Michael Bryan.

Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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■was appointed court painter at Munich, and in
1820 teacher to the household of Maximilian Joseph.
There are portraits by him of King Maximilian
and Queen Caroline. He died at Munich in 1864.

RESTLEIN, Georg, painter and engraver, an
obscure German artist, who practised in the 17th
century, and was born at Zwabach, near Nurem-

RESTOUT, Jean, 'the elder,' painter, bom at
Caen, 1663, the son and pupil of Marc Restout,
and father of the more famous Jean Restout the
younger. He had a fair reputation in his day as
an historical painter, and his wife Catherine, the
sister of Jean Jouvenet, also practised painting.
He died in 1702.

RESTOUT, Jean, 'the younger,' was born at
Rouen in 1692, and studied in Paris under his uncle,
Jouvenet, whose style he followed with considerable
success. He was a member of the Academy of
Paris, and painted for his reception, ' Venus getting
arms from Vulcan for ^neas,' and for his admission
as Fellow, ' Arethusa flying into the arms of Diana
to escape from the pursuit of Alpheus.' In 1733
he was made professor, and in 1760 a director
of the Academy. As a technical artist he was
characterized by a soft, woolly touch, by design in
which there was little nobility, and by drawing in
which there was much mannerism. His colour,
too, was poor. He died in Paris in 1768. His
principal works are :

Dijon. Musie. St. John the Baptist adoring

Lille. Musee. Christ on the way to Emmaus.

Nancy. Musee. Portrait of the architect, Bof-

rand (?).
Paris. Louvre. Christ healing the paralytic.

„ „ St. Paul before the High Priest,


" "^^Slfl Ceiling.

RESTOUT, Jean Bernard, painter, the son of
Jean Restout the younger, born in Paris, 1732.
He was the pupil of his father, to whom he was
greatly inferior in talent. He attained, however,
to a respectable proficiency in his art, gained the
' Prix de Rome ' in 1758, and was made an Acade-
mician in 1769. He resigned his membership in
1771, in consequence of certain regulations which
were distasteful to him, and after this time almost
abandoned the practice of his profession. Some
suspicion having fallen upon him in connection
with the affair of the ' Garde-Meuble,' he was
thrown into prison, but the events of the 9th
Thermidor led to his release. He died in Paris
in 1797. There is in Paris a ' St. Bruno ' by him,
and in the Museum at Toulouse a ' Diogenes,' and
a sketch for his reception picture at the Academy,
the ' Philemon and Baucis.'

RESTOUT, Maro, painter, was born at Caen in
1616, and was a pupil of Noel Jouvenet. Plis
father was one Margu^rin Restout. He visited
Rome in company with Poussin, and acquired a
certain reputation in that city and in Holland. He
was the first of the Restout family of artists ; several
of his ten children became painters. He died at
Caen in 1684. Amongst his sons were : Eustaohe,
born at Caen, 1665. He became Premonstrant of
the abbey of Mondaye, practised decorative paint-
ing, executed some fine ceilings, and died in 1743.
Jacques, born before 1655. He was a pupil of Letel-
lier de Vernon, and became prior of the abbey of
Moncel, near Vitry. He was a painter and a writer.
Jean (the elder), q. v. Charles, the fifth son,


born at Caen in 1668, became a Benedictine monk.
He was a good preacher, and painted ceilings and
pictures for churches. Thomas, born at Caen, 1671,
visited Rome and Holland to study his art, and
practised portrait painting. He died at Caen in

RETHEL, Alfred, bom at Aix-la-Chapelle,
May 15, 1816. His precocious talent displayed
itself in drawings made in his childhood, and at
the age of thirteen he went to study at Diissel-
dorf. There he astonished his masters and fellow-
pupils by the vigour of his invention, especially on
the occasion of the gala reception given to Schadow
on his return to Diisseldorf. Afterwards, in 1837,
beiug dissatisfied with the poverty of the technical
system there taught, he migrated to Frankfort,
where he came under the influence of Schwind,
Passavant, and, above all, of Philip Veit. At
Frankfort he painted his ' Daniel,' his ' Justitia,'
and three emperor pictures for the Romersaal
(Philip of Swabia, Maximilian I. and II., and
Charles V.), besides making the cartoon for his
' Resurrection.' In 1841 his pryef gained the
prize in the competition for the decoration of the
' Kaisersaal' at Aix-la-Chapelle. It was a series of
ambitious designs of much merit, representing in-
cidents in the career of Charlemagne. After pre-
paring himself by a two years' sojourn in Italy for
their execution, he completed four pictures of the
series, when his health failed, and he was obliged
to relinquish the work. It was finally completed
by Kehren. Whilst engaged on his frescoes at Aix-
Ia-Chapelle,Rethel also made some bizarre drawings
for a 'Dance of Death,' to which Reiniok wrote
verses. Another fantastic composition was a set
of water-colour drawings illustrative of Hannibal's
passage of the Alps. In 1848 Rethel went to
Dresden, where he remained a few years. In 1852
he made a second pilgrimage to Italy, where l.e
began to show symptoms of mental disorder.
After his return to Dresden his malady made rapid
progress, and he ended his days in an asylum at
Diisseldorf, where he died, December 1, 1859.
Among his works we may name :

Procession of the Longobards.

Charles Martel's Castle.

' Rudolf of Hapsburg.

The Swiss in prayer before the Battle of Sempach.

St. Boniface. [National Gallery, Berlin.)

Daniel in the Lion's Den. (Frankfort, Stddel Museum.)


Peter and John healing the lame man. [Leipsig Museum)

Joshua crossing the Jordan.

The Crowning of Sophocles.

The Burial of Frauenlob.

And a set of Illustrations for Luther's Hymn, ' Ein'
feste Burg.'

Five of the cartoons for the Charlemagne series
are in the Berlin National Gallery, also the cartoon
for the altar-piece, ' The Resurrection,' in the
Nicolaikirche at Frankfort. Rethel also etched,
and drew much on the wood. He wished to breathe
new life into the latter art, on the lines followed
by Diirer.

RETZSCH, August, brother of Moritz Retzsch,
born in 1777, was a pupil of Klengel, and painted
winter landscapes. He died in 1835.

RETZSCH, Fribdrich August Moritz, a German
draughtsman and painter, born at Dresden, Decem-
ber 9, 1779. He studied in the Dresden Academj',
which he entered in 1798, and of which he was
elected a member in 1816, and professor in 1824.
It was not till he was about twenty years of age




that he applied himself seriously to the study of
painting ; for though he had previously some skill
as a designer, he disliked all restraint, and would
have preferred following the bent of his genius as
a haunter of the forests, and as a student of nature
in solitude. His fame does not rest on his work
with the brush, but on his illustrations to the
German poets and to Shakespeare, which he inter-
preted with extraordinary vigour and sympathy.
As a portrait painter he was successful, especially
with his likenesses ; one of his best is a portrait of
King Friedrich August of Saxony. The Dresden
Gallery possesses a portrait of a lady by him.
Eetzsoh died at Hoflossnitz, near Dresden, June 11,
1867. His principal engraved works are :

Twenty-six illustrations to Goetlie's ' Faust.' (1828.)

Sixteen „ „ Schiller's ' Fight with the


Eight „ „ „ 'Fridolin.'

Forty-three „ „ „ ' Song of the Bell.'

Eighteen „ „ „ 'Pegasus in Har-


Eighty „ „ Shakespeare. 1827—1846.

Fifteen ,, „ Biirger'e Ballads.

Eight ' Fantasien und Wahrheiten.'

The Chess-player.

The Goblet.

Faust and Margaret. {Two lithographs.)

BEUTER. See Eeiteb, also Redeb.

EEDTERN, Geehaed Gheistophobowitsch von,
painter and etcher, bom at Rosthof in Livonia in
1791. He entered the Alexander regiment of
Hussars, and at Leipsio in 1813 lost his right arm.
He had made his first essay in drawing in 1814,
while in 1817 he studied in Berliu, in 1819 in
Heidelberg, in 1821 in Dorpat. In 1827 he devoted
himself entirely to art, and painted in water-colours
scenes of Hessian peasant life. In 1834 he went
to Diisseldorf, where he studied under Schadow
and Hildebrand. Afterwards he painted historical
scenes, landscapes, and genre pictures, and in 1835
became Russian court painter. He died at Prank-
fort (where he had settled in 1844) in 1865. His
principal works are :

The Sacrifice of Isaac. (In the Hermitage at St. Peters-

St. George.
A Madonna.

Three Singers. {Palace of Tsarskoe-Selo.)
Girl Knitting.
The Infant School.
Family Devotion. (In the collection of the Empress of


He also etched eleven plates, mostly of animals.

REUTLIMANN, Euidiman, (or Reuttiman,)
JoHANN OoNEAD, is mentioned by Strutt as the
engraver of some plates of foliage, and other orna-
mental designs, published at Augsburg ; he was a
goldsmith, and lived in the first half of the 17th

REUVEN, PiBTEE, bom at Leyden in 1650,
studied at Antwerp in the school of Jacob Jordaens.
He painted history and allegorical subjects, and
was employed to design the triumphal arches for
the reception of William III. at the Hague, by
which he acquired some celebrity ; and he was after-
wards engaged to ornament some of the principal
apartments in the palace at Loo, in which he
showed a fertile invention, and great facility of
execution. One of his best productions was a
ceiling in the hotel of M. de La Court Vandervoort,
at Leydsn ; it is an ingenious composition, and
the colouring possesses much of the brilliancy

which is found in the productions of the best
painters of the Flemish school. He died in 1716.

REUVER, Theodoeb de, born at Utrecht in
1761, imitated the old masters and painted land-
scapes. He died in 1808.

_ REUWICH, Eehabd, a painter of Utrecht, prac-
tising in the 16th century, and known only as
having accompanied Breydenbach on his travels
from 1474 to 1483, and having executed all the
designs in illustration of the various editions of the
narrative published by the latter.

RlfeVBIL, fii'iENNE AcHiLLB, a French engraver
and draughtsman, born in Paris in 1800, was a pupil
of Gros, Girodet-Trioaon, and Abel de Pujol. He
made drawings from many famous pictures and
statftes, and engraved them in outline for various
publications. Examples of his work are to be
found in the 'Mus^e de Peinture et de Sculpture,'
the ' Galerie des Arts et de I'Histoire,' and the
' Mus^e de Versailles.' He also engraved in outline
the works of Ingres, published by Didot.

REVEL, Alfred, a French engraver, was a
native of Paris, and exhibited at the Salon from
1831 to 1852. He died in 1865. He was largely
employed upon vignettes for books, but also en-
graved the following plates :

Paul Potter sketching from Nature in the environs of
the Hague ; after Le Poittevin.

The Broken Pitcher ; after Oreuze.

Sfe. Catharine ; after Ch. Landelle.

REVEL, Qabeiel, painter, born at Chateau-
Thierry, 1643, was a pupil of Charles Le Brun,
and an artist of some reputation in his day. He
became a member of the Academy in 1683. He
assisted in the decoration of Versailles, and finally
settled at Dijon, where he died 1712, and where
are to be found the following :

Portrait of Pierre Lenet, procureur g^nSral du Parle-

ment de Dijon. 1641.
Portrait of Jean Dubois, the sculptor of Dijon.

His son Jean, born in Paris, 1684, was a skilful
designer of patterns for the silk-manufacture, and
died at Lyons 1751.

EEVELLO, Giovanni Battista, called II Mus-
TACCHi, a Genoese painter, born in 1672, studied
under Antonio Haffiner, and formed a close friend-
ship with Francesco Costa. For twenty years these
two in concert executed landscape and other ac-
cessories for historical painters. Their master-
piece is said to be at Pegli in the Palazzo Grillo,
consisting of the decorations of a set of rooms.
He died in 1732.

EEVERDINO, Cbsaee, was an Italian engraver,
who flourished from 1531 to 1564. His figures
are very indiSerently drawn, and his plates have
little to recommend them, except their neatness.
He sometimes marked his plates with the mono-
gram \^?- The following prints by him are
apparently from his own designs :

Moses striking the Eock. 1531.

The Wise Men's Offering.

A small Frieze, representing a Bacchanalian subject.

Venus coming to Vulcan for the arms of .fflneas.

Those that are marked with his name in full,
and are undoubtedly his work, are in a style
between that of Giulio Bonasone and Agostino
Veneziano, and seem to prove that he was of the
school of Marc-Antonio. A descriptive catalogue
of his engravings will be found in Passavant's
' Peintre-Graveur,' vi. 107—117.





REVEST, CoENi^LiE Louise, painter of genre
pictures and of portraits, born at Amsterdam, 1795,
studied in Paris under S&angely and VafSard.
By her :

Magdalen at the feet of Christ. {In the Marseilles

The Toilet of Psyche.

REVETT, Nicholas, an architect and painter,
born in Suffolk in 1721, went in 1742 to Italy,
and studied under Benefial in Rome. While he
was there practising as a painter he formed a
ffiendship with 'Athenian' Stuart, and in 1748
went to Naples and Greece to study Greek monu-
ments. He arrived at Athens in 1751, and was
there till 1754, but on going to other parts of
Greece he was seized by corsairs, to whom he
paid a ransom of six hundred dollars for his re-
lease. He then continued his researches, but under
great difSoulties, till 1755, when he returned to
London. In 1764 he visited Ionia with Dr. Chand-
ler and William Pars, A.R.A., where he remained
for two years. He published the fruits of his travels
under the headings of ' The Antiquities of Athens,'
and 'Ionian Antiquities.' He also published a
work entitled ' Baalbec and Palmyra.' He died in
London in 1804.

REVOIL, PiEKEB Henbi, a French historical
and subject painter, born at Lyons in 1776. He
came to Paris and studied under David. His
works first appeared at the Salon in 1804. In
early life he was content to shine in his native
province. He returned to his native city in 1809,
as professor of painting in the Royal Academy of
Lyons. He belonged to the school which formed
the transition between the Classicism of David
and the Romanticism of the fourth decade of the
century. The cross of the Legion of Honour was
awarded to him in 1814, and he was elected a
correspondent of the Institute in 1825. His works
are bold but mannered, and frequently over-
weighted by the accessories. He died in Paris in
1842. The following are some of his pictures :

Aix. Musewn. Release of Christian Captives.

Fontainebleau. „ Jeanne d'Albret. 1819.
Lyons. Museum. The Tournament. 1812.

Versailles. Palace. Philip Augustus raising the

„ „ Tanored at Bethlehem. 1840.

The Chevalier Bayard at Brescia.

Mary Stuart led to Execution.

Francis I. arming his grandson Francis II.

Louis XII. at Plessis-les-Tours.

REWICH. See Redwich.

RBXMON. See Raymond.

REV, Etienne, landscape painter, born at Lyons,
1789. was a pupil of Pillement and of Cogel. He
died in 1867. By him :

Bains of a Soman Portico.

REYERS, Nicolas, painter, born at Leyden,
1719. An artist of little note, who was a pupil
of Jerome Van der My, and painted portraits and
genre pictures.

REYHER, RoBBET, an engraver, born in Berlin,
in 1838, entered the Academy in that city, and
studied under Mandel. He engraved portraits of
Beethoven, Goethe, Liszt, Chopin, Schiller, Raphael,
and Gary. His best works are, Maria Manoini,
after Mignard ; and the Countess Potooka, after
Tonci. He died in 1877, through falling into the

EEYN, Jan db. See De Reyn.

EEYNA, ITrancibco de, painter, a native of
Seville, was a disciple of Francisco de Herrera,
the elder. He had given proof of most promising
talents, in a picture of the ' Souls in Purgatory,' in
the church of All Saints, at Seville, when he died,
in the bloom of life, in 1659.

REYNELL, Thomas, (Rennell,) portrait painter,
born near Chudleigh in Devonshire, in 1718, was
educated at the Exeter Grammar School, but was
afterwards sent to London, where he became a
pupil of Hudson. He then returned to Exeter,
where he settled as a painter. The Duke of King-
ston offered him assistance to go to London again,
but he refused. He painted portraits, and was a
musician ; but his habits were so idle and improvi-
dent that he fell very low in the world. He lived
at Dartmouth in a state, of the most abject poverty
till an asylum was provided for him by the kindness
of a friend. He died at Dartmouth in 1788.

REYNOLDS, Frances, the sister of Sir Joshua
Reynolds, whose house she kept for many years in
Leicester Fields, was bom at Plympton in 1729.
She practised as a miniaturist, and made many copies
of her brother's pictures. Frequent mention is
made of her in the literary and artistic history
of the time. On her brother's death she took a
large house in Queen Square, Westminster, where
she exhibited her own works, and where she died
in 1807.

REYNOLDS, Sir Joshua, was born at Plympton,
near Plymouth, on July 16, 1723. His father,
Samuel Reynolds, was the master of Plympton
Grammar School, and intended his son for the
medical profession ; but at a very early age the
child was attracted to the study of art, and- it is -^
said that before his eighth birthday he had mastered
the rules of perspective from the Jesuit's ' Perspec-
tive,' and had produced a correct drawing of a
colonnade under his school-house ; this was quickly
followed up by an attempt at portrait painting.
His first work, on the canvas of an old boat-sail,
was the portrait of a tutor in the family of the
Earl of.Mount Edgcumbe, and is still in existence.
Ultimately — after some difficulty in raising the
required premium — his father sent him in October
1740 to London, to Hudson, then the first portrait
painter in England. Hudson was, however, in-
competent to develop the genius of Reynolds;
and the apprenticeship, which was to have con-
tinued four years, was abruptly closed at the end
of two. Reynolds then returned to Devonshire,
and for a time was very fully employed in paint-
ing portraits in the Plymouth district. When
he had exhausted the neighbourhood, he returned,
in 1744, to London, armed with an introduction,
obtained through Hudson, to the Artists' Club. At
Christmas in 1746 Reynolds was recalled to Ply-
mouth by the death of his father, who expired on
Christmas Day. This broke up the home at
Plympton, and the young painter took a house in
• Plymouth Dock for himself and two of his sisters,
and there made the acquaintance of William Gandy,
under whose influence he greatly modified his style
of painting. A portrait of himself in the National
Portrait Gallery illustrates this period of his art.
During the years 1747 and 1748 Reynolds appears
to have maintained himself and his sisters by his
portrait painting; he also studied landscape, and
visited occasionally at the house of the Earl of
Mount Edgcumbe. There he was so fortunate as
to acquire the friendship of Admiral Keppel, who
had been appointed to llie command of the Medi-




terranean squadron, and had put into Plymouth for
repairs. He offered to take Reynolds to Italy in
his own ship, the ' Centurion,' and his oflter being
gratefully accepted, Eeynolds set out in May,

During the campaign of Algiers, Eeynolds, who
found friends wherever he went, was landed in the
island of Minorca, and remained there as the guest
of the English governor. General Blakeney, painting
the portraits of all the leading men of the station.
From Minorca he finally sailed to Leghorn, and
thence to Rome. Here he spent two years in
study and in the occasional copying of pictures.
He does not appear to have done much original
work. His Italian note-books, which have been
preserved, display the growth of his critical facul-
ties, and account for much that is to be found in
his famous discourses. During his studies in the
Vatican he caught a cold from which the deafness
arose which afflicted the remainder of his life. In
April 1762 he left Rome, and after spending four
months in visiting Florence, Venice, and other
cities, and three months in Devonshire on his
arrival home, he settled down once more in London
as a portrait painter. Assisted by the patronage of
Lord Mount Edgoumbe and welcomed by Hudson,
he became immediately popular. His portraits of
the beautiful Miss Gunnings and of Admiral Keppel
secured his position from the first, and his career
henceforward was one of uninterrupted enjoyment
and success. He possessed a wider circle of friends
eminent by rank or talents than any contemporary.
His friendship with Edmund Burke, Dr. Johnson,
Goldsmith, Garrick, Hogarth, and others, was con-
solidated by the formation of The Club, of which
Eeynolds was the president, and which included
among its thirty-five members, at the date of
Eeynolds' death. Fox and Windham, Malone and
Steevens, Boswell and Sheridan, Bishop Percy
and Dr. Burney.

The Society of Artists opened its first exhibition
of pictures in 1760, and Eeynolds became a
regular contributor to its shows ; but in 1768 the
Royal Academy was founded, on 10th December,
with him as its first President. In the following
year the President was knighted. The annual
Academy dinners, and the custom of an annual
address from the President, were instituted by
Eeynolds. Among his portraits of this period,
those of ladies are commonly in some mythological
disguise, or have an allegorical intention in design.
His portraits of Dr. Johnson, Goldsmith, Garrick,
Sterne, Sheridan, and other men of distinction are
more simple. His classical works won the same
popular admiration as his simple character studies,
and, although his name is less connected with
them by posterity, such pieces as the ' Ugolino,'
the ' Nativity,' the ' Infant Jupiter,' and the ' Car-
dinal Beaufort,' augmented his fame as much as
his portraits, or such studies of children as the
'Strawberry Girl,' 'Musoipula,' 'Boy with the
Cabbage Nets,' 'Master Crewe,' &c. The only
important rivals to Sir Joshua Eeynolds were Gains-
borough and Eomney. In 1773 Eeynolds was elected
mayor of his native town, and sent his portrait to
hang between two of his pictures of which the cor-
poration had become possessed years before. In
this portrait he appears in his D.C.L. robes, for at the
Enccenia of this same year he had been honoured
with that degree by the University of Oxford. In
1777 Eeynolds was again in the neighbourhood of
Oxford, at Blenheim, to paint the great Marlborough

family pictures, and in 1779 he was occupied with
the designs for the windows in New College. In
1780 took place the first exhibition of the Eoyal
Academy in their rooms at Somerset House. To
it Sir Joshua's chief contribution was the famous
portrait of the three ladies Waldegrave. In 1781
Eeynolds made the tour of the Netherlands, and
the notes that were published after his death con-
tain interesting records of his judgment on the
great masters of the 17th century. Two years
later, in 1783, Eeynolds paid a second visit to the
Low Countries.

It was in 1784 that he painted Mrs. Siddons as
the Tragic Muse, now in the Dulwich Gallery, which
with the ' Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy,'
and the ' Mrs. Abington as the Comic Muse','
make a fine triad of theatrical portraits. The
work that Eeynolds is said to have taken more
pains with than he ever did with any other, is
the ' Infant Hercules,' painted for the Empress
Catherine, and now in the Hermitage. It was
exhibited in 1788 with sixteen other pictures from
the President's brush. In 1790 occurred his dis-
agreement with the majority of the Academy, over
the election of Bonomi as associate and professor
of painting, which resulted in his tender and sub-
sequent withdrawal of his resignation. In Decem-
ber the same year he delivered the fifteenth and
last of his famous discourses, and a few months
later an afEection of the eyesight came to a crisis
which resulted in his becoming almost totally blind.
He lost his spirits, and again tendered his resign-
ation of the P.R.A.-ship. This was again refused,
and West was appointed Deputy President, to
relieve Reynolds of the duties he was no longer
able to perform. But in spite of this the break-up
of his health went on apace, and on February 23,

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 95 of 201)