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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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turned to painting, and put himself under the
instruction of Salviati. He died in 1562.

PRATO, GlKOLAMO del, draughtsman, sculptor,
niellist, and goldsmith, flourished at Cremona in the
first half of the 16th century. He has been some-
times called the ' Lombard Cellini.'
PRATO VBCCHIO, Jacopo da. See Landing.
PRATT, Matthew, an American portrait painter,
born at Philadelphia in 1734. He began life as a
sign painter, but afterwards studied four years with
West. He assisted Peale in establishing his
museum at Philadelphia, and died in 1805.

PRATTENT, T., an engraver who practised at
the end of the 18th century, by whom there are
some etchings in the 'Gentleman's Magazine.'

PRECIADO, Feanoisco, (or Pbeziado,) was bom,
according to Lanzi, at Seville in 1713. He was a
scholar of Domingo Martinez, but he visited Rome
in 1733, where he entered the school of Sebastiano
Conca. On leaving him he painted some pictures
for the public edifices at Rome, particularly a
' Holy Family ' for the church of the Forty Saints,
which is entirely in the style of his instructor. He
was appointed painter to the camera of Ferdinand
VI., and director of the Spanish Academy at Rome.
There are few of his works in his native country,
as he resided the greater part of his life at Rome,
where he died in 1789.
PREIRA. See Pbeeira.
PREISLER, Daniel, (or Preisslee,) was born
at Prague in 1627, and iti 1654 became a master of
the Landau Brotherhood at Nuremberg, through
his painting of ' The Death of Abel.' He died at
that city in 1665. The Brunswick Gallery possesses
a male portrait by him, and two of the churches
of Nuremberg contain his ' Descent of the Holy
Ghost' and 'The Ascension of Christ.' He was



the founder of the Preisler family of artists, being
the father of Johami Daniel, and consequently the
grandfather of four others named below, and the
great-grandfather of Johann Georg Preisler, the
last of the name.

PREISLER, Geoeg Maetin, the second son of
Johann Daniel Preisler, was born at Nuremberg
in 1700, and followed his brother Johann Justin
Preisler to Italy, where he resided some years.
Ho was one of the engravers employed by Stosch
for his work on antique gems. He died at Nurem-
berg in 1754. Huber speaks of him as a painter
of portraits ; but he is most worthy of notice as an
engraver. Besides some plates after the statues in
the Dresden Gallery, and a set of twenty-one plates
from- drawings made by Johann Justin Preisler, '
after statues at Rome and Florence, there are tlie
following prints by him :

PORTEAlrS.

Eapha^. (His chef-SavAire.)

Giovanni Domenico Ferretti, painter; afler a picture

ly himself.
Giovanni Domenico Campiglia, painter ; after himself.
Eglou van der Neer ; after the portrait by himself in the

Florentine Galle-i^.

PREISLER, Johann Daniel, son of Daniel
Preisler, was fjom at Nuremberg in 1666, and died
there in 1737. He was a pupil of his stepfather,
H. Popp, and of J. Miirrer, and came to be principal
of the school of design in his native city, for which
he also published a drawing-book. He painted
'The Four Evangelists' on the ceiling of the
.SIgidienkirohe. He was the, father of four of the
artists cited in this series of articles (Johann Justin,
Georg Martin, Johann Martin, and Valentin Daniel)
and of Baebaea Helena Pebislee. (See Ceding.)

PREISLER, Johann Geoeg, the son of Johann
Martin Preisler, was born at Copenhagen in 1757.
After receiving some instruction in engraving f lom
his father he entered the Academy of his birth-
place, where in 1780 he obtained the gold medal
for his plate of ' Christ and the Samaritan Woman.'
In the following year he went to Paris, where he
became a pupil of Jean George Wille. He en-
graved several plates in the style of his instructor,
and in 1787 was made a member of the Academy
in Paris. His plate of reception represented
' Dasdalus and Icarus,' engraved from a picture by
Vien. After his return he was in 1788 admitted a
member of the Academy cf Copenhagen. He died
at Lyngby, near that city, in 1831.

PREISLER, Johann Justin, a German painter
and engraver, the eldest son of Johann Daniel
Preisler, was bom at Nuremberg in 1698. He was
instructed in design by his father, and afterwards
visited Italy, where he resided eight years. On
his return to Germany he gave proof of considerable
ability in a picture representing the ' Ascension of
Christ,' for one of the hospitals at Nuremberg,
where he died in 1771. He is, however, more
known as an engraver than as a painter. The
following prints are by him :

The Four Elements ; after- Boiichardon.

The Four Quarters of the World ; after the same.

A set of fifty plates of the principal antique statues at

Rome ; frmn the designs of Bouchardon.
Part of the plates from the ceilings painted by Rubens,

in the church of the Jesuits at Antwerp, with the

frontispiece, containing the portraits of Eubens and

Van Dyck.

PREISLER, Johann Martin, the third son of
Johann Daniel Preisler, was born at Nuremberg in

319



Preisler



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Frestel



1715. He was instructed in engraving by his
father and his eldest brother ; but in 1739 he visited
Paris, where he received some lessons from Georg
Friedrich Schmidt. In 1744 he was invited to the
court of Denmarlt, and became engraver to the king,
and a member of the Academy at Copenhagen, near
which city (at Lyngby) he died in 1794. There
are several plates by this artist, among them the
following :

POETBAITS.

Frederick V., King of Denmark and Norway, and his

Consort ; after Tilo. ITJS.
Christian TI., King of Denmark ; after Wahl.
Jacobus Benzelius, Bishop of Upsal. 1751.
Otto, Count de Thot ; after Krafft.
' Johan Wiedewelt, sculptor ; after P. Alst. 1772.
Klopstock; after Jud. 1782.
Equestrian Statue of Frederick T. ; after the original in

bronze hy J. Saly,
Cardinal de Bouillon ; after Rigaud.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

David and Abigail ; after Guido Beni.

Seniiramis putting the Crown of Ninus on her head ;

aftei^ the same.
Christ bearing His Cross ; after Paolo Veronese. This

and the preceding print were for the Dresden Gallery.
Ganymede taken up by the Eagle of Jupiter; aftei-

Pierre.
A Bacchanalian subject ; after the same.
Laban seeking for Ms Gods ; after Canes.
The Triumph of David ; after Trevisani.
Jonah preaching to the Ninevites ; after Salvator Rosa.
The ' Madonna della Seggiola ; ' after Raphael.
Many plates from antique statues in the galleries of

Italy and Germany.

PREISLEB, Valentin Daniel, the fourth and
youngest son of Johann Daniel Preisler, was bom
at Nuremberg in 1717, and studied under his
brother Johann Martin. There are by him some
mezzotint portraits of the Burgomasters of Zurich,
after the designs of J. 0. Fiissli, which, from some
caprice, he signed with the name of ^S*. Walch.
He also scraped some plates of portraits and his-
torical subjects, after pictures in the collection of
the King of Denmark. He died in 1765. Nagler
enumerates twenty-six pieces by him ; one is a
' Virgin and Child,' after Correggio.

PRELLER, Feiedrich Johann Christian Ernst,
painter and etcher, was born at Eisenach in 1804.
He came when young to Weimar, but studied for
two years at Dresden about 1820. In 1822 he
returned to Weimar, and became the close friend of
Goethe, and, through him, the prot^r/d of the Grand
Duke, Karl August. In 1827 Preller went to Rome,
where he studied under Koch. Four years later he
was again in Weimar, painting six large Thuringian
landscapes, with historical incidents, for the
Schloss, and decorating the Wieland Hall in the
Museum with scenes from ' Oberon ' in fresco, and
a Hall in Leipsic with scenes from the ' Odyssey.'
The sixteen cartoons for these latter pictures are in
the Leipsic Museum. In 1840 Preller visited Nor-
way, which provided him with subjects for many
landscapes and ' marines.' He died at Weimar in
1878. Among his pictures we may also name:

Calypso. (Munich.)

Leucothea. (The same )

Styrian Landscape. (^Berlin National Gallery)

Norwegian Coast Scene. {The same.)

About 1830 Preller became interested in etching,
and established a club for its encouragement.
Among his own plates the best, perhaps, are the
thiee following (B. M.) :

320



Landscape with a View of the EUersbnrg.
Hiion, bound, and leaning against a Tree.
Landscape with a Stag.

PRENNEB, Anton Joseph von, a German en-
graver, was bom at Vienna about the year 1698.
After the death of Jacob Mannl, he undertook,
conjointly with Andreas Altamont, Franas, Stam-
part, Johann Adam Schrautzer, and other artists to
engrave all the pictures in the Imperial Collection.
The plates, consisting of 160, were published at
Vienna in four volumes, under the title 'Theatrum
Artis Pictori^,' in the years 1728 to 1733. He died
in 1761. He has scraped a few plates in mezzotint,
but they are inferior to his other works. He also
engraved some portraits, among which are the
following :

Johann Gottfried Auerbach, Painter to the Emperor
Charles VI.

Count d'Odt, Governor of Vienna; after J. G. Auer-
bach.

PRENNER, Georg Caspar von, the son of -Anton
Joseph von Prenner, was born at Vienna about the
year 1722. He went young to Italy, and studied
painting at Rome for several years. In the church
of Santa Dorot^a there is an altar-piece by this
artist. There are a few etchings by him, some of
which are neatly finished with the graver. He
engraved some of the plates for the ' Museo Fioren-
tino ; ' and also those for the ' Illustri Fatti Fame-
siani,' published at Rome in 1744 and 1746. He
died in Italy in 1766.

PRENNER, Johann Joseph v0N,was the younger
son of Anton Joseph von Prenner, and was in-
structed in engraving by his father. He resided
some years in Italy, where he executed some plates
for the ' Museo Fiorentino.' He also engraved a
set of forty-five prints from the paintings by
Taddeo Zuccaro, in the Castle of CapraroUa, repre-
senting the most memorable actions of the Farnese
family.

PRENTIS, Edward, an English subject painter,
born in 1797. He was one of the earliest members
of the Society of British Artists, where he exhibited
from 1829 to 1850. In 1823-4 he exhibited at
the Royal Academy. His works were generally
of a domestic and humorous character, conveying
some moral, and several of them were engraved.
He died in 1854, leaving a widow and a large
family. Works :

The Prodigal's return from the Alehouse. (1829.)

Valentme's Eve. (1835.)

The Hypocrite. (1838.)

Morbid Sympathy. (1843.)

The Folly of Extravagance. (1850.)

PRESTEL, Johann Amadeus, (called also J.
Gottlieb and J. Theophilus,) a German painter
and engraver, was bom at Gronenbach, in Swabia,
in 1739. He was at first a carpenter, but during
the restoration of the abbey of Ottobeuren' he
learned drawing under F. A. Zeiller, and in 1760
went to Venice, where he studied painting under
Giuseppe Nogari, and was instructed in engraving
by Joseph Wagner. In 1767 he proceeded to
Rome, where he spent four years in studying the
antique and copying Pompeo Batoni. Two years
later he settled at Nureipberg and married the
engraver Maria Catherina Holl (see next article).
In 1775 he spent some time in Zurich drawing
portraits, after which he returned to Nuremberg,
and devoted himself to reproducing drawings by
the best masters — among other works executing
the thirty plates of the ' Schmidt Cabinet,' and



Prestel



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVJIES.



Prevost



the forty-eight of the ' Braun Cabinet.' In 1783
he returned to Frankfort, where he died in 1808.
In 1814 his son published fifty more of his plates.
He worked in various styles ; and left a great
number of plates, most of which are first etched, and
then finished in aquatint. He also engraved several
plates in the crayon manner. Among others, we
have the following prints by him :

The Portrait of himself, sitting at an easel ; frma his
own design.

The Descent from the Cross ; after Raphael; in chiaro-
scuro.

The Virgin with the Dead Christ ; after Van Dyck.

The Holy Family ; copied from Albreeht DUrer.

PRBSTEL, Maria Cathabina, (nee Holl,) was
the pupil and afterwards wife of Johann Amadeus
Prestel, whom she aided in some of his best plates,
particularly in landscape. In 1786 she separated
from him, and came with her daughter to Eng-
land, where she engraved some prints, which are
etched with spirit, and finished in a picturesque
manner in aquatint. She died in London in 1794.
She has left some seventy-three plates after Italian,
Dutch, and German masters. Among others, the
following prints are by her :

Ceres ; au oval ; after Cipriani.

Four Views from the designs made by Webber, in his

voyage with Captain Cook.
Two other Views ; from the same.
Two Landscapes, with Horses ; after Wouwerman.
A pair of Views, with Horses and figures ; after Casanova.
Hobbema's Village; after Hobbema.
Evening, with Cattle reposing ; after Eosa di Tivoli.
Two Landscapes ; after Gainsborough.
View of a Tin Mine ; after Loutherbourg.

Her daughter, Ursula Magdalena Prestel,
afterwards Reinhbimer, was born at Nuremberg in
1777, and after residing with her mother some time
in London, went on her marriage to Brussels, where
she died in 1845. She painted portraits, land-
scapes, and flowers, and etched in aquatint.

PRESTON, Thomas, called 'Captain Preston,'
was an English engraver, who flourished in the
reign of George II. He was an artist of little
celebrity, whose name is affixed to a slight etching
of a bust of Pope. There are also by him mezzo-
tint portraits of Admiral Blake and James Naylor
the Quaker. Preston is said to have died in 1759.

PRETE GENOVESE, IL. See Galantini ; also
Steozzi.

PEETI, Gregobio, the brother of Mattia Preti.
There is a fresco by him in the church of S. Carlo
de' Catinari, at Rome.

PRETI, Cavaliere Mattia, called II Calabeese,
was born at Tavema in Calabria, or Ravenna, in
1613. After passing some time at Parma and
Modena he went to Rome, to work with one of his
brothers, Gregobio, and was for a short time a
scholar of Giovanni Lanfranco. The reputation
Guercino had acquired by the novelty and grandeur
of his style induced him to visit Cento, where he
studied under that master for several years. He
afterwards went to Venice and Bologna, where he
painted some pictures for the public edifices, by
which he acquired a considerable reputation. He
returned to Rome about the year 1657, where he
was employed to pairit three pictures for the
church of Sant' Andrea della Valle, representing
subjects from the Life ofHhat Saint. These, un-
fortunately for his fiime, were placed immediately
under the ' Four Evangelists,' painted by Domeni-
chino. His repute reached Malta, whither he was
invited by the grand master Cotoner, who com-

VOL. II, Y



missioned him to ornament the cathedral with
some frescoes, representing subjects from the life
of St. John the Baptist; for these works Pope
Urban VIII. conferred on him the knighthood of
the order. He afterwards passed some time at
Naples, where he painted some considerable works
in fresco, in the church of the Carthusians. Preti
was of a violent disposition, and was under the
continual necessity of shifting his quarters to avoid
the consequence of his quarrels. He usually chose
the most terrific and gloomy subjects ; and his
pictures, which are in the style of Caravaggio and
Ribera, frequently represent martyrdoms and scenes
of death, to which his sombre style of colouring
was particularly appropriate. Disgusted at the
admiration bestowed on the works of Luca Gior-
dano, he left Naples and returned to Malta, where
he died in 1699, his death being caused, it is said,
by a wound received from his barber. The paint-
ings from his hand are innumerable ; the following
list contains some of the more remarkable :

Florence. Vffizi. His own Portrait.

„ Academy. St. John the Evangeh'st.

Milan. Brera. Christ Blessing the Children.

Modena. Museum. Diogenes.

Naples. S. Pietro a ) Legend of St. Catharine —

Majella. J Frescoes.

„ Museum. The Return of the Prodigal.

Paris. Louvre. Martyrdom of St. Andrew.

Rome. iSt. Andrea dellalBcenes from the Life of St.
Valle. J Andrew — Frescoes.

„ Doria Pal. The Magdalene.

„ „ A Philosopher.

PRETO GALLO, II. See Guillaume, Le Fr^re.

PREU. See Peew.

PREVITALI. See Cobdellb Agi.

PRfiVOST, BenoIt Louis, a French engraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1735, and was
a pupil of Jean Ouvrier. He was a skilful en-
graver of vignettes, and the faithful interpreter of
Cochin, after whose designs he executed about
sixty pieces, including the fine frontispiece of the
' Encyclop6die,' 1770. He also engraved the vig-
nettes after Moreau for D^sormeaux's ' Histoire de
la Maison de Bourbon.' He died in 1804. The
following portraits also are by him :

Louis XV. ; medallion profile ; after Cochin. 1765.
Queen Marie Antoinette ; after the same. 1776. (His

chef d^eeuvre.)
Armand Thomas Hue, Marquis de Mirom&il ; after the

same. 1773.
Marquis de Marigny ; monumental medalUon. 1781.
Charles Nicolas Cochin, the younger, engraver ; small

medallion in head-piece of Jombert's ' Catalogue de

I'QEuvre de Cochin,' 1770 ; after Prevosfs own design.
The same; medallion; after himself . 1781.
Joseph Ignace Guillotin, physician ; after J. M. Moreau,
Voltaire walking in his Garden.

PRfiVOST, Jacques, a French historical painter,
born at Gray, in the department of Haute Sa6ne,
about 1546. He lived at Langres, where he painted
a picture of the death of the Virgin for the church
of St. Mamert. He was also an engraver.

PROVOST, Jean, a Flemish historical painter,
who settled at Bruges between 1493 and 1494. He
was a native of Mons, as we gather from his title
citizenship. He was a member of the Corporation
of St. Luke as early as 1500 and dean in 1519 and
1521. He was married three times. His first wife
died at Bruges, the other two were natives of that
town. By the tl)ird wife be had three children, one,
named Thomas Jean, was buried in the church of
St. Giles. Provost died in 1529. In the Academy of
Bruges there is a picture by him of ' The Last Judg-

321



Provost



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONAEY OF



Primo



ment,' painted in 1525. Jennin Provost, who was
at work at Bruges as early as 1468, may possibly
be identical with Jean.

PRBVOST, Nicolas, (or Peovost,) was a native
of France, and ia mentioned by the Abbe de Ma-
roUes as a painter and scholar of Claude Vignon.
He flourished about the year 1666, and is said to
have etched six small plates. Dumesnil is of
opinion that he is the artist that painted the ' De-
collation of St. John,' for the church of Notre
Dame in Paris. He describes only one print by
him, a ' Holy Family,' signed N. Preuost Jn.

PREVOST, PiEREE, a painter of panoramas and
landscapes, was born at Montigny (Eure-et-Loir)
in 1764. In the first place he worked at Valen-
ciennes, but afterwards migrated to Paris. He
painted a number of easel pictures, landscapes, and
ruins, but his principal works were panoramas,
which he, perhaps, was the first to exhibit in France.
Among these were Paris, Naples, Amsterdam,
London, Antwerp, Athens, Jerusalem, and various
battles, in which he was assisted by Bouton and
Daguerre. In 1817 Prevost visited Greece and
Asia Minor with M. Forbin. He died in
1823. ^

PREVOST, ZAcCHfiE, an engraver, was born in
or about 1797, and became a pupil of Baron Eeg-
nault and of Bervio. The first large work exhibited
by him, which established his reputation, was
' Corinne,' after G6rard. About 1830 he com-
menced engraving in aquatint, executing several
plates after Leopold Robert and Delacroix. He
soon, however, returned to line-engraving, and
exhibited a large plate of the ' Maniage of Cana,'
from the great Paolo Veronese in the Louvre. For
this he was decorated. He died in 1861.

PBEW, JoRG, (Breu, or Pkeu,) was a painter
at Augsburg in the 16th century, an imitator of
Altdorfer. He was most likely identical with
" Georg Prew von Aue, 1501," as he signs himself
on a picture at Herzogenburg, in Austria. He
began to work in Augsburg about 1500, and died
there in 1536. The Munich Pinakothek contains a
' Battle of Zama ' by him. It is signed Jokg Peew,
and with a monogram as well. The arms of
Bavaria and the letters H.W. (Duke Wilhelm IV.)
also appear upon it.

PREWITT, William, an English miniature
painter of considerable merit in the middle of the
18th century. He was a pupil of Zincke, and prac-
tised in London. His works are in enamel and
brilliant in colour. There iS a good specimen of
his art in the Kensington Museum.

PREY, J. Z., a painter, was born at Prague in
1744. He worked at Pressburg, visited Dresden
and Frankfort, and in 1770 settled at Rotterdam.
He painted portraits and historical subjects, and
died at Bois-le-Duc in 1823.

PREZ, F. DES. See Despeez.

PEEZIADO. See Peeciado.

PEICKE, Robert. See Petke.

PRISM, Joseph, a German painter, born at
Illestissen in Bavaria in 1776. He was a pupil of
Kellerhoven, and painted landscapes and historical
subjects. He died in 1822.

PRIEST, Thomas, was an English landscape
painter, who resided at Chelsea about the year
1738. He chiefly painted views of the Thames,
and published a set of eight etchings of Chelsea,
Mortlake, and other places on the river.

PRIEUR, Romain Etienne Gabriel, a French
landscape and historical painter, born at Fert^

322



Gaucher, Seine et Marne. He was a pupil of V.
Bertin in landscape. He died in 1879. Works :

Metabus, King of the Volscians.

The Via Appia. (1836.)

Moses and the Daughters of Jethro.

Springs in the Forest of Fontainebleau. (1837.)

The "Walls of Eome.

The Approaching Storm.

Harvest.

The Eagle's Nest.

The Maroh6 aux Innocents.

Interlaken. (1866.)

Ships at Treport.

PRIBTO, Thomas Franoisoo, engraver, was
bom at Salamanca in 1716. He was a pupil of
Lorenzo Monteman y Cusens, and Director of the
Academy of San Fernando. His daughter Maria
DE LORETTO, a Spanish amateur engraver, was born
at Madrid in 1763. She was received an honorary
member of the Academy of San Fernando, and
died in 1772.

PRIMATICCIO, Francesco, was born at Bo-
logna in 1504. He was of good birth, and his
family, perceiving his strong inclination for art,
placed him first with Innocenzo da Imola, and
afterwards with Bagnaoavallo. Thence he migrated
to the studio of Giulio Romano, who had more
influence on his style than his earlier masters.
Primaticcio worked with Giulio at Mantua, in the
Palazza del T6. On the Duke of Mantua being
asked to recommend an artist to Francis I., he sent
him Primaticcio, who for a time collaborated with
II Rosso at Fontainebleau. A quarrel, arising,
however, Primaticcio was sent back to Italy to
collect works of art for the French King. During
his absence his rival died, and he succeeded to
the vacant post of Director of the Works at Fon-
tainebleau. In this office Primaticcio was suc-
cessively confirmed by Henry II., Francis II., and
Charles IX. He died in Paris in 1570. Much of
Primaticcio's work at Fontainebleau, (most of it,
however, actually painted by Niccolo dell' Abate
from his designs,) was destroyed in 1738, when
some structural alterations were made in the palace.
All that remains is the decoration of the guard
chamber, now called the "Salle de Madame
d'^^tampes," a, series of frescoes illustrating the
career of Alexander the Great, painted by Niccolo
after his master's designs, and variaus scenes from
classic mythology, painted by Primaticcio himselt
All these works have undergone much "restor-
ation," and now the art of their author is perhaps
to be best appreciated through the fine series of
his drawings in the Louvre. His easel pictures
are very rare. At Fontainebleau there is a full-
length nude figure of 'Diana,' and at Castle
Howard a fine ' Return of Ulysses.'

PRIMA VESI, JoHANN Geohq, painter and en-
graver, was born at Heidelberg in 1776. He drew
a series of landscapes illustrating the Rhine from
its source downwards. He became court-painter
at Heidelberg. Twelve etchings by him of ' Heidel-
berg Castle,' and some of views from Mannheim
and Baden, are extant. The date of his death is
not known.

PRIMI, Giovanni Battista, a marine and por-
trait painter, was a pupil of A. Tassi and a native
of Rome. He resided a long time at Genoa, where
he died in 1657.

PRIMISSER, Jdlie. See Mihes.

PRIMO, Luis, known as Gentile on account of
his gentle manners, was born at Brussels in 1606,
and went -when young to Rome, where he spent



Prina



PAINTERS AND ENGEAVBES.



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