Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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and when the painter died he left incomplete the
resulting album of sketches. EafEet always had
the pencil in his hand, and his innumerable litho-
graphs form a valuable chronicle of the scenes
visited by himself and his friends. Perhaps the
series in illustration of the ' Expedition des Portes-
de-fer ' is the best. It is said that he was more
than once commissioned to paint a picture for
Versailles, but always postponed it to his favour-
ite lithographs. Eafi'et died at Genoa in 1860.
Amongst his best works are :

Eevue des Ombres.

The Evening after the Battle of Novara.

Capture of Coblentz.

Night Eeview by Napoleon.

RAGBNEAU, Jacques, painter, practising at
the court of France in the first half of the 17th
century, was appointed to the household of
Marie de' Medici. He died in 1658.

RAGGI, PiBTEO Paolo, was born at Vienna
about the year 1650 ; but his parents removing
from thence to Genoa when he was young, he
received his first education in art in that city,
though it is not known by whom he was instructed.
His picture in the Nunziata del Guastato, at Genoa,
representing St. Bonaventura, is in the style of the
Oarracci, and is mentioned by Ratti as a production
of great merit. After visiting Turin and Savona,
he established himself at Bergamo, where he painted
several pictures for the churches and private col-
lections. In the church of St. Lorenzo is an admired
picture of the ' Annunciation ' ; and in St. Marta,
' Mary Magdalene taken up into heaven.' He also
distinguished himself as a painter of landscapes,
which he embellished with figures representing
pastoral or bacchanalian subjects, painted in the
style of Benedetto Castiglione and Giulio Carpioni.
He died at Bergamo in 1724.

RAGOT, PKANgois, a French engraver, born at
Bagnolet in 1641. He engraved some plates after_
Simon Vouet and Charles Le Brun ; but he is
chiefly distinguished for his ability in copying the
prints engraved by Bolswert, Pontius, and Vorster-
mans, after the works of Rubens and Van Dyck.
He executed about forty of these copies with such
accuracy and precision, that they have been mis-
taken for the originals by inexperienced collectors.
He is also said to have engraved a few portraits.




EAGUENEAU, (or Raqdineau,) A,, painter, was
writing-master to William III. of Orange. He
painted several portraits of Prince Frederick Henry,
two of which were for the parliament of Orange,

I RAHL, Karl, a German historical and portrait
painter, born in 1812, at Vienna. He studied in
the Academy of that city, and at the age of twenty
gained the great prize for his ' David in the Cave
• of AduUam,' which enabled him to complete his
art training at Rome. On his return to Vienna he
obtained a high reputation, and a large number
of pupils passed through his studio. Politics oc-
cupied his attention almost as much as art, and
more than once he had to leave Vienna through
his inconvenient opinions. He practised fresco
painting, and many of his works are to be seen in
his native city, where he died in 1865. The Palais
Todesco, the fa9ade of the Greek Church, the
interior of Baron Sina's palace, all at Vienna ; a
Banqueting Hall at Oldenburg ; and some other
buildings were decorated by him. The following
are also good examples of his art :

Berlin. Gallery. Surprise of the Christians in tlie

Boman Catacombs.
Hamburg. Gallery. Manfred at Luceria.

„ „ Manfred at Benerento.

Munich. Neio Pinaco- \ Portrait of Martin Wagner,

thek. J Sculptor.
Vienna. Gallery. Scene from the 'Niebelungen

Lied.' 1835.

RAHL, Kael Heineich, an engraver, was born
at Heilbronn in 1779. His father, a calico printer,
apprenticed him to a silversmith, under whom he dis-
played the first signs of his talent by etching small
landscapes. In 1799 he went to Vienna to study
under Piiger, maintaining himself meanwhile by
the proceeds of the sale of his works. In 1816 he
became a Fellow of the Academy ; in 1829 chief
engraver ; and in 1839 Professor. He died at
Vienna in 1843. There is great power about his
work, but an absence of delicacy. His principal
plates are :

Job and his Friends ; aft&r Wdchter.

The Blind Beggar ; after the same.

Presentation in the Temple ; after Fra Bartolommeo.

' La Notte ; ' after Correggio.

The Battle of Aspern ; after Kraft.

RAHN, Rudolph, engraver, born 1805, at Zurich,
where he first studied. He came to Paris to com-
plete his education, and finally settled at Munich.
He engraved some excellent plates for Kaulbach's
'Reineke Fuohs,' jointly with Ad. Schleioh.
We may also mention his portrait of Winckel-
mann after Angelica Kaufmann.

RAIBOLINI, Fbancbsco di Mabco (commonly
called II Fbanoia), was born at Bologna in the
year 1450. His father was a carpenter, but although
belonging to the artisan class, his family was
highly respected, and owned lands in the neigh-
bourhood. Francesco is said to have been re-
markable for the charms of his person, manner,
and conversation, which made him a general
favourite, so that he numbered the noblest families
of Bologna among his friends. He began life in
the goldsmith's shop, and acquired considerable
reputation by his designs for coins and medals,
his gold and silver enamels, and especially his
works in niello. Giovanni Bentivoglio II., the
reigning prince at Bologna, became a munificent
patron of Francia, and appointed him to be the
Master of tlie Mint, an oifice which he held until
z 2

the end of his life. Most of his goldsmith's work
was executed for this prince, and perished at the
destruction of his palace. Francia's first inclination
to the study of painting is attributed to the in-
fluence of a visit paid by Andrea Mantegna to
Bologna in 1472 ; and his earliest instruction in
the art has long been said to have been received
from Marco Zoppo. This, however, Signor Morelli
disputes, and maintains that no sign of Zoppo's
influence is to be traced in Francia, whom he
looks upon as the pupil of Costa, and partly of
Francesco Cossa and Ercole Roberti de' Grandi.
One of Francia's earliest known works, a small
' Crucifixion,' in the Public Library of Bologna —
executed, Morelli thinks, in 1791 — shows the in-
fluence of both those masters in the fine colour
and good expression of the heads, while the
draperies have the rather harsh folds of the niellist.
Anotlier excellent example of his earliest work is
the ' St. Stephen ' of the Borghese Gallery at Rome ;
and another is the portrait of Bartolommeo Bian-
chini, formerly in the Northwick collection under
the name of Raphael. A picture in the Berlin
Museum, representing the ' Holy Family,' was
painted by Francia for this Bartolommeo, who wag
a senator in Bologna. An altar-piece, now in the
Bologna Gallery, was painted for the same patron.
It has been often declared, with insufficient justifi-
cation, that the earlier works of Francia are Umbrian
in feeling, being affected by the example of Peru-
gino, as seen in pictures brought to Bologna. His
early manner seems to have been entirely Ferrarese,
and so like that of Costa, that works by the one
have been often ascribed to the other. That the
two worked intimately together is proved by the
fact that a predella painted by Costa forms a part
of an altar-piece by Francia in the Bologna Gallery.
From about the year 1500 there is a gradual change
perceptible in the style of Francia's painting. This
has been attributed to his friendship with Raphael,
and his study of Raphael's work. But within the
last few years great doubts have been thrown upon
the existence of any such immediate friendship,
and upon the documents, the letter and sonnet
published by Malvasia, on which its acceptance
depends. These were published for the first time
in ' Felsina Pittrice,' in the year 1678, and it seems
unlikely that if Malvasia had really possessed their
originals, nothing would ever have been found of
them. The later style of the master, which he
owed in all probability as much to his own
maturing powers and to the influence of Costa
as to the influence of any work of Raphael that
came before his eyes, is to be seen at its best
in the great altar-piece of the National Gallery,
especially the lunette, in a series of frescoes which
he executed for the chapel of St. Cecilia, and
in the Madonna of the Rose Garden, at Munich,
In 1511, on the return of the Bentivogli to Bologna,
Francia was elected one of the Gonfalonieri of the
people ; in 1612 he was re-elected to the Master-
ship of the Goldsmiths' Guild, and in 1614 he
attained a dignity described as " Master of the
Four Arts." Vasari says of him that " he was
reverenced as a god in Bologna, and not even his
admiration for Raphael, and his desire to see the
larger works of the great painter, could tear him
away from his native city." It is said that he
had as many as two hundred pupils ; the best of
whom passed into the school of Raphael. His
two sons Giacomo and Giulio also became painters,
and the works of the former are often wrongly






Bologna, Fznacoteca.

attributed to Franoia himself. Franoia died on the
6th of January, 1517, and was probably buried in
the church of San Francesco, where the remains of
Giacomo are also placed. His place in the history
of art is by the side of Perugino. Together with
that master he illustrates the highest capabilities
■of the quattrocento tradition. His existing works
are numerous. The following list includes the
more notable and the more accessible among
them :

Virgin and Child enthroned,

with Saints.
Holy Family.
The Dead Christ between

Two Angels.
The Annnnciation, and the
Saints George, Bernardino
of Siena, Francis of Assisi,
and John the Evangelist.
(Signed feancia aueifex


Virgin and Child, with Saints.

Virgin and Child, with Saints.

{Signed opus feanclze


The Annunciation, with St.
John the Baptist and St.

The Madonna enthroned be-
tween Saints (John the
Baptist, Augustine, George,
Stephen), and an Angel
with fleurs-de-lis.

The Crucifixion, with Saints
(Jerome, John the Baptist,
Francis of Assisi, and Mary
Magdalen). Signed fean-
cia ATmiP.

The Virgin adoring the In-
fant Christ, with SS.
Joseph, Augustine, and
Francis, and two Angels.
The portraits of the Donor,
Ant. Galeaz, Bentivoglio,
and of Girolamo Pandolfi
de Casio, the poet, are also

Two pad, in niello: a * Kesur-
rection' and a 'Cruci-

The Virgin and Child, with
St. Francis.

Vu-gm and Child, with SS.
Paul and Francis. (From
the Church of the SS.
Annunziata.) Inscribed
Joannes Seappus oh ivima-
turum Lactantifitii ohitum
pientissimo ajfectw hoc Vir-
gini et Paulo dicavit.

A Crucified Christ, with the
Virgin, the Magdalen, and
SS. Francis and Jerome;
(The signature, feakoia
AUEiFE, is doubtful.)

God the Father. SmaU half-
length figure, inscribed



An Enthroned Virgin with
Saints, crowned by a Piet4,
in a lunette.

Adoration of the Magi.

Vbgin and Child (the Child
with a Bird).

Baptism of Christ. (Signed

„ Gall. Zambeecari

da San Paolo.

„ Pal. Conmnale.

Gal. Sercolani.


St. Martina


Florence. IJffizi.

Hampton Court.

London. National Gallery.

„ CoU.of Lord Dudley.

Lucca. San Frediano.

„ Gal. Mansi da San
Milan. Brera.

„ Foldi Pezzoli Coll.





Parma. Acad, degli Belle

Petersburg. Hermitage.




M. T. VIII.)

Portrait of Evangelista
Scappi. (Half-length.)

The Baptism of Christ.
(Signed FEANOIA adeifex

The Virgin enthroned with
the Infant Christ, St.
Anne, and Saints (on the
left SS. Sebastian and Paul;
on the right, SS. Lawrence
and Eomuaidus; in front,
the young St. John).
Signed feancia aueifex


The Virgin and two Angels
with the Dead Body of
Christ (the lunette of
the last-named). These
two pictures, which form,
perhaps, the masterpiece
of Francia, were painted
for the Buonvisi chapel in
the church of San Fredi-
ano at Lucca.

The Virgin and Child, with
two Saints (half-length
figures before a landscape

The Virgin giving a Fruit to
the CMld. (Inscribed jaco-

OPTJS FiEEi CDEAvrr. 1495.)

The Assumption.

A Virgin and Child, most
carefully finished.

The Annunciation.

St. Anthony of Padua, with
a landscape background.

The Madonna adoring the
Infant Christ in an en-
closure of roses. (Signed

feancia AUEIFEX BONON. .)

Virgin and ChUd (the Child
playing with a Finch).

The Nativity; the Child
adored by His Mother, St.
Joseph, and two Angels;
against a background of

The Crucifixion ; Job is ex-
tended at the foot of the
Cross : on either side stand
the Virgin and St. John.
(Signed feancia auei-
FABEE.) According to
Vasari this picture was
painted for the church of
Saint Job, at Bologna.

Enthroned Madonna with
Saints (Giustina and Bene-
dict, Scolastica and Placi-
dus, St. John the Baptist).
, (Signed F. feancia aitbi-


The Virgin and Child; in
the background the ' Eesnr-
rection' and the 'Trans-
figuration.' (Signed F.


The Virgin and Child en-
throned among Saints.
Inscribed DS. ihdovicds




The Deposition m the Tomb.




Vienna. Gallery. Enthroned Madonna -with

Saints (Francis, Catharine,
and John the Baptist).


„ Liechtenstein Coll. Portrait of a Dnke of TJrbino
(?), formerly assigned to

As to Francia's right to be catalogued as an en-
graver there has been much discussion. Some
proofs on paper ot his nielli have reached us
(eight are described by Passavant), and he is
stated by Calvi to have engraved on copper. Dr.
Waagen thought the print in the British Museum
inscribed ' Guerino dit Meschi ' was his. He is be-
lieved, too, to have engraved the italic characters
first used by Aldus in the 1501 edition of Virgil.


Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ' History of Fainting in North

Italy,' Vol. I. p. 556-83.
Kugler's ' Handbook to the Italian Schools of Painting '

(Layard's Edition, 1887), Part II. p. 364.
Milanesi's ' Vasati,' Vol. III. p. 533.
Morelli's ' Italian Masters in German Galleries,' p. 56.
Minghetti's ' Eaffaelo,' p. 66.
Calvi, ' Memorie della vita &c. di F. Eaibolini ' (Bologna,

Passavant, * Le peintre graveur,' pp. 197 — 223.
' Macmillan's Magazine ' for February, 1874.
Waagen, ' Art Treasures,' Vol. I. p. 247.
(Sir) A. Panizzi, ' Chi era Francesco da Bologna ' (printed

for private circulation, 1856. Second edition, with a

new appendix, 1873).

RAIBOLINI, GiACOMO, the elder son of Fran-
cesco Raibolini, called Fbancia after his father,
was born about 1484. He studied under his
father, and acted as his assistant. He executed
two of the frescoes in the chapel of St. Cecilia at
Bologna, namely, the ' Baptism of Valerian,' and
the 'Martyrdom of St. Cecilia.' Hia masterpiece,
perhaps, is the beautiful ' Madonna seated with SS.
Francis, Bernard, Sebastian, and Maurice,' dated
1626, in the Pinaooteoa at Bologna, although hie
' St. Michael,' in San Domenico, is also very fine.
Late in life Giacomo came under the influence of
Dosso Dossi, as may be gathered from his two en-
throned Madonnas at Milan. Giacomo died in 1557.
By him :

Berlin. Gallery. The Virgin in Glory (Jointly

with Ms brother Giulio).

„ ,, Chastity.

„ „ Madonna with Saints.

Bologna. Finacoteca. Two Madonnas.

„ „ Virgin with Saints.,

„ San Stefano. Christ on the Cross.

„ San Giovanni. Christ as a Gardener^

„ SS. Annunziata. The Entombment.

„ San Domenico. The Archangel Michael.

Florence. Fitti Gall, A Portrait.
Madrid. Museum. A Devotional Picture with St.

Margaret in the centre.
Milan. Brera. Two enthroned Madonnas.

Parma. S. Giovanni. Adoration of the Shepherds.

A few scarce prints, dated about 1530, and signed
I. F., are ascribed to Giacomo Raibolini. Among
them we may name, ' A Muse,' ' Cleopatra,' and
' Venus and Amor.'

RAIBOLINI, Giulio, younger son and pupil of
Francia, was a painter of mediocre talents. He
was bom in 1487. He worked jointly with his
brother on the pictures named below, which are
now in the Bologna and Berlin Galleries respect-
ively. He died in 1540.
Berlin. Museum. The Virgin in Glory.

Bologna.. Finacoteca. Four Saints. (Both signed

J. J. Feancia.)

RAIMBACH, Abkaham, engraver, bom in Lon-
don in 1776. His father was a Swiss by birth,
but had come to England at an early period of his
life, and never left it. After receiving his educa-
tion at Archbishop Tennison's Library School, the
son was apprenticed to J. Hall, the engraver, and
the first work of the young apprentice was the ex-
planatory key to the engraving of Copley's ' Death
of Chatham,' now in the National Gallery. After
Ifis apprenticeship he entered as a student at the
Royal Academy, and took what casual employ-
ment he could obtain from the booksellers, and
also occupied himself with miniature painting. He
found the latter irksome, and abandoned it finally
for engraving. The plates he executed for Smirke
and Forster's edition of the 'Arabian Nights' made
known his ability, and were also profitable. In
1812 he became David Wilkie's engraver, and the
first work of that distinguished painter that he
transferred to copper was 'The Village Politicians,'
the next was 'The Rent Day,' and these were
followed at intervals by 'The Cut Finger,' 'The
Errand Boy,' 'Blindman's Buff,' 'Distraining for
Rent,' 'The Parish Beadle,' and 'The Spanish
Mother and Child.' After Reynolds he engraved a
'Venus ' and the 'Ugolino.' Raimbach, it is said,
never employed an assistant, but executed the
whole of his plates himself. His prints after
Wilkie are masterly works. They were boldly
engraved, to enable the publishers to take numer-
ous impressions, and therefore appear somewhat
deficient in artistic freedom and delicacy of exe-
cution. They are, however, suited to the subjects,
and very faithful to Wilkie's characters. Raimbach
died at Greenwich .in 1843. Besides the plates
above named, he is also responsible for the follow-
ing :

Leonard Parkinson, a Maroon Chief ; afler a drawing
hy Meiz (Edwards's ' Maroon War ').

lUustrabions for Cooke's ' Tales of the Genii.'

Illustrations for Forster's ' Arabian Nights.'

Five plates for ' Rasselas.'

Plates for Sharpe's ' Spectator,' ' Tatler,' and ' Guar-

Plates for ' Don Quixote.' (Longman : 1818.)

Frontispiece to Scott's ' Arabian Nights.'

Initiation into the Mysteries of Isis ; after Smirke, for
Barlow's ' Columbiad.'

Bape of the Golden Fleece ; the same.

A biography of Raimbach was privately printed
by Frederick Shoberl in- 1843.

RAIMONDI, Maro Antonio, the most famous
and the finest of Italian engravers, was born at
Bologna .towards the end of the 15tli century,
according to Passavant in 1488. But there is much
doubt as to his dates, some authorities putting his
birth as early as 1470, and his death as late as
a century afterwards. Most probably, however,
he was a year or two younger than Raphael, while
we have no trace of his existence after 1627, the
year of the sack of Rome. His first master was
Francia, who taught him to work in niello. He
may have had another master for part of the
technical work of the goldsmith's engraver. By
the year 1505 he had engraved a plate for its own
sake, a 'Pyramus and Thisbe,' and had made a
journey through Upper Italy to Venice. About
1508-10 he was engaged, in Venice, in making
copies of seventeen of Albert Diirer's cuts from
the 'Life of the Virgin,' of the thirty-six cuts of
the ' Little Passion,' and of the ' Adam and Eve.'
Whether Marc Antonio did this with a fraudulent
intention ot not has been much disputed, but





there seems to be no doubt as to his desire to
profit, in an unfair way, by Diirer's reputation,
for to the seventeen plates from the ' Life of the
Virgin ' he affixed the Nuremberger's mark, while
the ' Adam and Eve ' is signed thus :




exactly as the original is signed. The 'Little
Passion ' is marked with Diirer's tablet, in_ blank,
much as Raimondi afterwards marked his own
works. This, perhaps, was due to the represent-
ations made, as Vasari tells us, by Diirer, who very
probably made use of his favour with the Emperor
to get the prohibition to which Vasari refers made
efEective against the use of his name by the Italian
engraver. It is not likely that he actually jour-
neyed to Venice to prosecute his complairit. Marc
Antonio's copies after Diirer are as faithful as
copper-plates after woodcuts, by an artist with a
great original genius of his own, could be expected
to be.

About 1510 Marc Antonio was in Florence, and
there engraved the famous plate after Michel
Angelo's Cartoon of Fisa, which is known as
' The Climbers ' {Les Grimpeurs). About a year
later he went to Rome, where he at first continued
his imitation of Diirer. Soon, however, he enrolled
himself among the followers of Raphael, and
worked for eight or nine years under his super-
vision. Eor a time he seems to have worked in
Raphael's studio, but he afterwards set up a studio
of his own, where he received pupils, among whom
the most famous were Agostino di Musi and Marco
Dente da Ravenna. No doubt much of the per-
fection to which the art was brought in this
atelier was due to the taste of Raphael, for the
spirit in which Raimondi engraved was curiously
akin to that which distinguishes the Urbinate's
work with the point. Design, expression, and purity
rather than richness of technique, are the merits
aimed at. Many of Marc Antonio's plates are
after lost designs of Sanzio, while many others
reproduce compositions still extant, but reproduce
them with variations, suggested most likely by the
master. After Raphael's death, in 1520, Raimondi
engraved after Giulio Romano. This connection
brought him into disgrace and into prison. Giulio
made a series of twenty indecent designs in illus-
tration of sonnets by Pietro Aretino. These Marc
Antonio engraved, and so scandalized Pope Cle-
ment VII., that he was clapped into prison. At
the intercession of the Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici
and of Baccio Bandinelli he was released, and
set to work on his plate of the ' Martyrdom of
St. Lawrence,' after Bandinelli. The engraving
when finished was submitted to the Pope, who
was so pleased with it that he at once took
its author under his special protection. Baccio,
on the other hand, was not satisfied, and com-
plained to Clement that his work had not been
faithfully rendered. The Pope thereupon com-
pared the design with the engraving, and decided
that Raimondi had improved upon Bandinelli.
The original red chalk drawing by the latter is
in the Cabinet at Munich. In 1527 Marc Antonio
lost all he had at the siege and subsequent sack
of Rome. He fled to Bologna, and nothing more
is known of him. From a statement by G. A. di
;Niccolini di Sabio, however, we may fairly con-

elude that he was no longer alive in 1534. For
three centuries Marc Antonio has enjoyed a reput-
ation among reproductive engravers comparable to
that of Raphael among painters. Fine impressions
of his best plates have steadily increased in value,
until now they excite as fierce a competition at
sales as the rarest plates of Rembrandt. His
ceuvre may be divided into four classes : first, the
pieces he executed during his early days under
the shadow of Francia ; secondly, his imitations
of Diirer, and other productions before his journey
to Rome ; thirdly, his work under Raphael ;
fourthly, his work after Raphael's death. In works
belonging to the first class, the hardness of the
niellatore and the immaturity of the youthful
artist are both visible. In those of the second,
the burin is managed more freely, and the in-
dividuality of a true artist is more traceable. In

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 89 of 201)