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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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mician in 1743, his reception work being a ' Con-
versation galante,' after Lanoret, He died in
Paris in 1783. The number of his plates is very



Xiebas



PAINTERS AND ENGKAVERS.



Le Blond



large ; but the following are his most esteemed
works :

Portrait of Eobert Le Lorrain, sculptor ; after JJrouais,
1741.

Portrait of P. J. Gazes, painter ; after Aved. 1741.

The Four Times of the Day ; after Berchem.

The Embarkation ; after the same.

Environs of Groningen ; after Sttisdael.

Environs of Guelders ; after the same.

Daviii Teniers and his Family ; after Tenters.

The Works of Mercy ; after the same.

The Prodigal Son ; after the same.

A Flemish Festival, with Teniers and his Family ; after
Teniers.

The lafit four prints are of a superior execution, and
are among his best works. His plates after Teniers are
more than a hundred in number, and he appears to have
copied that master with great success.)

The Italian Chase ; after Wonwerman.
The Milk-pot ; after the same.
The Boar-hunt ; after the same.
Four large Hunting Scenes ; after Van Valens.
The Port of Messina ; after Claude Lorrain.
An Italian Landscape ; after the same.
An Itahau Sea-port ; after Joseph Vemet.
Fishermen going out ; after the same,
Tliirteen of the Ports of France ; after Joseph Vemet,
etched by Cochin.

LEBAS, Michel Oliviee, was born in Paris in
1783. He was a pupil of Regnault and of Langlois,
and distinguished himself especially by his en-
graving in mezzotint. He died in 1843. He en-
graved for Landon's ' Annales du MusSe.' One of
his best plates is ' The Bull,' after Paulus Potter,
in the Le Brun Gallery.

LE BEAU, Pierre Adrien, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1744. He has engraved
several portraits, and other subjects, after different
masters, among which are :

Louis XVI., King of France ; six different portraits,
after Binet^ and others.

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France ; ten different por-
traits, after Le Clerc, Binet, and others.

Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans. '

Hyder Ali ; after J. Year.

Mile. Baucourt, actress.

Abb6 Terray, comptroller of finance under Louis XV.

A. E. J. Turgot, comptroller under Louis XVI. ; after
De Troy.

Jacques Necker, director of finances under Louis XVI. ;
aj ter Le Clerc.

LEBEDEV, Mikhail, a Russian landscape
painter, was bom in 1812. He studied at the
Academy of St. Petersburg, and afterwards
travelled iii Italy. He painted several views of
Rome and Naples, at which latter city he died from
cholera in 1837.

LEBEL, Antoine, a French landscape painter,
was born at Montrot (Haute-Marne) in 1706. He
was received as an academician in 1746, upon a
' Sea-piece,' which is now in the Museum at Caen.
He was the master of Aved, and died in Paris in
1793.

LEBEL, Charles Jacques, a French historical
painter, who was a pupil of David, exhibited at
the Salon from 1801 to 1827. He produced
several interesting works relating to the French
nation : among them, ' Napoleon visiting the Hos-
pice of Mont St. Bernard;' 'The Reduction of
the City of Paris by Henry IV. ;' 'A Trait of
Humanity in a French Grenadier ; ' and others of a
similar kind. The picture of ' Turenne asleep on
the field of battle, in winter, and his officers shelter-
ing him with their cloaks from the inclemency of



the weather,' was in the collection of the late Baron
BoUand. Lebel also painted a great number of
portraits.

LEBEL, Cli^ment Louis Marie Anne, a French
subject and animal painter, who was a pupil of
Lemoine, was born in Paris in 1772, and died in
1806. Some of his works are in the Museums of
Orleans and of Caen.

LE BERT, , a French designer and engraver,

flourished about 1770. He engraved the following
portraits after Cochin :

King Henry IV.

The Duke of Orleans.

The Count of Artois.

King Louis XV.

The Dauphin, afterwards Louis XVI.

LEBERT, Heinrich, an Alsatian landscape
draughtsman and flower painter, was born at Thann
in 1794, and died at Colmar in 1862.

LEBLANG, Alexandre, a French landscape
painter, was born at Ch&teauneuf in 1793, and died
in 1866. His ' End of the Deluge ' is in the Museum
at Angers.

LE BLANC, Horace, a French painter, who
resided at Lyons in the 17th century, was employed
by the Duke of Angoul^me in his gallery of Gros
Bois, near Paris. He was the master of Jacques
Blanchard.

LEBLANC, ThjSodore, a French battle painter,
born at Strassburg in 1800, was a pupil of Charlet.
He became a captain in the engineers, and died
from wounds received at the siege of Constantino
in 1837. Three of his works are at Versailles.

LE BLOND, Jacob Cheistoph, was born at
Frankfort in 1670, and was first instructed by C.
Meyer at Zurich. Prom tliere he went to Italy,
where he is said to have been a scholar of Carlo
Maratti. At the solicitation of Bonaventura van
Overbeck, he accompanied him to Amsterdam,
where he was employed for some time in painting
portraits in miniature, which were much esteemed.
He quitted Holland, and came in 1720 to London,
where he set on foot a project for printing mezzo-
tint plates in colour, so as to imitate the pictures
from which they were engraved. He executed
some large plates in this way, and disposed of the
prints by a kind of lottery. In 1730, he published
a work explanatory of the process, entitled ' 11
Coloretto, or the Harmony of Colouring in Paint-
ing, reduced to mechanical Practice, under easy
Piecepts and infallible Rules.' The book was
printed in English and in French. He soon after-
wards projected a plan for copying the cartoons
of Raphael in tapestry, and he made some fine
drawings from the originals for that purpose ;
houses were bought, and great expense incurred,
but the scheme failed of success, and Le Blond
left England, and went to Paris in 1732, where he
was not more successful, and died, it is said, in a
hospital in 1741. The following are the principal
prints he published, virhich, independent of the
novelty of the manner, certainly possess consider-
able merit :

POBTBAITS.

George II.
Queen Caroline.
Louis XIV. of France.
Prince Eugene of Savoy.
Cardinal de Fleury.
The Children of Charles I.
Petrus Paulus Kubens.
Anthonius van Dyck.

31



Le Blond



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



lie Brun



VARIOUS SUBJECTS.

St. Agnes ; after Domenichino.

St. Cecilia ; after the same.

The Eepose in Egypt ; after Titian.

The Entombment of Christ ; after the same.

Venus ; after the same.

The Triumph of Galatea ; after C. Maratti,

Cupid making his Bow ; after Correygio., or Parniiyiano.

The Chastity of Joseph ; after C. Cignani.

Christ on. the Mount.

Mary Magdalene.

St. Mary of Egypt.

St. John embracing the Infant Jesus ; after Van Dyck.

LE BLOND, Jean, a French historical painter
and printseller, was born in Paris in 1636. He
was received into the Academy in 1681, his picture
of reception being ' Jupiter hurling thunderbolts
at the Giants,' now in the Louvre. He was some-
times assisted in his works by Willem De Gheyn,
a Dutch painter. He died in Paris in 1709.

LE BLOND, Michel, a German engraver, was
bom at Frankfort in 1587. He chiefly resided at
Amsterdam, but travelled with Sandrart in Italy,
and stayed several years in England. He appears
to have been principally employed at Amsterdam
on ornaments for the goldsmiths. In 1626, he pub-
lished a set of ornaments, foliage, fruit, and flowers,
engraved with great neatness. His prints, which
are all very small, are executed entirely with the
graver in the finished manner of Theodoras De Bry.
He sometimes marked his plates with the accom-
panying cipher /nX • He died at Amsterdam

in 1656. The following prints are by him:

St. Jerome, seated at a desk writing, with an ornamental
border; a small circular plate, about the size of a
shilling ; dated 1610.

Figures dancing, in a small oval, with an ornamental
border ; signed M. Blomlus, 1612.

The Representation of a Marriage ; M. Blondus, 1615.

Two ornaments for goldsmiths ; inscribed Wilhelm van
Weelichkeit.

A very small plate of Ornaments with three Goblets.

Six plates, numbered, of Arabesque Ornaments for
Knife-handles; Michael Blondus fecit; very highly
finished.

The Arms of Albrecht Diirer.

LEBORNB, LoDls, a French painter and litho-
grapher, was born at Versailles in 1796. He was
a pupil of Eegnault, and became in 1843 director
of the School of Design at Nancy, and in 1848 con-
servator of the Nancy Museum, where there are
paintings by him. He died in 1865.

LE BOSSU, Daniel, a French engraver, flour-
ished from about. the year 1670 to about 1700. He
imitated the style of Fran9ois de Poilly, but without
much success. He is said to have resided some
time at Rome, where he engraved some plates after
the Italian painters, among which is 'The Resur-
rection of Lazarus,' after Giaointo Brandi.

LE BRUN, Chables, a French historical painter,
was born in Paris, February 24th, 1619. He re-
ceived his first instruction in art from his father,
who was a sculptor, and from an obscure painter
named Perrier. At the age of eleven he was
fortunate enough to be noticed by the Chancellor
Seguier, who placed him in the studio of Vouet,
and ever proved a constant friend to the rising
young artist. During the next few years his
progress and industry were remarkable. He at-
tracted the notice of Poussin, and in 1642 accom-
panied him to Italy, whither he was enabled to
proceed by the generosity of his patron. He was
received by the Barberini, then pai'amount in Rome,

32



and presented to Pope Urban VIII. His stay lasted
about four years, during which period he painted a
few works, but chiefly occupied himself in studying
from the antique. There is still extant a letter
written by him at this period, which shows how
greatly he was attracted by the smallest details
of classical antiquity. During his journey home, he
made a short sojourn at Lyons, where he executed
some commissions. Arrived at Paris, where his
reputation had preceded him, he at once settled
down to the practice of his profession. Orders
quickly flowed in upon him. He was one of the
numerous band of artists who worked for the
President Lambert de Thorigny on the decoration
of his h6tel on the tie St. Louis. The magnificent
Fouquet employed him at his ch&teau at Vaux,
and gave him a pension of 12,000' livres. For the
oratory of Anne of Austria, he painted a ' Cruci-
fixion,' and she presented him with her portrait
set in diamonds. By Mazarin he was introduced
to Louis XIV., and through the king's patronage
became, after the death of Le Sueur, the head of
the French school, exercising unlimited sway in
all matters relating to art in France. In 1648, he
took the principal part in the foundation of the
Academy, which was always an object of great
solicitude to him, and in which he filled success-
ively all the ofSces of honour. This was not the
only service French art owed to him. He was
greatly instrumental in the establishment of the
French school at Rome, and he was the first
director of the Gobelins manufactory on its found-
ation by Colbert. During all this time he was
painting unceasingly for his royal patron. After
the fire at the Louvre in 1661, the works in the
Apollo Gallery were entirely confided to him. He
also found employment at the royal chSleau at
Sceaux, and at the Pavilions at Marly. But his
greatest work was at the King's new and costly
hobby at Versailles. There he designed fountains,
statues, decorations, (fee, besides painting the
gigantic series of allegories commemorating his
royal patron's achievements. On the death of
Colbert in 1683, his supremacy began to suffer an
eclipse at the hands of Louvois, who favoured his
rival Mignard. He gradually withdrew from
court, and fell into a state of melancholy, which
continued until his death at the Gobelins in Paris,
on February 12, 1690.

The failings of Le Brun's art are neither few nor
small. His drawing is heavy, and his colour
unpleasing. Generally speaking, his execution
fails to reach the standard of his ideas, and his
efforts after the heroic are frequently overstrained,
becoming pompous and scenic. Still he was in
many cases inspired by great conceptions, and his
fertility was very wonderful. In the history of
French art he holds an important place from the
unlimited sway which he exercised, not beneficially
it must be owned, for so long a period.

The pictines by him in the French provincial
galleries are too numerous to mention. The fol-
lowing is a Tst of his works in some of the chief
European coUpctions :

Berlin. Galhry. Family of Eberhard Jabach.

Dresden. Gallery. Holy Family.

Dulwich. Gallery. Massacre of the Innocents.

" „ Horatius Codes.

Florence. Uffizi. Jephtha and his Daughter.

. " ,1 His own Portrait.

Lisbon. Academy. Allegory.

Modena. Estense Galleij. Moses iu the Land of Midian.
" 11 Moses and Jethro's Daughter.



Lebrun



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Iieclerc



Munich. Gallery. La Valliere as a Magdalen.

„ ,, St. John in the Isle of Patmos.

Paris. Louvre. Series of five pictures illus-

trating the History of Alex-
ander. 1661—68.
„ ,) The Fall of the Angels.

,, „ The Repentant Magdalen.

)f „ Christ on the Cross siwrounded

by Angels.
„ „ The Elevation of the Cross.

„ ., The Adoration of the Shep-

herds.
Petersburg. Hermitage. The Agony in the Garden.

„ „ The Crucifixion. 1637.

Vienna. Gallery. The Ascension,

OJ.D.

LEBRUN, Feanqois Jean Baptistb Topino.
See Topino Lebrun.

LE BRUN, Gabkiel, the brother and scholar of
Charles Le Brun, was born in Paris in 1621, and died
there after 1667. He never arrived at any great
eminence as a painter, but is somewhat better known
as an engraver. He executed several plates after
the designs of his brother, and also after Tintoretto,
Carracci, and other masters, among which are the
following :

Portrait of Charles Fevret de St. Mesmin. 1657.
Allegory on the Peace of Cardinal Mazarin.
Frontispiece for the Memoir's of Vittorio Siri.
The Twelve Apostles ; after Charles Le Brun.
The Saviour; after tie same; on two sheets.
St. Martin ; after the same.
St. Anthony ; after the same.

A Thesis ; dedicated to the Parliament of Normandy ;
after the same.

LE BRUN, Marie Louise Elisabeth, whose
maiden name was Vig6e, was born in Paris in
1755. Her father was a portrait painter, but he
died in 1768. At the age of fifteen she executed a
portrait of her mother. She received lessons from
Davesne and Briard, and excellent advice from
Joseph Vernet. She supported herself and her
mother with her copies from great masters till her
mother married an avaricious jeweller, who took
all her earnings, and refused to supply her with
even the necessaries of life. Her reputation soon
began to spread, and in 1779 she painted her first
portrait of Marie Antoinette, whom she afterwards
painted no less than twenty-five times, and with
whom she was on terms of the greatest intimacy.
In 1776 she married Jean Baptiste Pierre Le Brun,
a painter and picture-dealer, and the grand-nephew
of Charles Le Brun. (He was born in Paris in 1748,
and died there in 1813.) In 1782 she paid a visit
to Belgium, and on her return Joseph Vernet
proposed her for the Academy, which Pierre op-
posed, but she was nevertheless admitted in 1783,
when she painted for her reception ' Peace bring-
ing back Plenty.' When the Revolution broke out
in 1789 she went to Italy and visited Bologna, Rome,
Naples, and Florence, painting a large number of
portraits, and was admitted a member of different
academies. She then went to Vienna, and in 1795
was at St. Petersburg, where she remained painting
portraits till 1801. She then returned to France, but
in 1802 she came to England, where she lived three
years. In 1808 and 1809 she was in Switzerland,
and on her return to France, she bought a country
house near Marly, which in 1814 and 1815 was
pillaged by the Prussians and the allied armies.
She then went to live in Paris, where she continued
painting, and where her salon was Ihe rendezvous
of the best sooietj- till her death, which took place
in Paris in 1842. Late in life she published her
' Souvenirs,' which appeared in Paris in 1837-39.

VOL. II. D



She painted a number of very pleasing semi-alle-
gorical subjects, and many portraits of distinguished
persons ; among which were Lady Hamilton, in the
characters of a Sibyl and a Bacchante j Madame de
Stael, as Oorinna ; Madame Catalani at the piano ;
La Bruyere ; the Abb6 Fleury ; and several princes
and royal personages. In some of her pictures
she imitated the style of Greuze. The Louvre
possesses by Madame Le Brun two paintings of
herself and her daughter, the portraits of Hubert
Robert and Josepli Vernet, the painters, and that
of Giovanni Paisiello, the composer.

LE BRUN, Nicolas, a French painter, the brother
of Charles Le Brun, was, according to Guillet de
St. Georges, the author of the landscape in Le
Sueur's ' Plan de I'ancienne Chartreuse de Paris,
port^ par deux Anges,' now in the Louvre. It
gives a view of the Tuilleries, the Louvre, the
Seine with the Pont-Neuf, and a part of the quay
opposite the Louvre.

LEBSCH^E, Carl August, a painter, etcher,
and lithographer, was born at Schmiegel, Poland,
in 1800. He studied at Munich, where his parents
settled in 1807. He painted landscapes and archi-
tecture in oil and water-colours, and designed
in the style of different masters. His etchings
are executed with great spirit, and he signed
with the initials G. L., or a monogram. He died
at Munich in 1877.

LE CAPELAIN, John, a water-colour landscape
painter, was born in Jersey about 1814. He had
no regular art instruction, and, unaided, acquired a
pleasing, though vague, style. He drew the views
for the Jersey Album presented to Queen Victoria
after her visit to the island. There is a large
collection of his works in the Jersey Museum. He
died in 1848.

LE CARPENTIBR, Charles Louis Fban(Jois,
a French painter, born at Pont-Audemer (Eure) in
1744, was a pupil of Doyen and of J. B. Descamps.
He was professor at the School of Fine Arts at
Rouen, and devoted himself chiefly to writing on
art. He died at Rouen in 1822.

LE CAVE, P., a water-colour painter, flourished
in the latter half of the 18th and in the beginning
of the 19th century. His works are chiefly land-
scapes with cattle and figures, and are in the tinted
style. His life was passed in poverty, and the date
of his death is unknown. There are four specimens
of his work in the South Kensington Museum, one
dated as late as 1806.
LECCIO, Matted da. See Alesio.
LECKERBET JEN, Vincent, a native of Antwerp,
who flourished about 1650, was called Manciol,
because he had lost his right hand. He lived chiefly
in Rome, where he executed several landscapes
and battle-pieces. At the castle of Vincennes in
Prance he painted four frescoes representing
scenes in the battles of Alexander the Great.

LECLAIRE, Victor, a French flower painter,
was born in Paris in 1830. He was a pupil of his
brother, L6on Louis Leclaire, and died in 1885.
His 'Fleurs d'automne,' painted in 1879, is in the
Luxembourg Gallery.

LECLERC, David, was born at Berne in 1680.
He was instructed by Werner, and at the age of
eighteen went to Frankfort. He worked after-
wards at the courts of Darmstadt and Cassel, and
then went to Paris and studied under Rigaud.
He returned to Frankfort, and in 1715 visited
England, but he eventually settled at Frankfort.
He painted flowers, historical subjects, and portraits,

33



Iisclerc



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Lederwascli



of which latter that of Prince Louie of Hesse is
in the Darmstadt Gallery. He died at Frankfort
in 1788.

LECLERC, Isaac, the brother of David Leolerc,
was an engraver at the court of Cassel, where he
succeeded his father. He died in 1746.

LECLERC, Jacques S:fiBASTiEN, the son of S^bas-
tien Leolerc the younger, was born in 1734. He
was appointed assistant-professor of perspective in
the Academy of Paris in 1778, and died in 1785.
Some of his works are in the Museum at Caen.

LE CLERC, Jean, a French painter and etcher,
born at Nancy in 1587, was a pupil of Carlo Sara-
ceno. He engraved after Jean Cousin, and died
at Nancy in 163.3.

LECLERC, Jean Fr^d^eic, the son of David
Leclerc, was born in London in 1717. He
settled at Deux-Ponts, where he devoted himself
to miniature painting, and was living in 1768.

LECLERC, S^UASTiEN, the elder, a French en-
graver, was born at Metz in 1637. He was instructed
in the elements of drawing by his father, Laurent
Leclerc, a jeweller, and afterwards went to Paris.
He applied himself to geometry, physics, and
perspective, but by the advice of Le Brun he de-
voted himself entirely to engraving, and became
very proficient. He became an academician in
1672, and from that year to 1702 he was Pro-
fessor of Perspective at the Academy. He was
appointed engraver to Louis XIV., and a Professor
at tlie Gobelins. He died in Paris in 1714. He
produced about 3400 plates, of which a 'Catalogue
raisonii^ ' was published by C. A. Jombert in 1774.
Among them the most famous are:

The Battles of Alexander ; after Le Brun.

The Council of Nicjea.

The Apotheosis of Isis.

The Passion.

Greek and Eoman Costumes.

LECLERC, SiSbastien, the younger, a French
painter, was the eldest son of Sebastien Leolerc,
the engraver, and was born in Paris in 1676. He
was a pupil of Bon de BouUongne, and was ad-
mitted into the Academy in 1704, his reception
work being ' The Purification of ^Eneas previous to
his Deification,' now at Versailles. He exhibited
in the Salons of 1787, 1747, and 1751. He died in
Paris, at the Gobelins, in 1763. In the Louvre is a
picture of 'The Death of Sapphira.'
■^ LECCEUR, Jean Bapiistb, a French historical
and genre painter, was born at Le Mans in 1795.
He was a pupil of Regnault, and exhibited at the
Salon from 1822 to 1837, among his works being
that of 'Charles VII. and Agnes Sorel,' in the
Museum at Angers. He died in Paris in 1838.

LECOMTE, HiPPOLYTE, a French painter, was
born at Puiseaux in 1781. He was a pupil of
Mongin and of Regnault, and married Camille, the
daughter of Carle Vernet. He exhibited at the
Salon, from 1804 to 1847, historical subjects, land-
scapes, and battle-pieces. He died in Paris in
1867. Among his pictures are :

Joan of Arc.

Escape of Mary, Queen of Soots, from Loch Leven.

Battle of Mautern, in Styria.

Battle of Baab.

Louis XIII. storming the entrenchments of Pas-de-
Suze. {Fontainehleau.)

LECOMTE, Marguerite, a French engraver,
was born in Paris about 1719. She etched some
small Italian landscapes, but her name has been
saved from oblivion less by her merits as an artist

34



than by her connection with Watelet, with whom
in 1764 she visited Rome, where she etched the
lieads of Pope Clement XIII. and of Cardinal
Albani. She died at the end of the 18th century,
LE DAVIS, Edward, a painter and engraver,
was born in Wales about 1640. He was articled
as a pupil to Loggan, but not being treated to his
satisfaction, he fled from his indentures, and went
to France as a domestic servaat, but was able in
Paris to resort to his art in both its branches. On
his return he engraved some portraits and other
subjects ; among which are the following :

PORTRAITS.

Charles II. seated. (The head was afterwards effaced

and that of William III. substituted for it.)
Catharine, Queen of England; full-length; after J. JB.



James, Duke of York.

William, Prince of Orange; after Sir Peter IMy.

Mary, Princess of Orange ; after the same. 1678.

The Duchess of Portsmouth.

General Monck.

Charles, Duke of Eichmond, when a boy ; after Wissina.
1672. "

Stephen Monteage. 1675.

Bertram de Ashburnham, engraved for Guillim's ' He-
raldry.'

A Merry-Andrew ; after Frans Hals.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

St. Cecilia, with Angels ; after Van Dyck.

Ecce Homo ; after Carracci.

Holy Family ; after a basso-rilievo hy Algardi.

LEDERER, Hans. To this artist Professor
Christ attributes some engravings marked with

the cipher \-\ ,, Brulliot and Nagler mention

a Hieronymus Lederer, and the former says there
are four prints by him expressing the tempera-
ments of men, the ' Sanguine,' the ' Phlegmatic,'
the ' Choleric,' and the ' Melancholic' The first
of these has the name h. lederer, and the last a
mark, which may be taken for /. L. or H. L.
Malpe, he says, attributes these prints to Hans
Lederer.

LEDERER, Johann, a painter, was the youngest
of three brothers who flourished at Augsburg,
and painted on glass and in oil. He was court
painter to the Prince-Bishop of Freising. In the



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