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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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of Criticism, as it relates to Painting.' And, 3.
'An account of some of the Statues, Bas-reliefs,
Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, &c., with remarks
by Mr. Richardson, sen. and jun.' The son made
the journey, and from his notes, letters, and observ-
ations the two, on his return, compiled the work.
In 1734 they also published 'Explanatory Notes
and Remarks on Milton's Paradise Lost, with the
Life of the Author, and a Discourse on the Poem.'
Richardson died in London in 1745. His pictures
are of the solid, steady-going, heavy-handed kind,
and scarcely deserve the oblivion into which they
have sunk. A head, apparently of Gay, in the
National Gallery, seems to be a more than usually
excellent work by Richardson. Works :

London. Nat. Fort. Gall. Portrait of Mr. Oldfield.

„ „ „ „ Alexander Pope.

„ „ „ „ Matthew Prior.

„ „ „ „ Sir S. Steele.

„ „ „ „ Lord Chancellor


„ „ „ „ George Tertue.

RICHARDSON, Jonathan, the only son of the
last named, was bom in 1694. He painted only as
an amateur, but, having been blessed with a good
education, he assisted his father in his literary
productions. His portrait of Matthew Prior has
been engraved. He died in London in 1771.

RICHARDSON, Thomas Miles, an English
landscape painter in oil and water-colours, born at
Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1784. His father was
master of the St. Andrew's Grammar School. His
early years were passed in a variety of occupations :
engraving, cabinet-making, and teaching (in 1806
he was named successor to his father at the school)
occupied him successively till 1813, when he de-
voted himself entirely to art. In the following
year he -commenced exhibiting at the Academy,
and his works also appeared at the British Institu-
tion. Subsequently he joined the New Water-
Colour Society. The subjects of his pictures were
mainly taken from the northem counties, and won
him a wide reputation. In 1816 he began to pub-
lish, in conjunction with a partner, a work on
Newcastle and its neighbourhood, with illustrations
in aquatint, but only a few numbers were issued.
In 1833 he began, in partnership with his brother,
the publication of .'The Castles of the English and
Scottish Borders,' with mezzotint plates engraved
by himself. This enterprise also stopped short of
completion. His work in water-colour shows very
great talent. His life was chiefly spent at New-
castie, where he died in 1848. Amongst his works

Dublin. National Gallery. Kiver Scene.
Liverpool. Corporation Gall. Scene between Chamouni
and the Tete Noire.
,, Lago Maggiore.





Newcastle. Town-Hall. View of Newcastle.

South Kensington. Museum. Ben Lomond.

EICHART. See Db la Maee-Richart.

EICHARTE, Antonio, born at Yeola in 1690,
was educated for a learned profession, but he pre-
ferred painting, which he studied under Senen Vila
at Morcia, and afterwards at Madrid with one of
the Menendez. He was very popular at Valencia,
where he was much employed in painting pro-
cessional banners for the Guild of that city. He
died in 1764.

RICHE, Ad^le, born in Paris, 1791. She was a
pupil of G. Van Spaendonck and of Van Dael, and
painted flowers in water-colour.

EICHE, , probably Renieb La Richb,

a French painter, practising at the Hague at the
beginning of the 18th century. He was a pupil
of Th. Van der Schuur.

RICHIER, DiDiER, or Didieb db Vie, painter,
practising in Lorraine in the latter part of the 16th
century. He studied in Italy, and finally established
himself at Nancy, where he became known chiefly
as a skilful painter of armour. His son, Pieebe,
was also a painter.

RICHIERI, Antonio, a native of Perrara, born
in 1600, was brought up in the school of Giovanni
Lanfranco. According to Passeri, he followed that
master to Naples and Rome, and painted some
frescoes at the Teatini from the designs of 'Lan-
franco. He is said to have etched some plates
from the designs of his master.

RIOHMANS. See Rykman.

RICHMOND, Thomas, an English miniature
painter, born at Kew in 1771. He studied under
G. Engleheart, and at the St. Martin's Lane
Academy. Many of his works appeared at the
Royal Academy between 1795 and 1825, and were
held in sorne repute. He died in London in 1837.
He was the father of Mr. George Richmond, R.A.,
and of Thomas Richmond, junior.

RICHMOND, Thomas, the son of the last-named,
was born in London, 16th September, 1802. He
acquired the rudiments of art from his father, and
in 1820 entered as a student of the Royal Academy,
where he distinguished himself by the refinement
of his drawings from the antique. After a period
of study in Paris he established himself as a
portraitist in oil and water-colour in the north of
England. In 1841 he went to Rome, where he
became the close friend of Joseph Severn and John
Ruskin. Returning to England, he continued to
paint portraits for a time in London, but finally
migrated to Cumberland, where he purchased a
small property. He died at Keswick on November
13th, 1874. From 1822 to 1860 he was an exhibitor
at the Academy and with the Society of British

RICHOMME, Joseph Theodore, a very eminent
engraver, was born in Paris in 1785, and was first
a scholar of Regnault, the painter, and afterwards
of J. J. Coiny, the engraver. He obtained the
grand prix of the Institute for the best engraving
in 1806, and his later career did not falsify the
promise then given. Riohomme died in 1849. His
works class with those of the beat modern engravers
of Italy. Among them may be specified.

The Triumph of Galatea ; after Raphael.
The Five Saints ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
Adam and Eve ; after the same.
Neptune and Amphitrite ; after Giulio Romano.

Venus at the Bath ; after the Antique.

Andromache ; after Guhin.

Thetis crowning Vasco de Gama ; after Gerard,.

RICHTER, Adolph, painter, bom at Thorn in
1816, studied at the Academy in Diisseldorf from
1835 to 1843, in which city he established himself.
His paintings are simple, but show the efiects of
careful study. The best are, 'Christmas Eve,'
' The Return of the Reservist,' ' The Village School.'
He died at Dtisseldorf in 1852.

RICHTER, Adeian Ludwig, painter and en-
graver, was bom at Dresden, September 28, 1803.
His education in art was received from his father,
Karl August, who meant his son to be an engraver,
like himself. Adrian's inchnation towards painting
was, however, very strong, and he would have
indulged it from the first had his domestic sur-
roundings been less unfavourable. He was also
much attracted by the works of Chodowiecki,
which had some influence on his after practice.
He helped his father for a time in his engraving,
particularly on a series of views in Dresden and the
neighbourhood ; but a wider horizon was opened
to him by his acquaintance with Dahl, Friedrich,
and Carus, and by a journey through France to
Nice, in company with Prince Narischkin, in 1820.
Shortly afterwards he made a tour among the Alps,
and with the money he obtained from the resulting
sketches, he contrived to visit Italy. This was in
1823. In Rome he made many useful friends, and
painted his first oil picture. In 1826 he was again
at Dresden, and soon after became a master in the
drawing school attached to the porcelain factory
at Meissen. In 1836 he was appointed professor
at the Dresden 'Academic,' where he introduced
the fashion of combining genre with landscape.
The first thing to make his name popular, however,
was the series of illustrations from German life,
scenery, and literature, which he furnished to the
wood engravers from 1835 onwards. During his
later years he was troubled by a weakness of the
eyes, and in 1876 he retired from his official duties,
being granted a pension by the emperor. Eichter
died at Dresden, June 19, 1884. His oil pictures
are few, and mostly belong to his early period.
The following may be named :

Berlin. Museum,. Landscape (Eiesengebirge).

Dresden. Gallery. Landscape with a Wedding.

)> „ Ferry at the SchreckensteSi.

Leipsic. Museum. Five landscapes.

He produced many water-colour drawings and
designs for illustration: he also etched no less
than 238 plates, among which a series of 70 views
in the neighbourhood of Dresden may be named
as perhaps the best.

EICHTER, August, painter, bom at Dresden,
1801. In 1824 he was practising at Diisseldorf,
and associated himself with Cornelius, one of
whose designs he carried out in fresco at Helldorf.
Towards the end of his life he became insane. He
died at Pima in 1873. His best-known works
are engraved :

Jacob's Blessing.

Hagar in the Desert.

The Unbelief of St. Thomas.

RICHTER, Caegline Thebese, flower and genre
painter, born at Dresden in 1777, was a pupil of
Caroline Friedrich. In the Dresden Gallery are two
pictures by her : ' A Carp with a Vase of Flowers,'
and 'Two Squirrels, a branch of a Nut Tree,
Stag's Horns,' &c. She died at Dresden in 1865.




EICHTBB, Christian, was a native of Stock-
holm, and came to England in 1702, where he
painted portraits both in oil and in miniature ;
chiefly studying the works of Michael Dahl, from
which he learned a vigorous manner of colouring.
In the latter part of his life he turned to enamel-
ling, but died in 1732 before he had made much
progress in that branch of art.

EICHTEB, David, a Swedish painter, born 1661.
He practised at Vienna. There are two landscapes
by him in the Gallery of that city, and at Stock-
holm a portrait of the sculptor Casanova (?). He
died 1735.

RICHTER, Emil Theodob, landscape painter,
born at Berlin in 1801, painted landscapes, ill-
drawn but bright in colour, among which were a
' Woodland Scene with Deer,' and pictures of Italian
scenery. He died at Munich in 1878.

BICHTER GusTAV, painter, born at Berlin,
August 31, 1823. He studied first at Berlin, and
in 1844 — 1846 was the pupil of Cogniet in Paris.
He made numerous journeys to France and Italy,
and in 1861 was commissioned by the King of
Bavaria to visit Egypt, to make sketches for
pictures of the Pyramids, which were destined for
the ' Maximilianeum ' at Munich. He had pre-
viously to this attracted considerable attention by
his 'Raising of Jairus' Daughter' (1856), and by
his decoration in stereo-chrome, at the New
Museum of Beriin, ' Baldur and the Valkyri.' He
was member, and later professor, of the Berlin
Academy, and member of the Academies of Munich
and Vienna, and received medals at Berlin, Vienna,
Paris, Brussels, and Philadelphia. His works,
which are very popular, have become widely
known both in Europe and America, by chromos.
He executed a few lithographs. He died on April
3, 1884. The following are good examples of his,

Jairus' t)aughter. (Berlin National Gallery) 1856.

The Egyptian Maiden.

The Odalisque.

The Neapolitan Fisher-Boy.

Gipsies of the Crimea.

Two portraits of the Emperor William. 1877.

Portrait of the Empress Augusta. 1878.

Portrait of the Princess Karolath. 1872.

Portrait of Queen Louisa of Prussia. (Painted in 1879
for the Cologne Museum.)

Portrait of the Duchess of Edinburgh.

Portrait of Sultan Abdul Medschid.

His own Family.

RICHTER, Henry J., a 'subject painter in water-
colours, bom in 1772. He was of German extrac-
tion, and practised in London, where he occasion-
ally exhibited at the Academy from 1788. His
works chiefly appeared at the Water-Colour Society,
of which he was a member, intermittently, from
1813 to his death. In 1813 his picture of ' Christ
giving sight to the Blind' was bought by the
British Institution for 500 guineas. He published
a work on the application to art of Kant's philo-
sophy ; it was entitled ' Daylight, a Recent Dis-
covery in the Art of Painting, with hints on the
Philosophy of the Fine Arts and on that of the
Human Mind, as first dissected by Emanuel Kant.'
He died in London in 1857. Some of his pictures
attained considerable popularity. Amongst them

The Eod.
The Tight Shoe.
School in an Uproar.
A Brute of a Husband,

RICHTER, JoHANN Heinrich, painter, born at
Coblentz, 1803. He began his career as a gold-
smith, but soon devoted himself to painting, and
after studying in Paris under Girodet-Trioson and
Gerard, he established himself as a portrait painter
at Munich. In 1832 he went to Italy, where he
remained for three years, and during that period
painted several scenes from Italian life. Returning
to Munich he resumed the practice of portrait
painting. He died at Coblentz in 1845. Among
his works we may mention :

Portrait of King Otho of Greece.

Portrait of the Hereditary Grand Duchess Matilda of

Soman Girl in a Landscape.

RICHTER, Karl August, a German draughts-
man and engraver, was born at Dresden in 1776.
He was a pupil of Zingg, whose style he followed
faithfully. Many of Kichter's productions were
published under Zingg's name, when the latter
became enfeebled by age, and unable to fulfil his
commissions. Richter was the first teacher of his
son, Adrian Ludwig. Among his works we may

Landscape ; after Buisdael.
Landscape ; after Swanevelt.
Dresden from the Bautzener Strasse.

„ „ Moreau's Monument.

A Series of Yiews in the Neighbourhood of Dresden.

RICKARDS, Samuel, a miniature painter, who
practised in London in the latter part of the 18th
century, and exhibited with the Society of Artists,
the Free Society, and the Royal Academy between
1768 and 1781.

RICKE. See Rycke, Van.

RICO, Andrea, a Greek painter, of the island of
Candia, practising in the first years of the 12th
century. He was one of the first artists who sent
works into Italy. At Florence, in the Uffizi, there
is a ' Virgin and Infant Christ surrounded by
Angels holding the Emblems of the Passion,' by
him. It is signed Andreas Rico di Gandia pinocit.

RICOIS, Franqois Bdme, painter, horn at
Courtalin. He was a pupil of J. V. Bertin, and
painted landscapes in the early years of the
present century, amongst which we may mention
a ' View in the Bernese Oberland,' and a ' View of

RIDINGER, Johan Elias, (Ribdingee,) animal
painter and engraver, born at Ulm in Suabia in
1695 or 1698, received his first instruction from
Christopher Resch, in Ulm, and then studied under
Falk and Rugendas in Augsburg. He had been
brought up a huntsman, and applied himself to
the illustration of animal life and of the modes
of the chase. In 1769 he became director of
the Art Academy in Augsburg, where he estab-
lished himself. His works as a painter are few,
and but little known ; but in his etchings from
his own pictures he displays ability of an un-
common kind. His sons, Martin Elias and Jo-
HANN Jakob, assisted him in his work. The
number of his prints is very great ; they are very
unequal in quality. He died at Augsburg in
1767. The following are among the best of his
plates :

A set of twelve plates of the Creation.

A set of Heads of "Wolves and Foxes.

Four plates of Boar-hunts.

A set of sixteen plates representing the mode of hunting
different animals in Germany, with inscriptions in
German and French.





Eighteen plates of Horsemanship.

Thirteen plates of various Wild Beasts.

A Lion-hunt ; after Bubens ; for the ' Dresden Gallery.'

RIDLEY, William, an English engraver, bom
in 1764. He had a considerable practice in illus-
trations for books, and some of his best vioA is
to be found in the ' Bvangelioal_ Magazine.' He
retired to Addlestone, where he died in 1838.

RIDOLFl, Cavaliebe Caelo, born at Vicenza
in 1602, was instructed in art by Antonio Vassil-
acchi, called I'Aliense, but afterwards studied the
works of the best masters at Verona and Vicenza.
Little is known of his work as a painter, but
Lanzi mentions, as his beat performance, the
' Visitation of the Virgin ' in the church of the
Ognissanti at Venice. He also painted portraits
and easel pictures for private collections. He is
more distinguished as a writer on art than as a
painter, and was the author of the well-known two
volumes, published at Venice in 1648, entitled, ' Le
Maraviglie dell' arte, ovvero le Vite degl' illustri
pittori Veneti, e dello State' These are written
with a directness and simplicity which was very
rare in the literature of the time, and form a
valuable contribution to art history. The good
sense and freedom from manner they display
were also the ruling notes of Ridolfi's works as a
painter. He died in 1658, according to an epitaph
quoted by Zanetti in his ' Guide to Venice ' (1723),
but 1660 is the date more usually given.

RIDOLFl, Claudio, was born at~ Verona in 1560,
and was for some time a scholar of Dario Pozzo, a
painter of little celebrity ; but he afterwards entered
the school of Paolo Veronese. As Venice was at
that time the residence of a great number of eminent
artists, he went to Rome in search of employment.
Not meeting with the success he expected in that
capital, he visited Urbino, where the works of Pede-
rigo Barocoio were then held in the highest estima-
tion. He formed an intimacy with that artist, and,
with the advantage of his instruction and advice,
acquired the graceful style by which he was after-
wards distinguished. Ridolfi resided several years
at Corinaldo, in the March of Anoona, where he
painted many pictures for the churches of that
town and its vicinity. Of his works at Urbino, the
most esteemed are the ' Birth of St. John the Bap-'
tist,' in S. Lucia ; and the ' Presentation in the
Temple,' in Spirito Santo. At Rimini there is a
fine ' Deposition from the Cross ' by Ridolfi. He
also painted portraits. He died in 1644.

RIDOLFI, MiOHELB, painter, born in Lucca in
1795. Studied in Rome in 1813 and following
years, helped and encouraged by the German
artists, principally Cornelius and Overbeck, who
taught him to respect the masters of the 15th
century, as well as the works of Raphael. His
principal picture, the 'First Council of the Apostles
under the Presidency of St. Peter,' shows much
breadth and power of characterization. For his
' Enthroned Madonna ' he received two gold medals
and a crown of laurel from the Pope. He restored
Aspertini's frescoes in a chapel of S. Prediano at
Lucca with great skill. Ridolfi was an honorary
member of the Dresden Academy. He died at
Lucca in 1854.

RIDOLFI, PiETEO, an Italian engraver, who
flourished about the year 1710, is known for a fron-
tispiece which 1 e engraved from a design by C. N.
Lamparel, affixed to a volume containing views of
ancient and modern Rome, published at Venice in
1716. It is executed in a style resembling that


of Oornelis Bloemaert, though very inferior in

RIEBENSTEIN. See Rubinstein.

RIEDEL, Anton Heinbich, painter, son of
Johann Anton Riedel, was born at Dresden in
1763. He painted portraits, and was also, like his
father, an engraver. Died after 1809.

RIEDEL, August Heinbich, (or Joseph,) painter,
born atBayreuth, Dec. 27, 1802. His father, Kael
Cheistian, was an architect, who, however, occa-
sionally practised painting. The younger Riedel
studied for a time under Langer, at the Munich
Academy, but in 1828 he went to Rome, where
he settled, and became a member of the Academy
of St. Luke. From this time he adopted a very
different style of painting. He was one of the
first of the modern Germans to concern himself
with colour. His works are also distinguished by
various effects of light and sunshine, with which
he was very successful. Riedel died at Rome on
the 8th of August, 1883. The following are among
his best-known pictures :

Sakuntala. 1 {In the possession of the Kijy oj

A Eoman Woman. J Wlirtemberg.)

Women of Albano. (Berlin National Gallery.)

Girls Bathing (the same).

Judith. (New Pinacothek, Munich^

A Mother and Daughter (the same).

Portrait of Marincoia Joli (the same).

Portrait of Felice Beraldi (the same).

Portrait of Pellegrini the Singer (the same).

Portrait of the Signora Pellegrini (the same).

Neapolitan Fisher-Family (the same).

The Fortune-Teller (the same).

Portrait of Nazarena Trombetti (the same).

Medea. (In the StUttgart Galleri/.)

The Neapolitan Mother.

Many of the above have been rendered popular
by engravings and lithographs.

RIEDEL, Gottfried Friedeich, bom at Dres-
den, 1724. Painted portraits and history, and
engraved a few plates. He was the son of Johann
Gottfried Riedel. He died at Augsburg in 1784.

RIEDEL, Johann Anton, a German designer
and engraver, son of Johann Gottfried Riedel, bom
at Prague in 1733, was keeper of the Dresden
Gallery, and engraved several plates Eifter pictures
in that collection, in which he imitated the style
of Rembrandt. Among them we may name the
following :

The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after Barocrio.

The Seven Sacraments ; after Gio. Maria Crespi,

A Portrait of Rembrandt ; after Rembrandt.

A Warrior, with a cap and feather ; after the same.

Sixteen other plates ; after the same.

A Portrait of a Lady holding a Letter ; after Vandyck.

Twenty-one Portraits ; after Both, Dietrich, Flinclc,
Orebber, &o,

Riedel died at Dresden in 1816.

RIEDEL, Johann Gottfeied, painter and
engraver, born at Talken in Bohemia in 1691,
was a pupil of Miinnl in Vienna, and afterwards of
Solimena. He went in 1739 as court painter to
Dresden, and in 1742 he was appointed keeper
of the Dresden Gallery. He died at Dresden in

RIEDER, Geokg, an obscure historical painter
of Ulm, who was received into the freedom of that
city in 1550. He was still living in 1570.

RIEDEE, WiLHELM August, painter, bom at
Dobling in 1796. In 1825 he became professor of
figure-drawing at the Academy of Vienna. In 1835
he went to Italy to study, and on his return to
Vienna in 1857 was made keeper of the Belve^




dere Gallery. His works are mainly religious, but
he occasionally painted portraits in water-colour,
of which we may mention that of Franz Schubert ;
and he made some drawings for the Archduke
Ludwig, and the Archduchess Maria Elizabeth.
His best known works in oil are :

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Saint Rosalie.

Portraits of Prince Ferdinand and of Prince Augustus

of Saxe-Coburg.
Portrait of the Fran Ton Sonnenfels.
Effie Deans in Prison. ( Vienna.)

Eieder died at Vienna in 1880.

EIEDINGER. See Eidingee.

RIEFSTAHL, Ludwiq Fmbdrich Wilhelm,
landscape and genre painter, was bom the 15th
of August, 1827, at Neu-Strelitz. Failing to be-
come the pupil of Gropius and Gerst, as he had
wished, he studied under W. Schirmer at the
Berlin Academy. In 1848 ho made the archi-
tectural illustrations for Kugler's ' History of Art.'
This commission started him in life. He travelled
through the most picturesque parts of Germany,
and the impressions he received had a strong
influence upon his after work. In 1869 he visited
Rome, and a year later became professor at the
art school in Carlsruhe. This post he resigned
in order to revisit Rome, but two years afterwards,
in 1875, he was appointed director of the school
in question. His works are mainly landscapes
with figures. He died in 1878. Works :

Berlin. National Gallery. Passeyer Shepherds at Prayer.

„ „ All Souls' Day at Bregenz.

Procession of Mourners, Bregenz.
A Northern Heath.
Seashore at £1igen.
"Village Church in Westphalia.
Procession of Capuchin Monks.
Bridal Procession in the Passeyer Thai.
The Betum from the Baptism,
Funeral Procession before the Pantheon.
Funeral at Appenzel.
In the Eefectory.

RIEPENHAUSEN, Eenst Ludwiq, draughts-
man and engraver, born at Gottingen, 1766. He
engraved a number of plates in the manner of
Chodowiecki, but is best known as the author of
some engravings after Hogarth in the ' Gottingen
Almanack,' and as the father of Franz and Johann
Riepenhausen. He died at Gottingen, 28th January,

RIEPENHAUSEN, Fbanz and Johann, bom
at Gottingen ; Franz in 1786, and Johann in 1789.
They first learned engraving from their father,
Ernst Ludwig. In 1804 they studied in Gassel
under Tisohbein, and the following year in Dresden.
In 1807 they both went to Rome to study the old
masters, and till the death of Franz they worked
so well together that it was impossible to dis-
tinguish their hands. Franz died in Rome in 1831,
and Johann in the same city in 1860. Works :

Der Sanger (in illustration of Goethe's poem).

Madchen aus der Fremde (in illustration of Schiller's

Hagar. 1820.

View of Borne. 1820.

Online LibraryMichael BryanDictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical → online text (page 98 of 201)