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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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cussion of Quiricius, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle,
' Painting in North Italy,' vol. i. pp. 34—37.

QDIROS, Lorenzo, a Spanish historical painter,
and imitator of Murillo, was bom at Santos in
Estremadura in 1717. He studied at Seville under
Bernard German Llorente, and made great progress
both in fresco and oil painting. To perfect himself
in drawing,_he went to Madrid ; but his turbulent
disposition induced him to abandon the patronage
of Corrado and Mengs, who were disposed to em-
ploy him. He returned to Seville, where he re-
mained for twenty years without ever making any
one acquainted with his place of residence. He
employed himself in copying the works of Murillo,
which he did very successfully, selling his copies
through an agent. He died iu 1789. He has left
works at Madrid, at the Royal Academy of San
Fernando, at Cazalla, Granada, Xeres, Seville, and
at other places in Spain.

QUITER, Herman Hendrik, (or Har Hind,)
a Dutch mezzotint engraver, was born in 1620, and
died in 1700. We have by him a few English
portraits, after Sir Peter Lely and others.

His eldest son, also Herman Hendrik, studied in
the school of Carlo Maratti, in 1700, and was after-
wards painter to the Landgrave of Hesse ; he died
in 1711 at Brunswick. Magnus Quitee, a younger
son, a portrait painter, was also a short time in the
school of Maratti ; he visited Holland and England,
and probably assisted Kneller. He was afterwards
keeper of the Gallery at Salzdahim, and died in 1744.
There was also an E. Quiter, a mezzotinter, who
produced a few plates after Jan de Baan,






EAAB, Ignaz Joseph, a painter, was born at
Mechanitz in Bohemia, in 1715. He studied at
Getschin under Major, but in 1744 entered the
Jesuit Order, for which he did much decorative work
in fresco. He died at "Welehrad in Moravia, in 1787.

RAABE, Joseph, a portrait and historical painter,
was born at Deutsch-Wartemberg, in Silesia, in
1780. After travelling through Germany, France,
and Italy, he became court painter to the Duke of
Hesse, and teacher of drawing and painting in the
Academy at Bonn. In 1816 he became a member
of the Dresden Academy, and in the same year
went again to Italy. Some years later he was
appointed court painter to the King of Saxony.
His chief works are figures of St. Peter and St.
Paul, painted for the church at Naumburg, in
Silesia, and a ' Madonna and Child ' for the church
at Werthau, in the same province. In the Dresden
Gallery there is a series of pictures and drawings
by him illustrating the history of Germany in the
Middle Ages. Eaabe died in 1849.

EABAGLIO, Peospeb, was a native of Brescia.
There is an altar-piece by him in the church of the
Capuchins in that city, dated 1588.

RABASSE, Jean, an engraver and print-seller,
who flourished in Paris about 1650. Three prints
have been attributed to him : a ' Judith,' signed
Jean Rabas avec Previlege du Roy ; a ' Holy
Family,' with his initials, J. R., and a 'Repose
in Egypt,' with the same letters in a cipher. The
two latter have been variously assigned by different
writers. .

RABBIA, Rafaelle, a portrait painter, was born
at Marino. He was living in the year 1610.

RABEL, Daniel, the son of Jean Rabel, was
probably instructed by him in the principles of
art. He painted landscapes, some of which have
been engraved. He etched a considerable number
of plates in a style resembling that of Israel
Silvestre, which chiefly consist of views and land-
scapes, with figures neatly drawn. His death is
said to have taken place in 1628.

RABEL, Jean, painter and engraver, was bom
at Beauvais, in France, between 1545 and 1550. He
executed several etchings for a book called ' The
Antiquities of Paris,' published in 1588. He en-
graved portraits of Charles V., Louis XII. , Soissons,
and Coligny ; and painted portraits of Henri III.,
Gamier, and others. There is a copper-plate by
him representing the • Martyrdom of St. Lawrence,'
copied from the print of the same subject engraved
by Marc Antonio, after Baccio Bandinelli. It is
smaller than the original, and on a stone at the
bottom of the print is inscribed lo Rabel Bel-
lonacus lute Parisii. He died in 1603.

EABEN, Seevatius, (Raeven, or Raven,) a
Dutch engraver, of whom little is known with
certainty, except that he engraved the ' Twelve
Caesars,' after Stradanus, on one of which is a cipher
formed of S. R. V. , and on the rest his name varied
as above ; and the 'Madonna della Seggiola,' after
Raphael, signed Servatius Raeven. By some he
has been confused with Serwouter ; but the cipher
of the latter is very dijBEerent from his, being

composed of a P and an S interlaced, followed
bya W.

RARER, Johann Georq, a German engraver,
was born at Vienna in 1764. He became the pupil
of Muller in Stuttgart, and of Desnoyera in Paris.
His chief works are ' Children,' after Van Dyck ;
a ' Madonna,' after Raphael ; and a portrait of
Prince Ludwig of Bavaria, after Kellerhofen.

RABIELLA, Pablo, a Spanish painter of battle-
pieces, who lived at Saragossa at the commence-
ment of the 18th century, where he enjoyed a con-
siderable reputation. Though not very correct in
his drawing, in his painting he followed with
success the styles of Juan Rizi of Castille, and
Juan de Valdes of Andalusia. There are several
pictures in the Trinitarios Calzados de Teruel
attributed to him ; also in the chapels of St. Marco
and Santiago, and one in the Cathedral de la Seu
at Saragossa, representing the Battle of Clavijo.

EABI8IN0, ToMMASo da, commonly known as
Tommaso da Modena, a native of Modena, who
flourished as a painter in the 14th century. Of his
life nothing is known for certain, but the chief
works which have been the means of preserving
his name are : an ' Eoce Homo ' and ' Madonna ' in
the chapel of the Castle at Karlstein ; a ' Madonna '
in the Gallery at Modena ; a ' Madonna with Saints '
in the Belvedere at Vienna, and several Saints
in the church of St. Niccolo at Treviso, most of
which are in a very exaggerated style. See Crowe
and Cavalcaselle, 'Italian Painting,' vol. ii. p. 219.

RABON, Nicolas, (or Rebon,) son of Pierre
(Rabon), was born in Paris in 1644, and painted
historical subjects. He obtained honours at the
Academy in 1666, and was admitted a member in
1686. He died the same year at Hermant.

RABON, PiBRBE, (or Rebon,) bom at Havre
in 1619, practised portrait painting. He was
admitted into the old Royal Academy of France in
1660, and died in 1684.

RACCHETTI, Bernardo, the nephew and scholar
of Giovanni Ghisolfi, was born at Milan in 1639.
He painted architectural views and perspectives
in the style of his instructor, for whose pictures
Racohetti's are not unfrequently mistaken. They
usually represent sea-ports embellished with mag-
nificent buildings, which are diawn with precision,
and handled with taste and spirit. There are
many of his works in the private collections at
Milan, where he died in 1702.

RACINE, Jean Baptiste, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1747. He was a pupil of Fran-
cois Aliamet, and has engraved several vignettes
and other plates for books, after Cochin. We have
also some prints of landscapes after different
masters, and a few subjects from the pictures in
the Orleans Gallery. Among others the following
are by him :

Hagar and Ishmael ; after P. F. Mola.

A Pastoral Subject ; after B. Breenlerg.

A Pair of Landscapes ; after PiUement.

EACLE, FEANgois B., portrait painter, born at
Liege, 1739, a pupil of Deprez, and studied also
in Italy. He succeeded his father as painter in





ordinary to the chapter of S. Lambert's Cathedral.
He died 1777.

RADCLYFFE, Edward, an English mezzotint
and line engraver, born at Birmingham in 1810.
He studied under his father, W. RadclyfEe, whom
he assisted for some time. Coming to London in
1842, he worked for the Annuals and the 'Art
Journal.' In 1862 he engraved a series of land-
scapes after David Cox for the Art Union of
London. He died in Camden Town in 1863.
Amongst his best plates are :

The Wiudy Day ; afta- D. Cox.

A "Welsh Funeral ; after the same.

Kenilworth Oastle ; after the same.

The Hay-field ; after Ahsolon.

Eape of Europa ; after Claude.

The Beacon Tower ; after the same.

Morning : Sea Coast ; after F. JR. Zee.

RADCLYFFE, William, an English engraver,
born at Birmingham in 1780. His works are in
the line manner, and are chiefly landscape. He
practised in his native town, and had much to do
with the encouragement of art there. Thus, in
1814, he was one of the founders of the first Bir-
mingham school of art ; in 1821 he assisted in the
formation of the Society of Arts ; and, in 1842, he
aided in the establishment of the Society of Artists.
Many of his works are to be found in the Annuals
of the time ; perhaps his best efforts are in ' Graphic
Illustrations of Warwickshire' (1829), and Ros-
coe's ' Wanderings in North and South Wales.'
He died at Birmingham in 1865. The following
are some of his best plates :

Portrait of Dr. Milner ; after Barter.

Portrait of Lord Nelson.

Rest in the Desert ; after Micller.

Crossing the Sands ; after Collins.

Church of St. Julian ; after Turner.

Hornby Castle ; after the same.

Deal ; after the same.

RADCLYFFE, William, an English portrait
painter, was the son of W. Radclyffe, the engraver.
He practised at Birmingham, and afterwards at
London, exhibiting occasionally at the Royal Aca-
demy. He died young in 1846.

RADEMAKER, Abbaham, probably the younger
brother of Gerard Rademaker, was born at Amster-
dam in 1676, and is said to have reached an
eminent rank in art as a landscape painter, with-
out the assistance of an instructor. His first
productions were painted in water-colours, and
were very highly finished ; but he afterwards
practised oil painting, with no less success. He
was well acquainted with the rules of architecture,
and embellished his landscapes with buildings and
ruins, in a very picturesque manner. He engraved
from his own designs a set of plates of the most
interesting views of ancient monuments, &c. in the
Netherlands. They are executed in a masterly style,
and were published at Amsterdam in 1727. Rade-
maker died at Amsterdam, January 22nd, 1735.

RADEMAKER, Geeard, bom at Amsterdam in
1672, was the son of an architect, who taught him
the first rudiments of drawing and perspective,
with an intention of bringing him up to his own
profession ; but perceiving his son's inclination for
painting, he placed him under the tuition of A. van
Ghoor, a portrait painter of some reputation. He
had made some progress in his studies when the
death of his master deprived him of his assistance ;
but he was sufficiently advanced in the art to give
lessons in design ; and he was engaged by the
Bishop of Sebasto to teach his niece drawing.


That prelate being afterwards obliged to visit
Rome, Rademaker was invited to accompany him,
and had the advantage of improving his talent
by studying the most interesting objects in that
capital. His genius led him to represent views
of the principal ruins and other monuments in that
city and vicinity, which he designed with accuracy
and precision. On his return to Holland he met
with the most flattering encouragement. He did
not, however, confine himself to architectural
views, but painted with considerable success
historic and emblematic subjects which adorn the
public edifices at Amsterdam and the other cities
of Holland. In the Townhall at Amsterdam is an
allegorical subject painted by Rademaker, repre-
senting the regency of the city ; and in the
collection of the family of Walraaven there is a
view of the interior of St. Peter's at Rome, de-
signed with great accuracy. He died at Amster-
dam in 1711.

RADET, Jean B., a French painter and native
of Dijon, where he was born in 1752. As an artist
he had little success, but won some reputation
with liis pen. He died in 1830.

RADI, Bernardino, a native of Cortona, an
Italian designer and engraver, whose name is affixed
to a set of architectural ornaments, monuments, &c.,
published at Rome in 1618. They are slight, hasty
etchings, and bear the title Varie invemioni per
depodti di Bernardino Radi Corionese.

RADIGUES, Antoine, a French engraver, born
at Rheims in 1719. He is said to have visited
England, whence he went through Holland to
Russia, and resided several years at St. Petersburg,
where he engraved the portraits of the Prince and
Princess Gallitzin, and other persons of distinction.
He also engraved a plate for the collection of tjje
Dresden Gallery, representing Angelica and Medoro,
after Alessandro Tiarini.

RADIN SALEH BEN JAGYA, Prince, a native
of Java, where he was born early in the present
century. He was the pupil, in painting, of A.
Schelfhont and C. Kruseman. He lived for a
time in Dresden, and afterwards accompanied
Horace Vernet to Algeria. Among his best pictures
are ' A Lion Hunt,' ' A Storm at Sea,' and a copy
of Paul Potter's ' Bull.'

RADL, Anton, a landscape painter and en-
graver, born at Vienna in 1774, received his early
training in the Academy at Vienna, but in 1790
he went to Brussels, where he put himself under
the painter Kormer. Thence he went to Frank-
fort, and worked at engraving under Prestel,
whose chief assistant he became, and had a great
share in the engravings by Prestel after Euys-
dael. His chief excellence lay in his drawing,
especially of foliage, for his colouring was hard.
He died at Frankfort in 1842. His chief paintings
are 'A Wood in Summer' in the Darmstadt
Gallery, and a 'Woodland Scene' in the Stadel
Institute. He has left seventy-five views of Ger-
many in sepia and Indian ink ; while of his
aquatints the most worthy of notice are :
A Moonlight Scene ; after Van der JVeer.
A Cornfield ; after Ruysdael.
A Cattle Scene ; after Potter.
A Bear Hunt ; after Snyders,

RADOS, LuiGi, an engraver, born at Panna_ in
1780, was educated in the Academy of that city.
His principal engravings are :

The Emperor Francis II. ; after Bosio.

King Ferdinand ; after the same.




The Archduke Anton ; after the same.
Prince Eugene ; after Jacob.
The Last Supper ; afttrr Leonardo da Vinci.
Madonna Enthroned ; after Raphael.
A Landscape ; after Gonzaga.

RAEBURN,. Sir Henry, an eminent portrait
painter, was born at Stookbridge, now forming
part of Edinburgh, in 1756. His father was a
manufacturer, but at the age of six he was left
an orphan, and was placed at Heriot's Hospital.
At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed to a gold-
smith in Edinburgh ; but a propensity for sketching
and drawing, which he had evinced at school,
seemed more to occupy his mind than the business
of his master. On discovering this propensity, and
seeing some tolfrably executed miniatures which
he had painted, his master encouraged him in
the pursuit by introducing him to David Martin,
the leading portrait painter at that time in Edin-
burgh. The sight of that artist's pictures at once
lighted up a flame in the mind of young Baeburn,
and the kind manner in which the painter re-
ceived him made an impression which was not
obliterated when he arrived at the summit of his
reputation. By the further kindness of his master,
the goldsmith, he was permitted to practise art, and
was so successful, that in a short time he was
enabled to purchase the remainder of his appren-
ticeship, and to become professedly a painter of
portraits in miniature. As his knowledge of art
increased, so did his views expand ; but as he
had received no preliminary instruction he had
many difficulties to contend with. By perseverance
he overcame them. Martin lent him pictures with
permission to copy them, but without ofiering any
assistance as to the manner in which he was to
proceed. The elder artist, it is said, grew un-
easy, when he saw the talent of the neophyte,
and fearing that he was fostering a rival who
might hereafter dispute his supremacy, he abruptly
terminated the acquaintance. This seems to have
been the end of Baeburn's early studies. He soon
applied himself entirely to painting in oil, and his
reputation, with his application, opened to him the
doors of the rich, whose collections of pictures
afforded a better opportunity to become acquainted
with the beauties of art than he had hitherto
enjoyed. At the age of twenty-two he married
the widow of Count Leslie, a lady who had, as
a maiden, been a Miss Edgar. With her he ob-
tained a fortune which put him above money cares.
He at once repaired to London to seek the advice
of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who counselled him to go
to Rome, and study Michael Angelo. This, advice
was strengthened by an offer of pecuniary assistance
if needed, and letters of introduction to persons who
might be useful during his stay in Italy. The latter
he accepted, and with his wife departed for Rome.
After two years' residence in Italy he returned to
Scotland, and may be said to have commenced his
real professional career. He soon took the lead in
Edinburgh, and verified the justness of his former
friend Martin's apprehensions. For years, appli-
cation, improvement, and success went hand in
hand ; and he might reckon the greater part of
the distinguished men of Scotland of his time
among his sitters and friends. In 1813 he became
an associate of the Royal Academy, and in the
following year R. A., it is said without the usual
solicitation. He now again turned his thoughts
to the metropolis, and consulted Sir Thomas
Lawrence on the subject, who persuaded him to
be content with his Scottish supremacy. He took

the advice which Lawrence had given with so
much disinterestedness, and the portraits of the
mountain chiefs, the Macdonalds, Mackenzies,
Campbells, Bruces, Hays, Scots, Duffs, Gordons,
Douglases, Hamiltons, and many others, attest
the fulness of his practice. In 1822, when George
IV. visited Scotland, he was knighted, and the
following year appointed " His Majesty's limner
in that part of his dominions, with all the rights,
privileges, and advantages thereunto belonging."
Whatever these rights, privileges, and advantages
might be, he did not long enjoy them, for he died
in Edinburgh in 1823. It has only been within
the last few years that Raeburn's high rank in art
has been fully acknowledged. In 1876 a collection
of 825 portraits by him was brought together in
the galleries of the Royal Scottish Acadera}', and
in 1877 several of the best were at the Winter
Exhibition of the Royal Academy in London.
Since then the Scottish painter has been fast rising
in public esteem, and now he may be said to rank
next to Reynolds and Gainsborough among British
painters of portraits. The following list is con-
fined to his more notable and more accessible
portraits :

Edinburgh. JVat. Gail. Mrs. Hamilton of Kaimes.
„ „ Mrs. Kennedy of Dunure.

„ „ Mrs. Scott Monorieff.

„ „ Professor Wilson (at the age of

„ „ Dr. Alexander Adam, Rector of

the High School of Edinburgh
from 1768 to 1809.
„ „ Et. Hon. Francis Homer.

„ „ Lord Newton (a chef d'osuvre).

I, „ John 'Wauchope.

„ „ Lady Miller.

„ „ Ool. Alastair Macdonell of Glen-

garry (on loan ; a masterpiece).
„ Nat. Po7-t. Gall. Neil Gow, the violinist.
„ Archers' Hall. Dr. Nathaniel Spens.
„ Register House. Lord Frederick Campbell.
Leith. Trinity House. Portrait of Admiral Lord Dun-
London. Nat. Gall. Full-length portrait of a Lady.

„ Nat. Port. Gall. Et. Hon. Francis Horner.
„ „ Eev. John Home.

„ „ Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster.

), „ Henry Mackenzie.

Paris. Louvre. A Greenwich Pensioner.

Eobert Bell, Procurator of the Church at Scotland.
The Hon. Henry Erskine.
Et. Hon. Thomas Elder.
Dr. James Hutton.
Professor Joseph Black.

Sir 'William Macleod, Lord {of Session) Bannatyne.
Et. Hon. Sir Eobert Listou.
Lady Liston.

George, fifth Duke of Gordon [twice).
Douglas, eighth Duke of Hamilton. (Hamilton Palace.)
Commodore George Johnston.
Professor Adam Ferguson.
Sir David Dundas.
The Et. Hon. Eobert Blair of Avonton. (^Society of

Writers to H. M. Signet.)
Thomas Gledstanes (grandfather of "W. B. Gladstone),
Adam Eoland of Gask.

Eev. Sir Henry Monoriefl Wellwood, D.D., Bart.
John Eobinson, LL.D.
Sir Walter Scott, Bt. (Duke of Succleuch.)
Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville. (Bank of

William Tytler, W.S., F.E.S.B.
Henry Mackenzie.
Baron Hume.
Professor Thomas Eeid.
Bear- Admiral John Maitland.
Professor Dugald Stewart.
Archibald Constable, the publisher.
Archibald Skirving.





Eev. "W. Taylor, Principal of Glasgow University, 1803-

Daniel Stewart,
Lord Jeffrey.
Lady Eaebum.

Many of Raeburn's portraits have been finely
engraved in mezzotint and other methods. The
best plate after him, perhaps, is Charles Turner's
mezzotint from the ' Lord Newton ' in the Scottish
National Gallery.

EAEFUS, P., (or Baefe,) a wood engraver, was
a native of Paris. He flourished about the year
1675. He, with 0. Goujon, a relation of the famous
sculptor Jean Goujon, executed the outs for a cob-
mographical work by Andr6 Thevet. His prints
are very neatly finished, and are usually marlsied
with the initials P. E. He also engraved on wood
the figures dealing with masonry in Jean Martin's
translation of Vitruvius.

EAET, (or De Raet,) Arnould, painter, work-
ing at L^au, and in Louvain and the neighbour-
hood, in the second part of the 15th century. In
1473 he settled finally at Louvain, and by his
second wife became the father of Louis Raet.

RAET, Louis, (or Loms De Scildebe,) painter,
the son of Arnould Raet. Between 1505 and
1507 he decorated the walls of the church of
L^au with paintings, which are now hidden under

RAETH, Ignatius, painter, born at Antwerp,
1626, a member of the Order of Jesus. He prac-
tised for some years in Spain and in Germany,
painting historical subjects and, more especially,
portraits. In the church of St. Gandolph, at Bam-
berg, there is a 'Cnicifixion' by him. He re-
turned to Flanders in 1662, and died in 1666.


RAFFABLLI, Feancesco, a native of Italy, who
flourished about the year 1705. He engraved some
historical plates of no great merit.





BAFFAELLO. See Sanzio.

RAPFALT, Ignaz, painter and engraver, was
born at Weisskirohen in Upper Austria in 1800.
He entered the Academy at Vienna. Hia earliest

Eictures were still-life, but he afterwards devoted
imself to landscapes. He died at Vienna in
1857. His principal works are :

A Mill in Obersteier.

A Snow landscape.

A Eiver Scene with a Oastle.

Soup for the Convent. 1846.

An Evening Scene with a Oastle and Bridge.

Fishermen's Huts. 1848.

Postilions returning.

Eiver Landscape with a Castle. 1853.

A Golden Wedding at Murau, in Styria.

RAFFALT, Johann Gualbekt, a son of Ignaz
Raffalt, was born at Murau in Styria in 1834. He
studied at Vienna under Pettenkofen, and after-
wards travelled in Hungary and Dalmatia, the
scenes of many of his pictures being placed in this
latter country. He died at Rome in 1865. His
principal works are :

Annual Fair in Hungary.
A Gipsies' Gamp.
Pusztabrunnen, Hungary.
Calf -market, Hungary.
The TVaggon.

RAFFET, Denis Augustb Mabie, a French
draughtsman, lithographer, and painter, born at
Paris in 1804. He lost his father, a soldier, while
young, and learnt drawing during apprenticeship
to a turner. Entering the Boole des Beaux Arts
in 1824, he studied under Gros and Charlet.
In 1826 he published an album of lithographed
studies, the first of a series which had a great
success. His subjects were scenes from military
life, to which he remained faithful throughout his
career. In 1832 he went to the siege of Antwerp,
and three years later exhibited a fine series of
lithographs from the sketches he made there.
The patronage of Prince DemidofB enabled him to
make extended travels in Buroj^ and Western
Asia. During these tours he accumulated ma-
terials for a large number of valuable lithographs.
In 1849 Raffet went to Italy, and drew the various
picturesque costumes and uniforms that were to
be found in the still divided country. After the
siege of Rome his time was spent either at Paris
or at Prince Demidoif's villa at San Donato, near
Florence. In 1853 the two friends went to Spain,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 88 of 201)