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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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master, with whom he made rapid progress. He
then determined to visit Italy, and to become
acquainted with the works of the great Italians.
He arrived in Eome entirely without resources,
and for a time endured many hardships, but was
fortunate enough to attract the attention of a
cardinal, who, admiring his talent, received him
into his house. At Eome Eibera remained for
some time studying under Caravaggio, whose
system of chiaroscuro had peculiar attractions for
him, and became one of the most distinguished
disciples of that master. A rupture with his patron
caused him to quit Rome, and he is said to have
become a soldier, and to have experienced many
strange vicissitudes, amongst others a period of
captivity as a galley-slave in Algeria. At Parma
he studied for some time, and in his early works
we may distinctly trace the influence of Correggio,
and of other northern masters ; but the rugged
naturalism of Caravaggio was the element in which
he truly delighted, and, abandoning the softer
manner of his early efforts, he finally become the
leader of the ' Naturalisti,' the eccentric school of
realistic painters most sharply opposed to the
graceful eclecticism of the Carracci.

From Eome and Parma Ribera passed to Naples,
the scene of his greatest activity and of his highest
fortunes. He became acquainted with a rich picture-
dealer of the city, whose daughter he married, and
thus he found himself relieved from all pecuniary
embarrassments. At this period the ' Naturalisti '
enjoyed an almost undisputed supremacy in Naples,
would tolerate no intruders in their stronghold,
and waged war against every follower of tho

369



Bibera



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



Bicard



Carraoci who came within their reach. Ribera, to
his discredit, took an active part in the persecution
with which his party assailed the eclectics, Quido
Reni, Domenico, and Gessi, resulting in the expul-
sion of these artists from the city. The rulers of
Naples in the early part of the 17th century being
Spanish, Ribera naturally enjoyed a large share
of favour ; he was appointed court painter to the
Viceroy, the Duke of Osuna, and, on a second visit,
was patronized by his successor, the Count de
Monterey, who recommended him to Philip IV.
In 1630 he became a member of the Academy of
St. Luke, and in 1644 he received the decoration
of the Order of Christ from the Pope.

The final abandonment of his early style may
be broadly said to date from his establishment
at Naples. His conceptions became gradually
more and more marked by a wild extravagance
of fancy and by a stern vigour of execution. His
skill in managing violent contrasts of light and
shade is very remarkable, but as a. colourist he
is forceful rather than fine. His large historical
pictures, in spite of great merits in execution, are
generally terrible and repulsive, and his rendering
of mythoiogical subjects is deficient in beauty
and dignity. He delighted in the delineation of
emaciated figures, of Hayings and scourgings, of
scenes of torture and death. He was much patron-
ized by the clergy, especially by the Jesuits, and
painted many important works for churches and
religious houses. The Madrid Gallery contains
a large number of his works, and there are good
examples in the most important public collections,
the ' Pieta ' in the National G allery being excellent
in quality. His colour darkens very much with
age. Ribera had many pupils, among the more
famous of whom are Salvator Rosa, Giordano, Fal-
cone, and Giovanni D6. His daughter. Mama
Blanca, who was frequently his model, also prac-
tised painting. It has been asserted that her father's
death was caused by grief at her seduction by
Don John of Austria, but there seems to be no
solid ground for the statement. Eibera died at
Naples in 1656. The following is a list of his
principal works :

St. Jerome.

A Holy Family.

St. Sebastian.

Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.

St. Mary of Egypt at prayer be-
fore her own grave ; an Angel
winding her shroud about her.

The Deliverance of St. Peter.

St. Francis of Assisi lying naked
on a bed of Thorns ; an Angel
appearing to him.

Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew.

Martyrdom of St. Lawrence.

The Hermit Paul fed by the
Raven.

St. Andrew.

The Hermit Paul with a Cross.

St. Jerome.

Jacob tending Laban's Sheep.

Diogenes with a Lantern.

A Philosopher in deep medita-
tion.

Portrait of a man in black clothes.

St. Joseph. 1

A Locksmith.

A Mathematician.

St. Jerome.

St. Bartholomew.

St. Francis.

Portrait of Simone Paganucci,

Portrait of an Old Man.

Duns Scotus writing.



Berlin.



Dresden.



Museum.



Gallery.



Dublin.
Dulwich.



Nat. Gal.
Gallery.



Edinburgh. Nat. Gal.
Florence. Uffisi.

Fitti.



Glasgow. Gallery.
Hampton Court.
370



London. Nat. Gal. A Pieti. The Dead Christ and
the Virgin, with St. John and
Mary Magdalene.
„ „ Shepherd with a Lamb.

Madrid. Gallery. The Martyrdom of St. Bartholo-

mew.
„ „ Mary Magdalen.

St. Mary of Egypt.
„ „ St. Paul the Hermit.

„ „ St. Jerome praying.

„ „ Jacob's Ladder.

„ „ Prometheus.

„ „ St. Sebastian.

„ „ A Priest of Bacchus.

„ „ Head of a Sibyl.

„ „ The Conception.

„ The Holy Trinity.
„ „ The Saviour.

„ „ The Twelve Apostles.

„ „ An Anchorite.

„ „ The Blind Man.

„ „ St. Soch.

„ „ St. Francis of Assisi in ecstasy.

„ „ St. Christopher.

„ „ St. Joseph and the Child Jesus.

„ „ Isaac's Blessing.

„ „ Ixion.

„ „ Archimedes.

„ „ St. Augustine.

„ „ Women fighting in a Circus.

Munich. Gallery. Deposition of St. Andrew.

„ „ The Dying Seneca.

„ „ The Penitent Peter.

„ „ St. Bartholomew.

„ „ St. Onuphrius.

A.nd two more.
Paris. Louvre. Adoration of the Shepherds.

„ „ Christ in the Tomb.

„ „ St. Paul the Hermit.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.
„ „ St. Jerome in the Desert.

„ „ St. Procopius.

And three more.
Vienna. Selvedere. Christ disputing with the Doc-
tors.
„ „ Christ on the way to Calvary.

„ „ The Penitent Peter.

And two more.

EIBERA, Juan Vicentb, a Spanish painter,
practising at Madrid in the early part of the 18th
century. He was one of the artists appointed
by the Council of Castile in 1725 to tax pictures.
He painted the pendentives of the cupola in the
church of S. Felipe el Real, and is further known
by two scenes from the life of S. Francis de Paul
in the church of la Victoria, and a ' Martyrdom of
S. Justus.'

RIBET, Jean Constantin, marine painter,
practised in France in the early part of the 19th
century. He was a pupil of Forestier. There is
by him a picture representing the taking of the
two English frigates the 'Fox' and the 'Pied-
montese ' by the French vessels ' Venus ' and
' Bellona.'

RIBOLT, WiLHBLM WiLKEN, a Danish painter,
practising in Germany about 1700. At Copen-
hagen there is by him a ' Group of Warriors seated
and preparing to drink.'

RIBON, Fe. M., painter, was bom in Paris,
1790. He was a pupil of Baltz, and painted prin-
cipally upon china.

RICAMATORE, II. See Nanni.

RICARD, Lonis Gustave, portrait painter, was
born at Marseilles in 1824, studied at Marseilles
under Auber until 1844, but afterwards in Paris
under Coignet. In the same year he exhibited a
portrait of Mme. Sabatier at the Salon, which
made a considerable sensation. He copied much
in the Louvre. In 1847 he visited Rome, Florence,



Kicca



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Bicol



and Venice, where he studied and copied Titian.
Later on he came to England. In 1850 he
painted a ' Gipsy Girl with a Cat,' which attracted
attention at the Salon, and for the next nine years
Eicard was a constant exhibitor. After 1861, how-
ever, he appeared no more until 1872, when he
sent a portrait of Paul de Musset. His art, how-
ever, was unfitted to the crowd and glare of the
Salon. Quiet and refined in effect, almost to excess,
it had much afiinity, technically, with that of
Prud'hon. His portraits were popular. In 1863
the Cross of the Legion was ofiered him ; " It is
too late," he replied, and remained undecorated
till his death, which took place in 1873, in Paris.
Among his works we may name :

Paris. Zuxemhourg. Portrait of Paul de Musset.

j» ^ „ „ „ himself.
Portrait of Mme. Szarvady.

„ „ Mme. Paul Boul.

„ „ M. Heil^juth {painter).

„ „ M. Anatole de la Forge.

„ „ M. Ziem {painter).

„ „ M. Chaplin {do).

„ „ Eugene Fromentin {do).

„ „ M. Ohenavard.

„ „ Mme. Ton Kalergis.

„ „ Mme. de Calonne.
The German Student.

RICCA, Beenardo, painter, a native of Cremona,
where he was painting in the cathedral about 1612.

RICGARDI, LniGi, a marine painter, born in
1807, whose pictures were painted rather for arti-
ficial effects than with a due regard for truth to
nature. He was a professor at the Brera. He
died at Milan in 1877.

RIOCHI, PiBTKO, called II Lucchese, painter,
born at Lucca in 1606, was first a scholar of Pas-
signano, but afterwards studied under Guido Reni,
He imitated the grace of the latter, though his
colouring resembles that of Pasaignano. In the
church of St. Francesco, at Lucca, there are two
altar-pieces, which evince the fertility of his in-
vention and his readiness of hand. He also painted
several pictures for the churches at Udine. There
is a picture of his in the Dresden Gallery repre-
senting the 'Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine.'
He painted in France, and in the Milanese and
Venetian states, and was very rapid and inde-
fatigable in execution. Ricchi died at Udine in
1675.

EICCHIEDEO, Marco, was born at Brescia,
but it is not known in what year, nor under whom
he studied. He was, however, a very reputable
historical painter. In the church of St. Thomas,
in his native city, there is a fine picture of the
Incredulity of that saint by him.

RICCHINO, Francesco, painter, a native of
Brescia. He ilourished about 1568. He imitated
the style of Moretto, but was also greatly in-
fluenced by Titian.

RICCI, Antonio, called Barbalunga, painter,
born at Messina in 1600, studied under Domenico
Zampieri, and was reckoned among the best painters
of his country. Among his pictures are, ' St.
Gregory,' in San Gregorio, and an ' Assumption,'
in S. Michele in Messina, and an altar-piece in
the church of S. Sylvestro in Capite in Rome.
He died at Messina in 1649.

RICCI, Camillo, born at Ferrara in 1580, was
the best pupil of Ippolito Scarsella, called Lo
Scarsellino. Such was his progress that Barufialdi
reports Scarsellino to have declared that if Camillo
had preceded him in the art, he would have chosen

B B 2



him for his instructor. The style of Rioci is very
like that of his master, but with less freedom and
breadth. In the general harmony of his colouring,
however, he has perhaps surpassed him. The
churches of Ferrara abound in his works, of
which Barotti gives a particular account in his
' Pitture di Ferrara.' His best productions are his
' S. Vinoenzo ' and ' S. Margherita,' in the cathe-
dral ; an 'Annunciation,' in Spirito Santo ; and his
ceiling in the church of S. Niccolo, representing,
in eighty-four compartments, the life and miracles
of that saint. Ricoi died at Ferrara in 1618.

RICCI, Domenico del. See Del Riccio.

RICCI, Felice del. See Del Riccio.

RICCI, Giovanni Ba'iista, called da Novarra,
born at Novarra in 1545, went to Rome when
young, and became a scholar and imitator of
Raffaellino da Reggio. According to Baglione, he
was employed by Sixtus V. in the palace of S.
Giovanni Laterano, and in the library of the
Vatican. He was afterwards appointed by that
pontiff superintendent of paintings in the palace
of Monte Cavallo. He was also much employed
by Clement VIII. Of his own productions in the
public edifices of Rome, the following are 'the most
considerable : — in the nave of the church of S.
Maria Maggiore, he painted in fresco the ' Visita-
tion,' the ' Ascension,' and the ' Assumption of the
Virgin ' ; in S. Maroello, a series of frescoes from
the Life of the Virgin and the Passion of our
Saviour ; but his best work is the ' Consecration
of the Basilica of San Giovanni Laterano by S.
Silvestro,' in that church. Giambattista Ricci is
mentioned in the Abecedario by Orlandi, as an
engraver, but none of his works are specified. He
died in 1620.

RICCI, Marco, the nephew of Sebastiano Ricoi,
was born at Belluno in 1680. After receiving his
first instruction in art from his uncle, he visited
Rome, where he was for some years occupied in
drawing the most picturesque views in the neigh-
bourhood, and the most remarkable fragments of
ancient architecture. From these designs he
painted perspective views, which were greatly
admired. In 1710 he came to England, and his
talents soon excited attention. His landscapes,
with ruins and architecture, are to be found in
many collections. There are several landscapes
of his in the Dresden Gallery. Marco Ricci
etched several plates from his own designs, con-
sisting of views and landscapes, with ruins and
figures, of which the most deserving of notice are
those ■ in a set of twenty-three prints, entitled
' Varia Marci Ricci Pictoris prsestantissimi experi-
menta ab ipsomet auctore inventa, delineata atqua
incisa, et a me Carole Orsolini Veneto incisore in
unum collecta, &c. Anno 1730, Venetiis.'

RICCI, Natale, painter, a pupil of Maratti,
and a native of Fermo. He practised in Italy in
the 18th century.

RICCI, Pietko, painter of portraits and historical
pictures, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. He prac-
tised at Milan in the 16th century.

RICCI, Sebastiano, (Rizzi,) born at Belluno, in
the Venetian state, in 1662, was placed when he
was young under Federigo Cervelli, at Venice,
with whom he studied till he was twenty years of
age. On leaving that master he went to Bologna,
where he resided a short time, and was taken
under the protection of the Duke of Parma, who
employed him for some time at Piacenza, and then
sent him to Rome for improvement. On the death

371



Tlicoi



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Bicciolini



of his patron Ricci left Rome, and visited Florence,
Modena, and Parma, studying the great masters
of the Lombard school. He was soon afterwards
invited to the court of Vienna by the King of
Rome, where he was employed in decorating the
imperial palace of Schoenbrunn. On his return
to Venice from Germany, his nephew, Marco Ricci,
who was at that time in London, encouraged him
to visit England, which he did, and met with the
most flattering encouragement. He painted the
chapel at Bulstrode, for the Duke of Portland ; and
in the altar-piece, representing the Last Supper,
he introduced his own portrait in modem dress.
The hall of Burlington House, and some of the
ceilings, and the altar-piece in the chapel of Chelsea
Hospital, were also painted by him. During a
residence of ten years in this country, he executed
several other considerable works for the mansions
of the nobility, and is said to have left England in
disgust, on finding that it was determined that Sir
James Thornhill should paint the cupola of St.
Paul's. Like Luca Giordano, Ricci had a great
facility in imitating the styles of other masters.
His picture of the 'Apostles adoring the Sacrament,'
in the church of S. Giustina, at Padua, is painted
in imitation of the cupola of S. Giovanni, at Parma,
by Gorreggio ; and his ' S. Gregorio,' in S. Ales-
sandro, at Bergamo, recalls the works of Guercino.
But his most successful imitations were those of
Paolo Veronese, many of which he is said to have
sold as by that master. He is said to have de-
ceived the French painter. La Fosse, who avenged
himself by the sarcastic rebuke : " For the future,"
said he, " take my advice, paint no more Riccis."
Sebastiano possessed a fertile invention, and a
commanding facility. Although his design is often
incorrect, his figures are graceful, and his colour,
though sometimes feeble and cold, is often silvery
and agreeable. Some of his very best productions
are at Hampton Court. He died at Belluno in
1734. The following are his best pictures :

Bordeaux. Museum. Love and Fidelity.

Dresden. Gallery, The Ascension.

„ „ A Sacrifice.

Florence. Xfffizi. His own Portrait.

Hampton Court. Falace. The Continence of Scipio.

„ „ „ The Dinner at Simon's House.

London. JVat. Gall. Yenusa,ndLSa,tjTs(unimportant).

Modena. The taking down from the

Cross.
Paris. Zouvre. Allegorical subject. France as

Minerva trampling Ignorance
^ underfoot.
M „ The Delivery of the Keys.

„ „ Polyxena sacrificed to the

Manes of Achilles.
„ „ The Continence of Scipio.

Venice. Due Pal. The Venetian Magistrates re-

vering the Body of St. Mark.

RICCI, Ubaldo, an historical painter of some
merit, a native of Fermo, practising in Italy in
the 18th century. He was a pupil of 0. Maratti.

RICCIANTI, Antonio, an obscure Italian his-
torical painter of the 17th century. He practised
in Florence and its neighbourhood, and was a pupil
of V. Dandini.

RICCIARDBLLI, Gabeible, marine and land-
scape painter, practising in Italy about 1743. He
was a pupil of J. F. Van Bloemen (called Oriz-
zonte), and was employed at Naples, at the court
of Charles de Bourbon.

RICCIARELLI, Danielb, commonly called
Daniblb da Volterba, born at Volterra in 1609,
was first a pupil of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, called

372



II Sodoma, but afterwards studied under Baldas-
sare Peruzzi. Not meeting with the encourage-
ment he expected in his native city, he went to
Rome, and at first found employment as assistant to
Pierino del Vaga, in the Vatican, and in the Capella
Massimi, in the church of La Triniik de Monti.
He was, however, chiefly indebted for the reputa-
tion he afterwards acquired to the friendship and
instruction of Michelangelo Buonarroti, who assisted
him with designs for work he executed for Agos-
tino Chigi, in the Farnesina, and for others of his
more important productions. But the chief sup-
port of his fame is the series of frescoes in the
Capella Orsini, in the Trinity de Monti, which
occupied him seven years. In these he was
also aided by Buonarroti. The principal picture
of the series is the famous 'Descent from the
Cross,' which used to be considered the finest
picture in Rome after Raphael's ' Transfiguration '
and Domenichino's ' St. Jerome.' In another chapel
of the same church are the 'Assumption of the Vir-
gin' and the 'Presentation in the Temple,' painted
from the designs of Ricoiarelli by his disciples
Gio. Paolo Rossetti and Michele Alberti. After
the death of Pierino del Vaga, in 1547, Daniele
was appointed by Pope Paul III., on the recom-
mendation of Michelangelo, Superintendent over
the works at the Vatican, and commissioned to
finish the ornaments of the Sala Regia, which had
been begun by Pierino. His last great work as a
painter was his ' Murder of the Innocents,' for the
church of St. Peter, at Volterra, which was after-
wards purchased by the Grand Duke Leopold, and
placed in the tribune at Florence. On the death
of Pope Paul III., in 1549, Julius III. deprived
Daniele of his post as Superintendent and of his
pension, and it appears that the latter part of his
life was chiefly devoted to sculpture. Daniele
earned the nickname of II Bragghetone, or the
Breeches-maker, through being employed by Pope
Paul IV. to put draperies on some of the nude
figures in Michelangelo's 'Last Judgment.'
Daniele died at Rome in 1566. His principal
pictures are :

Florence. Trilmne of the Uffizi. Massacre of the Innocents.
Lucca. Duomo, S. Petronilla. {A gracefid

jigure^ ascribed to Eiccia-
relli in hisjirst rmturity)
Paris. Louvre. David's Vi(5bory over Go-

liath. {A double picture,
on the two sides of a slate ;
it was long ascribed to
Michelajigelo.)
Rome. & Trinitd, de' Monti. Scenes from the Life of
the Virgin.
„ „ The , Descent from the

Cross. {Fresco transfer-
red to canvas.)
„ Farnesina. The Triumph of Bacchus.

„ „ Frescoes. The Punic Wars.

„ St. Fietro in Montorio. The Baptism of Christ.

RICCIO, Antonello, the son, and probably the
pupil, of Mariano Ricoio, whose manner he followed.
He was still living in 1576.

RICCIO (Brusasoeci). See Del Riccio.

RICCIO, IL. See Neroni.

RICCIO, Mariano, historical painter, born at
Messina, 1510. He was a pupil of Franco, and
afterwards of Polidoro, whose style he sucoessfully
imitated.

RICCIO, PiETRo. See Pedeini, Giovanni.

RICCIOLINI, NiccoLA, painter, born at Rome,
1637, was a pupil of P. de Cortona. He competeil
against Franoesohini with cartoons for the Vatican



Ricciolino



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Bicbardson



ino?ai3s. At Rome there are by him a ' Crucifixion
of St. Peter ' (in mosaic) and a ' Descent from the
Cross.'

EICCIOLINO, Michelangelo, was bom at Rome
in 1654, and is noticed by Abate Titi, who mentions
some of his works in the public places at Rome,
particularly in the church of S. Lorenzo in Pisci-
bus, and a ceiling in S. Maria in Campitelli. His
portrait painted by himself is in the Florentine
Gallery. He died at Rome in 1715.

EICCO, Beknaedo. See Ricca, Beenaedo.

RICHARD, Charlotte Josephine, a painter of
portraits and subject pictures, born in Paris, 1791,
was a pupil of Chaudet and of Ducq.

RICHARD, Fleuey FsANgois, painter of his-
torical and genre pictures, bom at Lyons, 25th
February, 1777, was a pupil of David, and after-
wards founded a school of his own at Lyons, where
he died, 1842. By him we have the following :

Vert-vert (in the Museum of Lyons).

Valentina of Milan bewailing the Death of her Husband.

King Francis and his Sister, Margaret of Navarre

{engraved by Boucher Desnoyer),
Charles VII. writing his last Farewell to Agnes Sorel.
Tasso in Prison.

RICHARD, Monsieur. See Taueini.

RICHARD, , painter upon glass, executed,

in 1270, the fine paintings upon glass for the choir
of the cathedral at Tours.

RICHARD, THfioDOEB, landscape painter, bom
at Milhau, 1782, was a pupil of Victor Bertin. He
was appointed chief of the lands department in
Gantal in 1802, and filled similar oSices until 1819,
in which year he was at Bordeaux. There he made
the acquaintance of the young Brasoassat, and
painted in his company with such success that in
1823 he resigned his appointments as an engineer,
and set up as a painter at Toulouse. Thence he
sent his pictures yearly to the Salon. He passed
through the various degrees of honour up to the
Cross of the Legion. He died in 1859 at Toulouse,
where the following works by him are to be found
in the Museum :

View of the Pic da Midi.
The ■Woodcutters.
The Drinking Place.
A Study of Oaks.

RICHARDS, John Inigo, an English landscape
painter, bom in the first half of the 18th century.
On the foundation of the Royal Academy, he be-
came one of the original members, and in 1788 was
appointed its secretary. He contributed to its ex-
hibitions from 1769 to 1809. His pictures were
chiefly representations of English mediaeval ruins.
He was best known as a scene-painter, working at
Covent Garden Theatre, and in this branch of art
he obtained a great reputation. Hearne and
McArdell both worked after him, and one of his
scenes for the ' Maid of the Mill ' was engraved by
WooHett, and won great popularity. Richards
repaired the famous cartoon of a 'Holy Family,'
by Leonardo da Vinci, which belongs to the Royal
Academy. He died in his rooms at the Academy
in 1810.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, portrait painter, bom
in 1665. His father dying when he was only five
years of age, his mother married a second time, and
he was, contrary to his inclination, articled to his
father-in-law, who was a scrivener ; but the death
of the latter enabled him, in the sixth year of his
apprenticeship, to indulge an inclination he had
long felt for painting, and to become a pupil of



John Riley, under whom he studied four years.
Having made considerable progress in art, he
married the niece of his instructor, and established
himself as a portrait painter. Though Kneller
and Dahl were then in great vogue, Richardson
possessed sufificient merit to secure a share of the
public favour even during their Uves, and after
their death he was considered at the head of his
profession. He continued in enjoyment of his popu-
larity for many years, and was enabled to retire
long before his death. But Richardson is best
known as a writer upon art. He published the
following works: 1. ' The Theory of Painting.'
2. 'The Connoisseur, an Essay on the whole Art



Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 97 of 201)