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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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he taught himself the elements of oil-painting with
the very humble materials which lay within his
reach. At the critical age of sixteen, when his
schooling was completed, he was fortunate enough
to find a friend in the Bishop of Macon, who placed
him in the Academy of Dijon. Here his progress
was satisfactory, and his future seemed full of
promise, when he contracted an imprudent mar-
riage at the early age of nineteen. To continue
his studies, he migrated to Paris in 1780, and re-
ceived some assistance from an engraver named
Wille. The great object of his ambition was to
study in Italy, and to enable him to do this, he
competed in 1782 for a triennial prize founded by
the estates of Burgundy. Concerning this com-
petition there is an interesting little story, showing
the painter's kindliness of disposition. One of the
competitors was overwhelmed with grief at being
unable to finish his composition. By the assistance
of Prud'hon he was enabled to complete it, and
with such success that he was awarded the prize.
Not to be outdone in generosity, he confessed the
help which he had received, and the prize was
adjudged to Prud'hon. During his sojourn at
Rome, he diligently made use of his opportunities,
and studied closely the masterpieces of Raphael,
Correggio, and Leonardo da Vinci. He made the
acquaintance of Canova, and the two artists formed
a close friendship. Resisting the sculptor's en-
treaties to stay with him at Rome, Prud|hon
returned to Paris in 1789. His wife now rejoined
him, and for several years he had an uphill fight to
supply the wants of an increasing family. Un-
known to fame, he drew book-illustrations, portraits,
headings for letters and concert-bills, and even
designs to ornament the lids of sweetmeat-boxes.
Whatever came he was glad to accept, so as to
keep the wolf from the door of his comfortless
home. So little prospect of success did he appear
to have in the capital that in 1794 he spent two
years in Pranche Comt6, painting portraits. Here
he made the acquaintance of his fellow-countryman,
M. Prochot, who afterwards, as Prefect of the



Prugger



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Fuellacher



Seine, becarae his warm patron. On his return to
Paris, he executed, some admirable designs for the
publisher Didot, and his reputation gradually in-
creased. The assignment to him of apartments in
the Louvre, just before the close of the century, to
execute the painting of 'Truth descending from
Heaven,' for the design of which he had won a prize,
marks that his position was at length assured.
Cut off by his unfortunate marriage from home
comforts, he found consolation in a liaison with a
pupil named Constance Mayer. He was intro-
duced to her by a friend in 1803, when she was
seeking for a master to replace Greuze. The
tardy recognition of Prud'hon's merits secured
him a fair share in the public commissions.
The chief of these were a ceiling at the Louvre,
' Diana imploring Jupiter,' and the well-known
'Divine Justice pursuing Crime,' OTiginally ordered
by his friend Prochot for the Palais de Justice.
For the latter work, exhibited in 1808, he received
the Legion of Honour, and in 1816 was elected a
member of the Institute. In 1821, he suffered a
severe shock from the death of Mademoiselle
Mayer by her own hand. His health gave way,
and he died in Paris in 1823, in the arms of his
friend, M. Le Boisfremont.

Prud'hon forms an interesting figure in the
history of French art. His pictures have a grace
and tenderness which is wanting in the works of
all his contemporaries. This he ascribed to his
study of Leonardo, whom he was accustomed to call
his master and his hero. He is seen at his best,
perhaps, in his smaller and less ambitious pro-
ductions, such as his 'Zephyr,' where he has de-
parted most from the historic style, and allowed
freer scope to his poetic imagination.

The following is a list of Prud'hon's pictures in
the public galleries of Europe :

Angers. Museum. The Two Souls.

Cherbourg. Museum. The Assumption. Unfinished

repetition of Louvre ^}icture.
Dijon. Museum. Three Portraits.

„ „ Various Sketches.

„ jSalle des Statues. Ceiling.
Dublin. Nat. Qallery. Cupid chastised.
Montpellier. Museum. Allegory of the Arts and

Sciences. Sketch.
Orleans. Museum. Portrait of Abb6 Barbier.

Paris. Louvre. Justice pursuing crime. 1808.

„ „ The Assumption. 1819.

„ ,, The Crucifixion. 1822.

„ „ Minerva.

„ „ Interview of Napoleon and

Francis II. after Austerlitz.

„ „ Four Portraits.

Quimper. Museum. Portrait of Mad. Steward.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Qimtremere de Quinty, ' Discours prouonce sur la Tombe

de Prud'hon.' 1823.
Voiart, ' Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de

Prud'hon.' 1824.
E. Delacroix, in the ' Eevue des Deux Mondes,' Nov.

1846.
aement, C, ' Prud'hon.' 1872.
Blanc, Ch., ' Histoire des peintres fran(;ais.'
Goncourt, E. and J. de, ' Prud'hon.' 1861.

„ „ ' L'Art du xis siecle.' 1882.

OJ.D.
PRUGGER, NiCLAS, (Prtjckbr, or Bruckbe,) a
painter of Munich in the 17th century, who died
there in 1694. He was the son of a peasant of
Trudering, near that city, and was educated by the
help of the Electress Maria Anna, and trained in
art by that of the Elector Maximilian I. of Bavaria,
whose successor, Ferdinand Maria, appointed him



his court-painter. The Pinakothek contains a por-
trait of the former Elector by him, together with a
male portrait of 1664 ; and there also exist by him
seven portraits of the above Electress on copper-
plates the size of a groschen.

PRUNATI, Santo, an historical painter, born at
Verona in 1656. He was a pupil of Voltolino and
Falcieri at Verona, and of Loth at Venice. He
also visited Bologna. There is a ' San Francesco di
Sales ' by him at the cathedral at Verona. His son,
Michelangelo Prunati, was his pupil and painted
in the same style.

PRUNEAU, Noel, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1751. He was a pupil of Augustin de
St. Aubin, in whose style he has engraved several
plates, chiefly portraits, among which we may
name the following :

Bosalia le Yasseur ; t^ter his own design.

Herman Boerhave ; the same.

Albert de HaJler ; the same.

Gerard, Baion van Swieten, Architect ; after A. de St.
Auiin.

Jean Joseph Sue; after A. de Pujol.

Francois de la Peyronie, principal surgeon to Louis XV.

PRYKE, Robert, an English engraver, who
studied under Hollar. He practised after the
Restoration, and in 1675 published an edition of
Pierre Le Muet's ' Architecture.'

PUBLIAN, Johann Gottfried, a German
architectural painter of little merit, born at Meissen
in 1809. He died at Diisseldorf in 1875.

PUCCINI, BlAGlo, an obscure painter, who
flourished at Rome in the reigns of Clement XI.
and Benedict XIII.

PUCCIO D'ORVIETO, Pieteo di, is entitled to
notice for the reason that his works on the north
wall of the Campo Santo of Pisa are believed to be
the earliest examples of fresco-painting, properly
so called. They represent the ' First Person of the
Trinity ; ' 'The Creation of Man ; ' 'The Pall of
Man and its consequences ; ' the ' Death of Abel ; '
the 'Death of Cain;' and 'The Deluge.' A
' Coronation of the Virgin ', over the door of the
second chpael, is also by him . These pictures dis-
play grandeur of conception and design, and a rare
harmony of colouring. The series was continued,
as far as the Visit of the Queen of Sheba, by
Benozzo Gozzoli. Puccio painted in the later years
of the 14th century. (See E. Forster, ' Beitrage,'
p. 220.)

PUCHLER, JoHANN Michel, an engraver of
whom very little is known, worked in a peculiar
manner, towards the end of the 17th century. He
engraved portraits with the point, the hair and
habits are formed of writing. In this fashion he
engraved a portrait of Martin Luther and his wife,
after Cranach. It is signed Mich. Puchler fecit.
Van Stettin speaks of a Jan Gregoire Biiehler,
a writing-master, who worked in this manner about
the year 1692, and BruUiot conjectures that the
two are identical.

PUCHNER, Melchior, was a painter of Ingol-
stadt, who produced several altar-pieces and other
devotional pictures for the churches, and died in
1760.

PUDISS. See Pauditz.

PUBLLACHER, Leopold, was born at Telfs
in the Tyrol in 1776, and, studied for a scene
painter at Vienna under Gassner and Platzer.
He painted scenes for Count Karolyi, and was in
1815 made court theatrical painter at Innspruck.
He also executed several wall-paintings for Tyrolese
churches, Puellacher was still alive in 1830.

327



Puga



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



PuUgo



PUGrA, Antonio, a Spanish painter of familiar
subjects, was a scholar of Velazquez, whose early
manner he imitated cleverly. He flourished about
1650-60. In the Hermitage there is .a ' Knife-
Grinder ' by him.

PUGET, FRANgois, painter and architect, the
son of Pierre Puget. He studied first under his
father, afterwards with Laurent Pauchier, a clever
portrait painter, whose style he followed so closely
as to render their works almost indistinguishable.
He executed several historical works and religious
pictures for the churches. According to a letter
written on January 10, 1763, by his son Pierre
Paul Puget, many of the pictures ascribed to
Pierre Puget, the sculptor, are by his son Francois.
In 1683 Francois carried his father's group 'Milo
of Crotona,' to the king at Versailles, and, in 1685,
his ' Andromeda.' He died in 1707. Works :

The Calling of Matthew and other pictures in the

Chapel at Chateau Gomber.
Portrait of the sculptor, Pierre Puget. (Louvre.)
Portrait Group of eight Musicians and Artists. (Tlie

same.)

PUGET, PiEEEE, (or PujET,) painter, sculptor,
architect, and engineer, was born at Chateau Pollet,
near Marseilles, October 31, 1622. At the age of
seventeen he went to Italy on foot, working his
way along the road. He visited Florence and Rome,
assisted by Cortona ; he painted a ceiling in the
Barberini Palace, and in the Pitti Palace at Florence,
and returned to Marseilles in 1643. There he
painted a portrait of his mother, and after a second
journey to Italy, painted many works for his native
city, and for Aix, Toulon, Cuers, and Ciotat. In 1655,
being attacked by a severe malady, he was forced
to give up painting, and henceforth devoted him-
self to sculpture. He visited Paris in 1659, le.iving
it after a six months' sojourn, disgusted with the
court intrigue which had marred his arrangement
for an equestrian statue of Louis XIV. He next
spent six or seven years at Genoa, and then a
second term at Toulon, finally settling in his
native Marseilles, where he died in 1694. The por-
trait of himself at an advanced age in the Louvre,
is by his son, Franjois. An ' Annunciation ' of
graceful design but somewhat cold colouring is in
the cathedral of Aix, and many of his pictures are
at Marseilles and in its neighbourhood.

PUGH, Charles, an English landscape painter
in water-colours, of the early tinted school, who
exhibited at the Academy from 1797 to 1803. His
subjects were mostly views in Wales and the Isle
of Wight.

PUGH, Edward, an English miniature painter
and landscape draughtsman, was born in the second
half of the 18th century. His works appeared at
the Academy from 1 793 to 1 808. He died at Ruthin
in 1813. The illustrations in the following works
are by him :



Modern London.
Cambria depicta.



1805.
1816.



PUGH, Herbert, a landscape painter and
native of Ireland, who came to London about the
year 1758, received a premium from the Society of
Arts in 1765. He painted a few pictures also in
which he attempted to imitate the style of Hogarth,
but they were very indifferent performances. They
were engraved by Goldar. There was a large
landscape by him in the Lock Hospital. He was
an intemperate man, and died comparatively young
about the year 1789.

328



PUGIN, AiiGUSTUS, architectural draughtsman,
was born in France in 1762. On account of a duel
he fled to England, when young, and had to suffer
much hardship through his ignorance of English,
until he met with a friend in a French artist called
Merigot, then settled in London. Towards the end of
the century, he entered the schools of the Academy
where he exhibited from 1799. For many years he
worked with Nash, the architect, and subsequently
was engaged on the publications o,f Ackermann.
He added the architectural backgrounds to Row-
landson's figures. His architectural drawings exer-
cised an important influence in the revival of the
Gothic style in this country. He made the draw-
ings for the histories of Oxford, Cambridge, and
Westminster Abbey. In 1821, he published his
' Specimens of Gothic Architecture,' which marked
an epoch. He occasionally practised, too, as an
architect, and trained some eminent pupils, and
was the father of Augustus Welby Pugin. He
married an English wife, and lived many years in
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, where he died in
London in 1832. There are four of his water-colour
drawings in the Kensington Museum. 'The prin-
cipal publications on which he was engaged are :
Specimens of Gothic Architecture. 1821.
Architectural Antiquities of Normandy.
Paris and its Environs. 1831.
Gothic Ornaments. 1844.
Examples of Gothic Architecture. 1830.
Ornamental Timber Gables.

PUGIN,_ Adgustds Welby, demands mention
here by his work as a draughtsman and scene
painter, in which capacity he worked for some
time in early youth. He was born in London on
March 1, 1812, and died at Ramsgate on September
14, 1852. His career as an architect and architec-
tural draughtsman has been described by his friend,
Benjamin Ferrey, in a ' Life,' published in 1861.

PUGLIA, Giuseppe, called Giuseppe del Bas-
TABO, was a native of Rome, and, according to
Baglioni, flourished from 1600, and chiefly during
the pontificate of Urban VIII. There are several
of his works in the churches at Rome, of which
the most deserving of notice are 'The Present-
ation in the Temple,' in the cloister of the Padri
della Minerva ; and an altar-piece in the church of
Santa Maria Maggiore, representing ' The Assump-
tion of the Virgin.' In the church of San Girolanio
there are a ' Descent from the Cross,' and a ' Death
of St. Jerome.' Bastaro died at Rome in 1640.

PU6LIC0CHI, Antonio, a native of Florence,
and pupil successively of Pietro Dandini and Giro
Fern.
PUIS, Du. See Dupuis.
PUJET. See Puget.
PUJOL, Alex. D. See Abel de Pujol.
PULIAN, JoHANN Gottfried, was born at
Meissen in 1809, and was a landscape and archi-
tectural painter. In 1837 he began to attend the
Academy at Dusseldorf, in which city he died in
1875. His best productions are picturesque sketches
from the old towns of Belgium and the Rhine.
Among them we may name :
The City Gate of Neuss. 1840.
Schwalbach, on the ithine.
Various Views in Bachaiach, on the Ehine.
The Cathedral of Limburg.
St. Nicholas' Church at Ghent.
Canal in Mechlin.
Castle-Elz.

PULIGO, DoMENico, was a painter of Florence,
born in 1475, and brought up in the school of



Fuligo



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Pye



Domenico Bigordi, called Ghirlandaio. On the
death of that master, in 1498, when he was twenty
years of age, it does not appear that he made choice
of another instructor, but he acquired considerable
reputation as a portrait painter, and by some easel
pictures representing Madonnas and Holy Families,
some of which are in the Borghese and Colonna
Palaces at Rome, and the Pitti at Florence. He
formed an intimate acquaintance with Andrea del
Sarto, and though several years older than that
painter, he improved his style by a study of his
works. He is stated to have worked also with
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Puligo died in 1527. Works :



Florence.


Pitti Gal.


Five Holy Families


Fanshanger.




A Portrait.


Madrid.


Museum.


A Holy Family.



PULIGO, Jaconb, the brother of Domenico
Puligo, was also a scholar and assistant of Andrea
del Sarto. He was a very inferior painter.

PDLZONE, £oiPiONE, called Gabtano, was born
at Gaeta in 1550, or, as Zani states, 1562, and was a
disciple of Jacopo del Conte. He painted historical
subjects, but more especially portraits, and drew
those of the most illustrious persons of his time ;
among whom were Gregory XIII., Cardinal
de' Medici, and the Archduke Ferdinand. Lanzi
asserts that he was called ' The Roman Van Dyck,'
but this cannot have been during his life-time, as
he died several years before Van Dyok was born.
Of his historical works, the most deserving of
notice are, his picture of the ' Assumption, with
the Apostles,' in San Silvestro, on Monte Cavallo ;
a Piet^, in the Jesuits' church ; and a ' Crucifixion,'
in Santa Maria, in Vallicella. In the Palazzo
Borghese there is a fine ' Holy Family ' by him.
He died at Rome in the prime of life, in 1588, or,
according to Zani, in 1600. Besides the above
works we may name :

Florence. Pitti Gal. Portrait of Eleonora de'

Medici, wife of Vinoenzo

I., Duke of Mantua.

„ „ Portrait of Marie de' Medici.

„ „ Three portraits of Principes.

„ „ Portrait of Ferdiuaudo I. de'

Medici.
„ Uffizi. Christ in the Garden,

Madrid. Museo. Male portrait.

PUNT, Jan, a Dutch engraver, was born in
1711, and died about 1779. He was a theatrical
scene painter, and painter in chiaroscuro. His
principal plates were a set of thirty-six, after the
drawings made by Jacob de Wit from the paint-
ings by Rubens on the ceiling of the church of
the Jesuits, at Antwerp, which were destroyed by
lightning. He also engraved a plate of the ' As-
cension,' after Seb. Ricci,for the ' Dresden Gallery; '
and many other subjects, of which Nagler has given
a list.

PUNTORMO. See CAEnncci.

PQPILER, Antoine, is stated to have been a
Flemish painter of extraordinary merit, who was
employed in Spain by Philip II. in 1556, but all of
whose works were consumed in the conflagration
at the Pardo.

PUPINI, BlAGlo, was a native of Bologna, and
flourished from about 1530 to 1540. He was a
disciple of Francesco Francia, whose style he fol-
lowed at a respectful distance. He also imitated
Raphael. Of his works in the public edifices at
Bologna, the following are the most worthy of
notice : In the church of S. Giuliano, ' The Crown-
ing of the Virgin ; ' in S. Giacomo Maggiore, ' The



Virgin and Infant Christ, with S. Orsola ; ' in S.
Maria della Baronoella, ' St. John preaching in the
Wilderness ; ' and in the Pinacoteca, a ' Nativity,'
with the Virgin, St. Joseph, and Angels adoring
the Infant Christ.

PURCELL, Richard, who passed by the name
of C. CoBBUTT, was a mezzotint engraver, bom in
Ireland about the year 1736. He studied under
John Brooks at Dublin, where he practised for a
while, engraving 'Jenny Cameron,' 'The Jewish
Bride,' 'William at the Siege of Namur,' &c. Some '
of his plates are mere copies from those of other
engravers. In later years on he came to London,
where he engraved after Reynolds, Coker, Ramsay,
Frye, and other well-known painters. The true
reason for his use of a pseudonym can only be
guessed, but he was dissolute, even depraved, in his
life. He died in misery about 1765. Of his plates
the following, perhaps, are the most worthy of
notice ;

John Manners, Marquis of Grauby ; after Reynolds.
Lady Fenhoulet, afterwards Oouutess of Essex ; after

the same.
Elizabeth, Countess of Berkeley ; after the same.
Lady Charlotte Jobnstone ; after the same.
Garriok between Tragedy and Comedy ; after the same.
The Children of Charles I. ; after Van Dyck.
John "Wilkes, Esq. ; after Pine.
Major-General James "Wolfe.
Fran9ois Arouet de "Voltaire.
Jean Jacques Rousseau.
"William Komaine ; after F. Cotes.
Paoli ; after Constantine.
Anne Bastard, of Kitely, in Devonshire.
A Flemish Conversation ; after Brouwer.
The old Eabbi ; after Bembrandt.
Two subjects after J, Vemet.

PUSCHNER, JoHANN Georg, was a German en-
graver, supposed to have been a native of Nurem-
berg. He flourished from 1670 till 1720, and
engraved a set of portraits for a folio volume,
entitled 'Icones virorum omnium ordinum eru-
ditione,' &c., published at Nuremberg.

PUYOL (Pujol). See Abel db Pdjol.

PYE, Charles, an English engraver, born in 1777.
There is a ' Holy Family,' after M. Angelo, by him,
and specimens of his work will also be found in
Dibdin's 'Tour.' He published a work on coins
and tokens.

PYE, John, the elder, an English engraver and
painter, was born in 1745. He was a pupil of
Major, and gained a Society of Arts' pension in 1758.
From 1780 onwards he was a constant exhibitor
of water-colour views at the Royal Academy. He
was employed by Boydell as an engraver, and
worked in both the line and dot manners, and also
etched. The date of his death is not recorded.
We have by him a ' Tobit and the Angel,' after
Karel du Jardin, and a ' Holy Family,' after Poe-
lemberg ; also several landscapes, after Claude
Lorrain, Vemet, Swanevelt, Cuyp, &o., which are
etched and neatly finished with the graver.

PYE, John, an English engraver, born at Bir-
mingham April 22, 1782. In his early years he
was entirely self-taught, until he came to London
about 1802, and worked under James Heath, in
whose workshop he had an opportunity of making
friends with many of those men who made English
engraving famous in the early years of the century.
He soon obtained a reputation for his rendering of
landscapes, especially those of Turner. In 1811
he engraved ' Pope's Villa,' after that master, with
the figures by C. Heath. This so pleased Turner
that he engaged Pye to engrave his ' Temple of

329



Pye



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



Pyreiciis



Jupiter, at ^gina.' With this plate he was very
successful, and from its publication his repute was
established. Many important works were intrusted
to him, and while still comparatively young, he
had acquired means enough to take life easily, to
help on less fortunate men, and to promote various
causes he had at heart. Much of his life was passed
in Paris, and he was elected a corresponding member
of the French Institute (by which he was awarded
a medal), as well as of the St. Petersburg Academy.
He took great interest in the history and con-
dition of English art, was a founder of the Artists'
Benevolent Fund, opposed the Ro)'al Academy
with much energy and not a little acerbity,
and wrote an important work on ' The Patronage
of British Art.' He also managed the publication
of ' Pictures from the National Gallery,' which
came to an end after twenty-nine parts had been
issued. Pye died in London in 1874. Amongst
his best plates are :

Pope's Villa ; after Turner.

Temple of Jupiter ; afte7' the same.

Hardraw Fall ; after the same. '

Wycliffe, Yorkshire ; after the same.

Bhrenbreitstein ; after the same.

■Weathercote Cave ; after the same.

Kialto, Yenice ; after the savie.

La Kiccia ; after the same.

St. Mary EedolySfe, Bristol ; after the same.

Junction of the Greta and the Tees ; after the same.

The Annunciation ; after Claude Lorrain.

Holy Family ; after M. Angela.

Evening ; after George Barrett.

Classical Landscape ; after Gaspar Poussin.

The last of "William Smith ; after Zandseer.

Scenes in India ; after Daniel.

Plates to Stanhope's ' Olympia.'

Plates to the ' Oriental Annual.'

PYE, Thomas, historical painter, studied in
Dublin under West, and in 1794 was in Rome.
Nothing further is known about him.

PYLE, Robert, an English portrait and subject
painter, born in the first half of the 18th century.
He practised in London, and in 1763 was a member
of the Free Society of Artists. Some of his works
were engraved, among them the following :

The Power of Music and Beauty. (Engraved hy J.

Watson.)
The Four Elements. {The same, hy J. Spooner.)
Portrait of Queen Charlotte.

PYM, B., an English portrait and miniature
painter, who had a considerable practice in London
in the latter half of the 18th century. He exhibited
regularly at the Academy up to 1793. There is a
portrait of Bannister by him at the Garrick Club.



PYNAKER. See Pijnakeb.

PYNE, Charles Claude, an English water-
colour artist, was born in 1802. For many years he
was teacher of drawing in the Grammar School at
Guildford, in which town he died in October, 1878.
In the Art Library, South Kensington Museum,
are six volumes of his sketches in Switzerland and
North Italy, and a volume filled with small draw-
ings of Normandy and Brittany.

PYNE, James Baker, was bom in Bristol in
1800. He was intended for the law, but he aban-
doned it to become an artist. In 1835 he came to
London, and exhibited at the Royal Academy. In
1842 he was admitted a member of the Society of



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