Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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thirty years, and was in 1650 received into the
Academy of Saint Luke. He was employed hy
Pope Alexander VII., whose portrait he painted.
In the church of San Marco a painting exists by
him of ' St. Anthony,' and in the Oappuccini at
Pesaro there are a ' Nativity ' and ' St. Stephen.'
One of his best works is the ' Crucifixion,' in the
church of St. Michael at Ghent. Others are,
' Phoebus in the Chariot of the Sun ' (engraved
by Bloemaert), 'St. Raymond,' and 'S. Carlo
Borromeo healing the Plague-stricken.' Primo
painted many portraits, which are remarkable for
their finish. He died at Rome in 1668.

PRINA, Pier Francesco, a native of Novaro,
who is commended by Orlandi for his decorative
frescoes. He was living in 1718.

PRINCE, Le. See Leprince.

PRINBTTI, Constantino, landscape painter,
was bom at Canobbio in 1830. After studying at
the Milan Academy under Canella he travelled in
Germany, Holland, Paris, Normandy, England, and
Scotland. He died at Milan in 1855. Among his
paintings we may name :

The Brienzer See.

The Battle-field of Nafels ; engraved ly Salathi.

Dundas Castle.

The Thames and Houses of Parliament.

Street in Edinburgh.


PRINS, B. M., a painter of landscapes and sea-
pieces, was living at Amsterdam about 1824.

PRINS, JoHANN HiJiBERT, a painter of views of
the interiors of cities, was born at the Hague in
1757. He was intended for the medical profession,
but his predilection for painting induced him to quit
his home and the university in order to avoid his
friends, who were strongly opposed to his inclin-
ation. He rambled, as an artist, through Brabant
and France, where he made numerous sketches and
drawings, with which, after two years' absence, he
returned to his own country. He visited Amster-
dam, Utrecht, and Leyden, and painted views in
each of those cities. The Dutch writers say he
painted in the manner of Berck-Heyden and Van
der Heyden, but his pictures resemble theirs only
in subject. His pictures, which are generally
small, are representations of the cities of Holland,
with landscapes and marine views. Besides oil
painting's, he executed numerous drawings, aqua-
relles, and etchings. He was drowned in a canal
at the Hague in 1806.

PRIOR, Thomas Abiel, an English line en-
graver, was born on November 5 th, 1809. He
practised the severest form of engraving in line,
and in that method interpreted Turner with rare
skill. He merits a place among what are called
' Turner's Engravers ' by the fact that he engraved
one plate during the painter's life, and under his
supervision, the 'Heidelberg.' He resided for
many years at Calais, where he was engaged as
drawing-master in one or two of the public colleges.
His plates were done in his spare time. He died
at Calais, November 8, 1886. The list of his plates
is not long :

'SeiielheTg; after Turner. (1846.)
Zurich ; ajfter the same. (1854.)
Apollo and the Sibyl ; after the same. (1873.)
The Golden Bough ; after the same.
Venice, the Dogana ; after the same. (1859.)
The Goddess of Discord ; after the same. (1860.)
Dido building Oarthage ; after the same. (1863.)
Heidelberg Castle in the olden Time; after the same.

Y 2

The Sun rising through Mist ; after the same (1874) ;

begun by Chapman.
Crossing the Bridge ; after Landseer.
The Fighting Temeraire ; after Turner. (1886.)

And three plates for ' The Turner Gallery.'

PRIWITZBR, JoHANN, was a Danish artist, who
visited England in the time of James I., and
probably had court favour, as it is said that he
painted the portraits of many of the nobility. The
only one, however, on record, is that at Wobum
Abbey, of Sir William Russell, in the robes of the
order of the Bath, and attended by a dwarf (dated

PROBST, JoHANN Balthazar, a German en-
graver, was born in 1673, and died in 1748. He
worked chiefly with the burin, in a neat, formal
style. Among other prints, he engraved several
of the plates after antique statues in the ' Dresden
Gallery.' We have also by him some prints after
Luca Giordano, Bernardino Poocetti, Rugendas,
and Ridinger. He also engraved several plates of
birds and beasts in the menagerie of Prince Eugene,
published in 1734.

PROCACCINI, Andrea, was bom at Eome, Jan.
14th, 1671, and was brought up in the school of
Carlo Maratti. He painted historical subjects in
the style of his master, and among his other
works in the public edifices at Rome, is his picture
of Daniel, in the series of the twelve prophets
painted by order of Clement XL, in San Giovanni
Laterano. He assisted the same pontiff with hia
advice on the establishment of his tapestry factory.
He was invited to the court of Spain, where he
resided fourteen years, and was appointed cabinet
painter to Philip V. He executed many im-
portant works in the palaces and churches of
Spain, but his smaller pictures are very few. He
etched gracefully, and in this branch of art there
are by him a half-length of ' San Vincente Ferrer,'
an 'Infant Bacchus,' 'Diana in the Chase,' 'Clelia
passing the Tiber,' the 'Supper at Emmaus,' and
' The Transfiguration ' (after Raphael) ; and other
pieces, after Carlo Maratti. He died at San Ilde-
fonso in 1734, and was buried with great pomp in
the convent of San Francisco de Segovia.

PROCACCINI, Camillo, the son of Ercole Pro-
caccini the elder, was born at Bologna in 1546, and
was first instructed by his father ; but he afterwards
visited Rome, where he particularly applied him-
self to studying the works of Raphael and Michel-
angelo. Correggio and Parmigiano were also the
objects of his imitation. Finding the presence of
the Carraoci an obstacle to his success at Bologna,
he removed to Milan, where most of his works are
to be met with. He died at that city in 1625.
Among the most remarkable of his pictutes are
those of the ' Martyrdom of St. Agnes,' painted in
fresco, in the sacristy of Milan cathedral ; a ' Ma-
donna and Child,' in Santa Maria del Carmine ; an
'Adoration of the Shepherds,' in the Brera ; and
the ceiling of the church of Padri Zoccolanti, repre-
senting the ' Assumption of the Virgin '—all in the
same city. But his best known performances are
his ' Last Judgment,' in the church of San Prospero
at Reggio ; and his ' St. Roch administering the
Sacrament to the Plague-stricken,' a really ad-
mirable work, to which Annibale Carracci paid
a tribute of admiration when he expressed his
reluctance to paint a companion picture to it, repre-
senting St. Roch distributing Alms to the Poor.
Procaccini was commissioned by the Duke of
Parma to execute some frescoes in the cathedral at
Piacenza, in competition with Lodovico Carracci,





and accordingly he painted the ' Coronation of the
Virgin,' with a beautiful choir of angels. The Parma
Gallery possesses also a 'Plague' by him. In the
UiBzi there is a small ' Madonna and Child.' Of his
works at Bologna, the most important are the
' Adoration of the Shepherds,' in the church of San
rrancesco ; the ' Nativity,' now in the Pinacoteoa ;
the ' Crucifixion of St. Peter,' in San Petronio ; and
the ' Annunciation,' in S. Clemente. Camillo Pro-
caccini possessed a fertile invention, and great
facility of hand. His colour is fair, and his
draperies are cast with judgment and taste ; but
his facility often led him into extravagance and
mannerism. He has left several etchings, among
which are the following :

The Holy Family reposing, in which St. Joseph is repre-
sented lying on the ground, resting on the saddle of
the ass.

Another Holy Family, in which St. Joseph is presenting
an orange to the Infant. 1593.

The Virgin suckling the Infant, St. Joseph standing
behind her.

The Virgin and Child with St. Peter and St. Anthony.

Kie Transfiguration, of which there are two impressions ;
the second retouched by another hand, but in a very
able manner.

St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 1593.

PROCACCINI, Carlo Antonio, the third son of
Ercole and the brother of Camillo and Giulio Cesare
Procaccini the elder, was born at Bologna about
the year 1555, and is said to have been instructed
in art by his father, though he practised a different
genre. He excelled in painting landscapes, flowers,
and fruit, and his pictures possessed sufSoient
merit to secure them a place in the best collections
in the Milanese. He was also much employed in
commissions for Spain.

PROCACCINI, Becole, the elder, was bom in
1520 at Bologna. His principal works are in
that city. The following are the most worthy
of notice : in the church of San Benedetto, a
picture of the ' Annunciation ; ' in San Giacomo
Maggiore, ' The Conversion of St. Paul,' and ' Christ
praying in the Garden ; ' in San Bernardo, ' St.
Michael discomfiting the rebel Angels ; ' and in St.
Stefano, a ' Deposition from the Cross.' Ercole
established an Academy at Milan, which became
the most celebrated of his time, and, besides his
own sons, turned out some of the most distin-
guished artists of the Milanese school. He died
after 1591. Other works :
Bologna. Gallery. A Pieta.

„ „ The Annunciation.

„ „ St Augustine and an Angel.

PROCACCINI, Eeoole, the younger, the son of
Carlo Antonio Procaccini, was born at Milan in
1596, and was educated in the school of his uncle
Giulio Cesare. He followed the style of his in-
structor, and painted several pictures for the public
edifices and private collections at Milan. One of
his best works is an altar-piece representing the
' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the church of Santa
Maria Maggiore at Bergamo. On the death of
Giulio Cesare, he became the director of the academy
established by the Procaccini, and died in 1676.
Other works :

Milan. Brera. The Crucifixion.

PROCACCINI, Giulio Cesare, the younger
brother of Camillo Procaccini, and son of Ercole
Procaccini the elder, was born at Bologna in 1548.
He was taught the rudiments of design by his
father, and for some time applied himself to the


study of sculpture, in which he had made some
progress, when the reputation his brother Camillo
had acquired as a painter induced him to change
the chisel for the pencil. He studied in Rome and
Venice, and appears to have formed his style upon
the principles of Correggio, whom in his smaller
cabinet pictures he sometimes successfully imi-
tated. At Rome, where he passed some time,
the productions of Raphael were particularly the
objects of his attention. In 1618 he was invited to
Genoa, where he worked in the ducal palace. He
died at Milan about 1626. An etching repre-
senting the Virgin with the Infant Jesus, has been
attributed to him, but doubtfully. Of his principal
extant paintings we may note :

Dresden. Gallery. Virgin and Child.

„ „ St. Eoch curing the Plague-

Edinburgh. Nal. Gall. A Dead Christ, with the Mag-
dalen and Angels.
Florence. Uffizi. His own Portrait.

Genoa. Ducal Pal. Adam and Eve driven from

„ Briijnola Pal. Holy Family.

„ „ Charity.

„ ■ Doria Pal. The Dead Christ,

Milan. S. Antonio. The Annunciation.

„ Amhrosiana. His own Portrait.

„ Brera Mus. Adoration of the Magi.

„ „ Virgin, St. Ambrose, and St.

„ „ The Magdalen.

„ ,, St. Ceciha.

Modena. Museum. The Circumrasion. (Colossal

Paris. Louvre. Holy Family.

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Madonna.

„ „ Marriage of St. Catharine.

Toulouse. Museum. Marriage of St. Catharine.

Turin. Museum. Virgin adored by SS. Cecilia .

and George.

PROCTOR, Thomas, an English historical painter,
born at Settle (Yorks.), April 22, 1753. His parents
were in humble circumstances, and for some years
he had to devote himself to uncongenial occupations
in Manchester and London. But the love of art at
length prevailed, and he entered the schools of the
Academy in 1777. His student career was emin-
ently honourable, culminating in 1784 with the
gold medal for his picture of the ' Tempest.' He
also devoted himself to modelling with such suc-
cess that he ranks high among English sculptors.
In 1785 he exhibited a statue of Ixion, which
was bought by Sir Abraham Hume. He then
produced a group of 'Diomed devoured byhis
Horses,' which, failing to sell it, he destroyed in a
fit of despondency. The first pictures he sent to
the Academy, in 1780-3, had been portraits, and in
1789 he again returned to that genre. In 1794
he was elected to the travelling studentship of the
Academy, but could not be found, as for some
years he had sent no address with his contributions
to the Exhibition. West, however, tracked him
out, and found him living on bread and water in
an attic in Clare Market. Hopes of prosperity had
come too late, and a few days later he was found
dead in his bed. He was in his forty-first year,
and was buried in Hampstead churchyard. Works :

Elisha and the Shunammite's Son. 1790.

The Restoration of Day after the fall of Phaeton.

Hannah refusing to accompamy her Spouse to the

Sacrifice. 1791.
The Final Separation of Jason and Medea 1793.
Venus approaching Cyprus. 1794.




FROFONDAVALLE, Valeeio, an historical
painter, born at Louvain in 1533. He lived for
some time at Florence, and afterwards settled at
Milan. His daughter Prudenzia painted still-life
and historical subjects. Their real name was Die-
pendale, and they belonged to a famous glass-
painting family in Louvain of the 15th and 16th

PEONCK, CoRNELis, was born at Amsterdam in
1691, and was taught drawing by P. van Houten,
and painting by Arnold van Boonen. He became
a good portrait painter, and had much employment;
but he preferred making views of cities and land-
scapes, in Indian ink and in water-colours. Many
of his drawings, however, are after other Dutch
masters. He died in 1769.

PEONTI, Padre Cesare, originally Bacciocchi,
was bom at Rimini in 1626, and was brought up at
Bologna, under Guercino. He was commonly called
Padeb Cesakb da Ravekna. He painted historical
subjects, and was much employed for the churches
at Bimini and Ravenna. At an early period of his
life he became a monk of the order of St. Augustine,
and was afterwards principally engaged in painting
altar-pieces for the churches of his fraternity, of
which one of the best is a picture of St. Tom-
maso da Villanova, at the Augustines at Pesaro,
which he embellished with a background of admir-
able architecture. He died at Eavenna in 1708.

PEOSPBTTIVE, Dalle. See Aqostino, also

PROTOGENBS, one of the most illustrious of
ancient Greek painters, wasa native of either Caunus
or Camirus, both cities of Caria. His life as an
artist was, however, spent at Rhodes, which he only
once quitted on a visit to Athens. He flourished
between 330 and 300 B.C. It is not known of whom
he was a disciple, fcut it is probable that he received
liis instruction from some obscure artist, or that
he formed his style by a general study of the
painters who had preceded him. It is certain that
for some time he practised ship-painting for a live-
lihood, that the early part of his life was passed in
indigence and obscurity, and, that he was consider-
ably advanced in years before he became known
as an artist. One of his principal pictures, which
has been celebrated by several writers, repre-
sented the hunter lalysus with his Dog ; it was
long preserved in the Temple of Peace at Eome.
A singular story is told- of the production of this
painting. Protogenes was engaged upon it for
seven years, during which he lived wholly upon
lupins and water, hoping thereby to give his fancy
freer powers^ But at the last he found himself
wholly unable to produce the appearance of froth
in the dog's mouth, and after many unsatisfactory
attempts he threw his sponge upon the canvas in
a fit of vexation. He had aimed it exactly at the
mouth of the animal, and the stroke produced the
very effect which he had been seeking so long in
vain. A much greater interest attaches to this
picture in the fact that it was the means of saving
a portion of the city of Ehodes from destruction,
and delaying the capture of the whole, when it was
besieged (b.c. 305) by Demetrius Polioroetes, who,
finding that the only ready means of mastering the
place consisted in setting fire to that side on which
was the house of Protogenes, chose rather to pro-
tract the siege indefinitely than to destroy such a
work of art. The atelier of Protogenes was situ-
ated without the walls of the city, where, to the
astonishment of the besiegers, he continued to

pamt with the most perfect tranquillity and indiffer-
ence. This circumstance being made known to
Demetrius, he ordered the artist to be brought to
his tent, when he demanded how he could persist
in the quiet exercise of his profession when sur-
rounded by the enemies of his country. Protogenes
replied, that he did not consider himself to be in
any danger, as he was convinced that a great
prince like Demetrius did not wage war against
the arts, but against the Ehodians.

It was during these hostilities that he painted
his famous picture of a Satyr playing on a Flageo-
let. _ Into this he introduced a partridge, wliioh he
depicted so accurately that some live partridges on
being placed near it showed themselves deceived
by the resemblance ; but Protogenes, not wishing
to be regarded as a mere mechanical imitator, and
observing that the presence of the partridge blinded
the spectators to everything else, obliterated it
from the painting altogether. Another admired
work of Protogenes was a subject taken from the
' Odyssey,' representing Nausicaa driving a chariot
drawn by mules. A fourth was in the Propylsea
of the Athenian Acropolis, and represented the
sacred ships ' Paralus ' and 'Ammonias.' Pliny
mentions some others, but the length of time de-
voted by Protogenes to each prevented the number
from being large. His great contemporary Apelles
found the one fault in him that he " did not know
how to let his pictures alone."
_ The association of these two masters gave
rise to more than one* interesting episode. Not-
withstanding the distinguished talents of Pro-
togenes, his fellow-citizens were either insensible
to his merit, or were more than usually parsimoni-
ous in remunerating him. He continued to live in
extreme poverty, until the generosity of Apelles
roused the Rhodians from the indifference they had
shown to his talents. When that painter visited
Ehodes, he was struck with admiration on seeing
the works of Protogenes. He demanded what
price he put upon his pictures, and the painter of
Rhodes having named an inconsiderable sum,
Apelles, indignant at the injustice, offered him fifty
talents for each of his works, publicly announcing
that he could sell them again as his own at a profit.
This liberality opened the eyes of the Rhodians]
who now gladly gave the painter a higher sum
than Apelles had offered, rather than have their
city deprived of what they had at length learned
to appreciate.

When Apelles first landed at Rhodes on the
occasion of the above interview, he called at the
house of Protogenes, but found him from home.
Instead of leaving his name with the servant he
drew with a brush an extremely fine hue on a
panel that lay before him. This being shown to
Protogenes on his return, he declared that it must
have been Apelles who had called upon him, and
taking a brush with a different colour, he drew a
still finer line upon the first line itself, desiring
that this might be shown to his visitor upon his
second call. When this took place, Apelles with a
third colour drew a yet finer line upon this second
one, and Protogenes upon seeing this was compelled
to declare that the attenuating process could go no
further I

PROU, Jacques, a - French painter and engraver,
was born in Paris ahotit the year 1639, or, accord-
ing to others, at Troyes, in 1624, and died at the
end of the same century. He was a scholar of
Sebastien Bourdon, and painted landscapes in the
" 325




style of that master. Of his works as an engraver,
the following are the most worthy of notice :

A set of twelve Landscapes and Views ; after his own

A set of six large Landscapes ; after Seh. Bourdon.
The Baptism of Christ by St. John ; after the same.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Agost. Carracci.

PROUD, , an obscure engraver, whom

Strutt mentions as having resided in England
about the year 1760. He engraved a few plates
for books and portraits, among which was that of
Sarah Philips, prefixed to ' The Lady's Handmaid.'

PROUT, J. Skinner, nephew of Samuel Prout,
was born at Plymouth in 1806. He practised
chiefly in water-colours, and was a member of the
Institute, but was chiefly self-taught. He published
'Antiquities of Chester,' and 'Castles and Abbeys
of Monmouthshire ' in 1838. He also visited Aus-
tralia, and resided for some time in Sydney and
Hobart Town. On his return he lived for many
years in Bristol, and published a work on the an-
tiquities of that town. The sketches for this were
made in company with W. Muller, with whom he
formed a close friendship. He afterwards came to
London, where he died August 29, 1876.

PROUT, Samuel, was born in Plymouth about
1784, and educated at the Grammar School. When
quite a child he had a sunstroke, which affected his
health for the rest of his life. He accompanied
John Britton into Cornwall in 1801, and he after-
wards went to reside witlt him in Clerkenwell,
during which time he was employed by the chief
topographical draftsman of the day. In 1805 he
returned home, but returned to London in 1812.
He exhibited occasionally at the Academy and
British Institution from 1803 to 1827. In 1820 he
was elected a member of the Water-Colour Society.
In 1818 he visited the Continent, and became famous
as the painter of foreign Cathedrals and Market-
places. In 1824 he visited Italy, and fac-similes
of the sketches of his travels were published in
1839. He contributed to the Annuals, and for
Ackermann he undertook drawing-books for
learners. Prout died in Camberwell February 10,
1852. Works :
London. S. Kensi^^ion^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

„ „ Arch of Constantino, Borne.

„ „ Porch of Batisbon Cathedral.

„ „ Wuizburg.

„ „ Castle on a Becky Shore.

„ „ Old House near Tunbridge.

„ „ Cottage near St. Michael's


„ ,, The Beach, Hastings.

„ „ The Zwinger, Drsden.

„ „ Temple of Minerva Medica,

„ „ Borne.

„ „ Beach at Folkestone.

A collection of Prout's drawings was exhibited at
the Pine Art Society's Galleries in 1879-1880, and
notes upon it written by J. Buskin.

PROVENgAL, Joseph, a French historical
painter, born in Lorraine. He was a pupil of
CI. Charles and painted several frescoes in the
churches of Nancy. He flourished about 1679.

PROVENCE, a German historical painter, who
studied in Italy and afterwards settled in Berlin.
He died in 1701.

PROVENZALE, Maecello, was born at Cento
in 1575. He was a scholar of Paolo Rossetti, but is
chiefly distinguished for his talents as a mosaicist.
Baglione describes several of his works at RonSe,


executed under the direction of Paul V., among
which is the portrait of that pontiif, now in the
Borghese Palace. In conjunction with Rossetti,
he executed several mosaics in the Capella Clemen-
tina, in St. Peter's, from the cartoons of Cavaliere
Cristofano Roncalli ; and for the Cardinal Scipione
Borghese he finished some smaller works, among
which is ' Orpheus playing on the Lyre, surrounded
by animals.' He died at Rome in 1639.

PROVENZALI, Stefano, a native of Cento and
a pupil of Giiercino. Crespi extols his battle-pieces.

PROVOST, Nicolas. See Pe^vost.

PRUCKER. See Peugger.

PRUD'HOMME, Antonib Daniel, a Dutch
amateur, bom at Zwolle in 1745. He at first
entered on a commercial career, but after a voyage
to Demerara he settled at Antwerp, and devoted
himself to art. He painted landscapes, sea-pieces,
and portraits. He died in 1826.

PRUD'HON, Pierre, a French historical and
portrait painter, born at Cluny (Sa$ne et Loire) in
1758. He was the thirteenth child of a stonemason,
who died soon after his birth. His mother had a
great affection for him, but her narrow means were
insufficient to provide for his education, which was
due to the charity of the monks at the Abbey of
Cluny. The pictures which decorated the walls
of the monastery early developed his taste for art.
The fruits of this were first seen in his exercise-
books, which he covered with sketches. Unaided,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 85 of 201)