.

POZZI, FaANCESCO, an Italian engraver, born at
Rome in 1750, was the nephew of Rocco Pozzi. In
conjunction with Coppa and Perini, he engraved
some of the plates from the statues in the Clemen-
tine Gallery. He died about 1805. The following
prints also by him:

Portrait of Pope Pius VI.

Aurora; after the ^aintin^ hy Guercino in the Villa
Ztidovid. 1780.

POZZr, Giovanni Battista, was, according to
-Baglione, a native of Milan, where he was born
about 1560, but went to Rome when young, and
was employed by Sixtus V. in the palace of S.
Giovanni Laterano, and in the library of the Vatican.
In the Sistine Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore, he
painted ' The Visitation of the Virgin,' and ' The
Angel appearing to St. Joseph in his Dream.' He
died at the premature age of 28 j-ears.

POZZI, Giovanni Battista, was born at Milan
towards the end of the 17th century. Ho decor-
ated a large number of buildings in the Piedmon-
tese with hasty frescoes. Some of his best work

318



is to be seen in S. Cristoforo, at Vercelli. The
dates of his birth and death are unknown.

POZZI, Cario loNAzro, painter and architect, was
born at Mannheim in 1766. He was a son of Giu-
seppe Pozzi, an ornaraentist, and studied at the
Academy of his native city. He travelled through
the Netherlands, and then visited Italy. At Parma
he copied the worlis of Correggio. He painted
historical scenes, portraits, and landscapes. In
1779 he was engaged in scene painting at Dessau.
He died in 1842.

POZZI, Rocco, was a native of Italy, who flour-
ished about the year 1750. He engraved several
of the plates for the ' Museo Florentine,' and exe-
cuted some of the prints for the ' Antiquities of
Herculanenm,' published at Naples. He was court
engraver to the King of Naples, and died about
1780.

POZZI, Si'EFANO, was a native of Rome, and was
first a scholar of Carlo Maratti, and afterwards
studied under Agostino Masucci. There are several
of his works in the public buildings of Rome:
in the palace of Monte Cavallo a picture of 'St.
Gregorio; ' and in the church of il Nora"! SS. di
Maria, an altar-piece representing the ' Death of
St. Joseph,' may be named. He died at Rome in
1768. His brother Giuseppe, also a painter, died
young, in 1763.

POZZO, Andreas, was bom at Trent in 1642.
Without the assistance of a master he became an
eminent architect and painter. By studying the
works of the Venetian school he became an ex-
cellent colourist, and during a residence of several
years at Rome he improved his style of design.
In 1665 he entered the society of Jesus, and was
afterwards chiefly occupied in ornamenting the
churches of his order. He resided some time at
Genoa, where he painted for the Congregazione de
Meroanti four pictures of the ' Life of our Saviour,'
in the style of Rubens, which he had studied during
a previous residence at Turin. Of his works in oil,
one of the most esteemed is his picture of ' San
Francesco Borgia,' in the Jesuits' church at Rome.
He was more eminent in fresco, in which his
masterpiece, perhaps, is the ceiling of the church
of St. Ignatius at Rome. Such was his facility
that Ciro Ferri was accustomed to say, that
the horses of other painters moved at a foot's
pace, but those of Pozzo were always on the
gallop ; and Lanzi reports, that he painted the
portrait of a cardinal in four hours. He was
invited to Vienna by the Emperor Leopold, where
he exeouted some works for public buildings, and
died in 1709. He also worked at Modena, Monte-
pnlciano, Arezzo, and Bologna. His brother, Padre
GinsEPPB Pozzo, a barefooted and Carmelite monk
of Venice, decorated the high altar of the church
of the Soalzi in that city during the last years of
the 17th century.

POZZO, Isabella dal. See Dal Pozzo.

POZZO, Matteo DEL. See Del Pozzo.

POZZOBONELLI, Giuliano, an obscure Milan-
ese, who was painting in that city in 1605.

POZZO SERRATO, Lodovico. See ToEPnT.

PRADIER, Charles Simon, a French engraver,
but a native of Geneva, was born in 1790, and was
a scholar of Desnoyers. He was the brother of
James Pradier, the celebrated sculptor, and died
in 1848. Among his principal plates are several
portraits after Gerard, and the following :

La Vierge aux Bulnes ; after Raphael,
Titian's Daughter ; after Titian.



Prado



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Freisler



Cupid and Psyche ; after Girard.

Virgil readiog the ' ^neid' to Augustus ; after the same.

Zephyr caressing Flora ; after the same.

Eaphael and the Fomarina ; after Ingres.

Jesus Christ giving the keys to St. Peter ; after the same.

Virgil reading the Sixth Book of the '^neid' to

Augustus ; after the same.
Antiochus ; after the same.
Portrait of Queen Hortense.
Some Landscapes.

PRABO, Blas del. See Del Peado.
PRAG, Theodobich von, was an artist, who
flourished from 1348 to 1375, and was court painter
at Prague to the Emperor Karl IV. He is now
regarded as the probable author of a ' Christ on the
Cross,' and ' The Church Teachers, Ambrosius and
Augustine,' which have been removed to the Bel-
vedere from the chapel of Carlstein Castle, in
Bohemia, and which were formerly attributed to
Nicolaus Wurmser. Theodorich also painted an
altar-piece in the Raudnitz Monastery, now placed
in the Gallery of Prague.

PRAMPOLINI, Alessandeo, a landscape painter,
who was born at Reggio, in the Emilia, in 1827,
and died there in 1866, is known chiefly by his
views of the neighbourhood of Tivoli and of the
Roman Ruins. He was professor of painting at
Eeggio.

FRANKER, Robbet, was an English line en-
graver, who was much employed by the booksellers.
He married the daughter of Gerard van der Guclit,
and became in 1763 a member of the Free Society
of Artists.

PRATA, Eanunzio, a native of Milan, who
painted in Pavia about 1685.

PRATO, Eeanoesco del, an Italian still-life
painter. He was first a goldsmith, but afterwards



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