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Dictionary of painters and engravers, biographical and critical online

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Legend of St. Elizabeth (painted for the Duke of Cam-
bridge). 1822.

Copy of Eaphael's ' Transfiguration.'

Conradiu receiving sentence of death.

Barbarossa protected by Henry the Lion as he left St.
Peter's (in the Guelfen Saal, Hanover).


Eric of Brunswick.
Amor listening to Music.
A ' Madonna. '
Christus Consolator.
The Destruction of the Oenci Family. 1839.

In 1810 the brothers published the 'History of
Painting in Italy ' (' Die Gesohichte der Malerei in
Italien nach ihrer Entwickelung '), with twelve
plates by themselves. They also made a series of
designs for Goethe's 'Faust,' for Schiller's 'Taucher,'
and for a life of Charlemagne. They also etched
115 plates, among which we may name :

Thirteen plates from the Life of Kaphael.

Sixteen plates from ' Polygnotus at Delphi.'

Fourteen plates from Tieck's ' Genovef a.'

Sixteen plates after ancient classical monuments.

EIESENER, Henri FRANgois, painter, born in
Paris in 1767, studied under Vincent and David.
His father was the famous cabinet-maker to Louis
XVI. On the outbreak of the Revolution he
abandoned his artistic career for that of a soldier.
On resuming his brush, he employed it in paint-
ing portraits. A portrait of Napoleon I. was so
successful that he had to supply more than fifty
replicas. From 1816 to 1823 he worked in Russia,
both in Moscow and Petersburg, where he was
patronized by the Grand. Duke Constantino and
the Empress-mother, and painted portraits of the
Emperor Alexander and other notabilities. He
contributed to the Salons between 1793 and 1827.
In 1828 he returned to Paris, where he died in
1828. In the Louvre there is a portrait of M.
Ravrio by him.

RIESENER, Louis Antoine L^on, a French
historical and decorative painter, born in Paris in
1808. He was the son of Henri Franjois Riesener.
Though he studied under Gros, he was a great
admirer and follower of Delacroix. He painted
many studies from the nude, of a rather voluptuous
character, but excellent in technique. His attention
was largely devoted to decoration, and there are
works by him in the Luxembourg Palace, in St.
Eustaohe, and at the Charenton Hospital. Those
in the old H6tel de Ville perished when the build-
ing was burnt by the commune. His daughter
is a successful portrait painter. Riesener died in
1878. Amongst his chief pictures we may name :


Leda. 1841.

A Nymph.


A Bacchante playing with a Panther.

E^ptiau Child and Nurse.

Erigone. 1864. (Paris; iMxemlourg Gallery.)

RIETER, Heinrich, painter and etcher, born
at Winterthur in 1751, learned his art of Schellen-
burg, and afterwards studied under Graf in Dresden,
also landscape painting in Bern under Staberli.
On the death of the latter he inherited his plates,
and added to the series with plates of his own.
These were superior to those of his master. His
best plates are, ' The Waterfall of Reiohenbach,'
' The Giessbach,' ' The Peak of the Jungfrau.' Of
his oil paintings the chief were landscape views
of Italian and Swiss scenery. Rieter died in 1818
at Bern, where he had taught drawing at the
!^oole Publique for thirty-seven years.

RIETHOORN, Jean Albertz van den. See
Van den Eiethooen.

RIBTSCHOOF, Hendrik, the son and pupil of
Jan Claasze Rietschoof, was born at Hoorn in 1678. ,





He painted similar subjects to those of his father,
whose skill, however, he failed to rival. He died
at Koog, a village in North Holland, about 1746.

RIETSGHOOF, Jan Claesz, (perhaps Glaes
Jansz), born at Hoorn in 1662, was a scholar of
Abr. Liedts and Ludolf Backhuysen, under whose
tuition he became an eminent artist, and painted
sea-pieces and storms so much in the style of his
instructor, that his pictures are sometimes mistaken
for those of Backhuysen. He particularly excelled
in painting storms, which he reproduced with much
fidelity. He died in 1719. Works :


B. Museum. A Calm.
„ A Storm.

EIETSTAP, Anthonis R., a Dutch landscape
painter, born at the Hague, 1814. He was a pupil
of A. Sohelfout. He died in 1837.

RIEUE, Jbhan, (Dbieux, Dheux,) a native of
Bruges, who worked as an illuminator in the l5th
century. In 1439 he illuminated a ' Book of
Hours ' for the Duke of Burgundy, and in 1449-50
he was attached to Philippe-le-Bon as valet-de
chambre and illuminator. He was still alive in

RIEFLA.ERT, Alexandeb Victob, a Belgian
painter of little note, born at Brussels. He painted
historical and genre pictures, and was still alive in

RIGA, Jean, a Belgian painter, probably of the
same family as N. J. Riga. He was born at Liege
in 1680, and was employed at the H6tel de Ville.
He also painted sacred subjects for the churches of
his native town, but none of his works have been
preserved. He died in 1725.

RIGA, MtJLLER VON. See Mdllee, Johann

RIGA, N. J., a Belgian painter, born in 1653, at
Lifege. There are pictures by him in several
churches of his native town. He died in 1717.

RIGAUD, Gaspabd, portrait painter, was a
younger brother of the famous Hyacinthe Rigaud,
but of greatly inferior talent. He was appointed
one of the painters to the king, and became an
associate of the Academy in 1701. He died in

RIGAUD- Y-ROS, Hyacinthe Franqois Ho-
NOEAT Mathias Pieere-le-Maette Ande^ Jean,
a French portrait painter, was bom at Perpignan
the 20th of July, 1659. Both his father, whom he
lost when he was but eight years old, and his
grandfather, were artists. At the early age of
fourteen, his mother, for whom he had a great
affection, sent him to study at Montpellier. Here
he received instruction for some time from the
local painters Pezet, Verdier, and Ranc. After a
stay of four years at Montpellier, he migrated to
Lyons, and afterwards to Paris, where he arrived
in 1681, and began to study in the Academy.
In the following year he gained the first prize
for painting for his version of ' Gain building the
city of Enoch.' At this critical period of his
career he attracted the notice of Le Brun, who
strongly advised him to continue the work at
portraits, which he had already commenced, and
to abandon the idea of studying in Italy. Rigaud
took this advice, and, to improve his style,
applied himself to a diligent study of the works
of Van Dyck, whose disciple he always pro-
fessed to be._ At first his sitters came from
the bourgeoisie. His firm establishment as the
fashionable painter of the upper classes may
be sfiid to date from 1688, when the brother of


Louis XIV. sat to him. Notwithstanding that his
career was thus definitely marked out, he had the
ambition, not uncommon amongst French artists,
of being received into the Academy in the highest
class, that of historical painters. With this view
he submitted a ' Nativity ' as his reception picture
in 1687. But the Academy was obdurate, and he
was only admitted as a portrait painter. It was
not till 1700, when he had risen to the first rank
in his profession, that he was received as an his-
torical painter, on the completion of ' St. Andrew,'
now in the Louvre. He became assistant professor
in the Academy in 1702, professor in 1710, and
assistant rector and rector in 1733. Other honours
were freely bestowed on him : he was ennobled in
1709, and as he had the misfortune to lose his
savings through the schemes of Law, the king
granted him a pension. There are but few other
events in his career to record. His large practice,
and the industry with which he worked, left him
but little time for any pursuit but that of art.
From a list which he kept, specifying each portrait
which he painted and the sum received for it, it
appears that he produced, on an average, between
thirty and forty portraits per annum. It is said,
too, that Rigaud did not intrust the accessories
to other hands, but painted them himself. After
a long and prosperous career — he was practising
for no less than sixty-two years — Rigaud died in
Paris in 1743. He painted five kings, all the
French Princes of the Blood, and most of the
distinguished men of his time.

There are many portraits by Rigaud in the
Prench'provinoial galleries and private collections.
The following is a list of his paintings in the chief
public galleries in Europe :

Bale. Museum. Chevalier Luke Schaub.

Berlin. Museum. The Sculptor Bogaert.

Cassel. Gallery. Portrait of himself.

Dresden. Gallery. Augustus III. of Poland. 1715.

Florence. Uffizi, Bossuet.

„ „ Portrait of himself.

Geneva. Eath Museum, Duchess of Orleans.
Karlsruhe. Gallery. Louis XIV.

„ „ Portrait of himself.

„ „ Male portrait.

Lausanne. Artaud ) Augustus II. of Poland.

Museum. } Augustus III. of Poland.
,1 „ Portrait of himself.

„ „ Two other portraits.

Lisbon. Academy. Cardinal Polignac.

„ „ Portrait of a Cardinal.

London. Nat. Gal. Cardinal Fleury.

„ Nat. Far. Gal. Viscount Bolingbroke.
„ Dulwich Gallery, Louis XIV.
„ „ Boileau.

Madrid. Museum. Louis XIV.

Munich. Pinakothek. Duke Christian HI., of Zwei-

Paris. Louvre. The Presentation in the

„ „ St. Andrew. 1700.

II „ Philip V. of Spain.

„ ,1 Louis XIV. 1701.

» „ Bossuet.

I) „ Maria Serre, the Painter's

Mother (a double portrait).
II „ The Sculptor Martin van den

Bogaert (Desjardins).
II „ Le Brun and Mignard.

>i II The Architect J. H. Mansart.

Two unidentiiied portrait
Petersburg. Hermitage. Fontenelle.
Stockholm. Gallery. Charles XII. of Sweden.

II II Cardinal Fleury.

Versailles. Gallery. Mignard.

II ,1 Boileau.





Gallery. Portrait of himself.
„ „ Louis XV,

„ „ The Dauphin Louis, &o., &c.

Vienna. Gallery. Duchess Elizabeth Caroline of

„ „ An Ecclesiastic.

0. J. D.

RIGAUD, John Peancis, an historical and por-
trait painter, born at Turin in 1742, was descended
from a French Protestant family. He, however,
came in 1772 to England, after travelling through
Italy and France, where he practised his art. He
was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1772, and in 1784 a full member. His admission
picture, which represented ' Samson breaking his
bonds,' was much admired. He was employed by
Boydell for the Shakespeare Gallery, and he also
painted several sacred and historical subjects. But
besides this he decorated several ceilings, among
which was that of the Court Room in the Trinity
House, Tower Hill. He also painted two altar-
pieces, one for the parish church at Packington,
and another for the church of St. Martin-Outwich
in London. He translated into English and pub-
lished Leonardo da Vinci's ' Treatise on Painting,'
with illustrative copper plates. He was found
dead in his bed at Packington Hall, the residence
of Lord Aylesford, his patron, on December 6th,

RIGAUD, Jean, a relation of Hyacinthe Rigaud,
born in Paris about the year 1700, painted land-
scapes, which, if we may judge by his prints,
must have possessed considerable merit. He
appears to have passed some time in England, as
he has etched some views in the environs of
London. We have several plates by him, executed
in a spirited and masterly style, and the figures
correctly and neatly drawn. The following are
Iiis principal prints :

A pair of Views of Marseilles, at the time of the Plague

in 1720.
A set of six Views of the Chateau and Gardens of Marly.
The Garden of the Tuilleries.
A View of the Palace of the Luxembourg.
A View of Hampton Court.
St. James's Park.
Greenwich Park.
Greenwich Hospital.
A set of six Landscapes, with figures.
A set of six Views in France, with rural amusements.
Twelve marine subjects.

He had a son, Jean Baptistb Rigaud, who
engraved a view of the Palais Bourbon, after his

RIGAUD, Stephen Francis, son of John Francis
Rigaud, and an English water-colour painter, was
born in the latter part of the 18th century. He
studied in the schools of the Academy, where he
first exhibited in 1797, and in 1801 gained the
gold medal by his ' Clytemnestra and Agamem-
non.' In 1804 he became one of the original
members of the Water-Col our Society, where he
exhibited till 1813, when he, Chalon, and others
seceded. But little is known of his subsequent
life, though it appears that he exhibited at the
Society of British Artists as late as 1851. There is
a water-colour picture by him at the Kensington
Museum of ' Telemachus discovering the priest of
Apollo.' We may also name :

Satan in the Bower of Adam and Eve. 1805.

Martha and Mary. 1806.

Sin and Death. J 807.

Invasion of France in 1813. 1814.

David sallying out against Goliath. 1815.

RIGHETTI, Mario. This painter was born at
Bologna about the year 1590, and was a scholar of
Lucio Massari. He painted several pictures for the
churches of his native city, which are noticed in
' Le Pitture di Bologna.' The best are the follow-
ing: 'The Archangel Michael,' in the church of
S. Guglielmo ; ' Christ appearing to the Magdalen,'
in S. Giacomo Maggiore ; ' The Adoration of the
Magi,' in S. Agnese; and the 'Nativity,' in S.

RIGOT, Jean, a friar of the Abbey of St. Pierre
de Melun, was an illuminator and miniaturist of
the 15th century. In the ' Bibliotheque Nationale '
there is a Latin missal of the year 1489 attributed
to him.

RIGOULDTS, or Righolz. See Thielew.

RUN, Rembrandt Harmensz van, was born at
Leyden, July 15, 1607. He was the son of a
miller named Harmen van Rijn, and of his wife
Neeltjen, the daughter of a baker, Willem van
Suytbrouck. The paternal home stood close to the
" White," the western gate of Leyden, and immedi-
ately behind the mill, which crowned the rampart.
In Vosmaer's ' Life of Rembrandt,' the details of his
family tree, and of his parents' condition in the
world, are elaborately set out. Rembrandt was
the fifth of six children, but his parents were com-
fortably off, and determined that he should have a
good education, should attend the Latin sfehool, in
order that, as Criers puts it, " he might in the ful-
ness of time be able to serve his native city, and
the Republic, with his knowledge."/ But such
studies as these were not at all to the boy's taste,
and before he had been long awicjorises with Latin,
his father became convinced that his inclination
for art would have to be allowed its way. The lad
was consequently placed in the studio of Jacob
van Swanenburch, a respectable painter, and a
member of an old Leyden family. With him
Rembrandt stayed three years and made good pro-
gress, giving such promise of future excellence
that in 1622, when he was only fifteen, he was
removed to the more famous studio of Pieter Last-
man, at Amsterdam. Lastman had visited Italy,
and painted crowded religious pictures, and was
just such an artist as would be sure to have an
attraction for ajnan like the miller Harmen, with
his visions of advancement for his fifth son.
Rembrandt, however, only remained six months
with his new teacher. In 1623 he returned to his
home at Leyden, and is supposed to have worked
there steadily for seven years. His earliest extant
picture has long been supposed to be the ' St. Paul
in Prison,' of the Stiittgart Gallery, signed and
dated JR.H. 1627 ; but perhaps one still earlier has
come to light. This is the carefully studied por-
trait of a young girl, signed and dated iJem* 1625,
and there seems to be no good reason to doubt its
authenticity. In 1628 Rembrandt received Gerard
Douw as his pupil, and two years later migrated to
Amsterdam, where he lived for the rest of his life.
Not much of the work he did before 1630 has come
down to us, at least under his own name, but after
that date his pictures and etchings become numer-
ous. In 1632 he painted his first corporation pic-
ture, the great ' Lesson in Anatomy ' ; and in 1634
he wedded his first wife, Saskia van Ulenburgh.
The Ulenburghs were a good Friesland family,
one or two of whose members had already married
into art and literature. At the time of her mar-
riage Saskia was twenty-two years of age, and her
husband twenty-seven. She has become famous





through the many portraits, "in character" and
otherwise, which Rembrandt painted and etched.
Rembrandt's mother, who had also been frequently
his model, died in 1640, leaving her painter son a
small fortune, which went, most likely, in the pur-
chase of the large house in the Breed Straat, at
Amsterdam, in which he lived for many years, and
of pictures and other works of art to fill its rooms.
In 1642, the ' Night Watch,' as the sortie of the
Militia Company of Prans Banning Cock has long
been called, was produced. In June of the same
year Saskia died, and was buried on the 19th in
the Oude Kerke of Amsterdam. She had borne
Rembrandt four children, but only one, Titus, was
alive at her death, and he was but a few months
old. By Saskia's will, this son Titus was made
her heir, the enjoyment of her property being
secured to Rembrandt, however, during his life,
and its reversion falling to him in case of Titus
dying before his father. The will also directed
that if Rembrandt became absolute owner of the
heritage through the death of his son, and should
then marry again, he should cede one-half of Sas-
kia's property to her sister Hiskia. For the due
fulfilment of these provisions Saskia expressly for-
bade any legal security to be taken, " because she
had confidence that he (Rembrandt) would behave
in the matter in exact obedience to his conscience."
About this time, most likely, began the friendship
between the painter and Jan Six, afterwards, but
not until Rembrandt had been twenty-two years in
his grave, Burgomaster of Amsterdam. Six was
born in 1618, and was therefore twenty-two in
1642. He acquired some repute as a savant and
poet at a very early date, married Margaret Tulp,
the daughter of Nicholas Tulp, and the ci-devant
Hancie of no less a person than Jan de Wit. The
portrait of Six's mother, by Rembrandt, is dated
1641, so that Vosmaeris no doubt right in making
the acquaintance between the two men begin about
the time the painter was at work on the ' Night
Watch.' The etching known as 'Six's Bridge'
was done in 1645, and the 'Portrait of Six,' the
dry-point, in 1647. The famous unfinished picture,
still in the house on the Herren Grracht, in which ,
Jan Six is shown hat on head and gloves half
pulled on, for a walk, dates from the year 1666.
This was a disastrous era in the painter's life.
In 1654 Rembrandt had been the cause of some
scandal to the good folks of Amsterdam, through
his relations with one Hendrickie Jaghers, his
servant, who was reprimanded by the Presbytery
for her conduct with her master. She bore Rem-
brandt a daughtei:, whom he acknowledged, and to
whom he gave the name of Cornelia. Two years
later, in the month of July, 1656, Rembrandt was
declared insolvent, and fourteen months later still
most of his goods were dispersed. The greater
part of his collection of prints and drawings was
sold in September, 1658. After things were all
settled up, Titus received as his heritage a sum
equivalent to about £280, and Rembrandt was left
to begin life anew. There is much obscurity as to
his doings in these latter years. By some it has
been suggested that he actually married Hendrickie,
and that his pecuniary troubles were caused by the
stipulation in Saskia's will, which made half his
property transferable, on a second marriage, to her
sister Hiskia. It is more likely, however, that he
remained a widower until 1665, when he married
one Catharina van Wijck.

After the sale of his house in the Breed Straat,

Rembrandt took one on the north side of the
Rozengraoht, at the west end of the city. There
he lived with his son Titus, until the latter married
and moved to the Singel, to a house in which he
lived but a few months. Por in March, 1669, this
last of Saskia's children sank into a premature
grave, and on October 8th of the same year his
father too was buried in the Westerkerke, leaving
behind him, as the simple register of burial records,
two children. One of these may have been Cor-
nelia, the daughter of Hendrickie Jaghers, but
more probably they were both the legitimate ofE-
spring of his second wife.

Rembrandt's pupils were numerous. In his
early period they included Gerard Douw, Bol,
Plinck, Backer, De Wedt, and De Poorter. Some
few years afterwards this list was increased by the
names of Victors, Eeckhout, and Philip Koninck.
About 1640, La Veoq, Ovens, Paudiss, Verdoel,
Heerschop, Drost, Karel Pabritius, and Hoogstra-
ten were the principal occupants of the little rooms
at the top of the house in the Breed Straat which
the painter filled with his scholars. Later still
their places were taken by Maes, Renesse, DuUaert,
Willemans, Mayr, Wulfhagen, G. Ulenburgh, and
Aart de Gelder.

Rembrandt was the greatest artistic individu-
ality of the 17th century. He excelled in every
branch of painting to which he seriously turned
his hand, while he took up an art which before
his time had been humble and insignificant, and set
it upon a pedestal round which artists have been
crowding, in hopeless emulation, ever since. As a
painter he was equally great in conception and in
execution ; his hand was the skilful, sympathetic
servant of a commanding imagination. It is the
same with his etchings. Technically they are still
unequalled, while in rich dramatic suggestion no
man has yet approached them. In the great Rem-
brandt van Rijn the school of Holland has a more
than worthy head.

The following list of his extant and accessible
works, as nearly as possible in chronological order,
/is founded mainly on that of Vosmaer. ■^_a_

1625 ? Portrait of a Young Girl. (Signed eem"'' and

1627. St. Paul in Prison. {Signed eh./ and dated.) Stutt-
gart Gallery.

1629. St. Jerome in a Grotto.

1630. Philosopher (or Lot) in a Grotto (known only by

Schmidt's engraving, which is inscribed eh. v.

EIJN PINX. 1630).
Portrait of an Old "Hasi. Cassel Gallery.
Head of an Old Man. Do.
Head of a Young Man. (Engraved by Valentine

Green as a portrait of Prince Kupert.) Hague

The Jew Philo. Jnnspruck Musenm,
Head of a Man. {Signed he.) ?
Portrait of (?) himself. Grosvenor Souse,

1631. Simeon in the Temple. {Signed eh. and dated.)

Hague Museum.

Saint Anastasius. {Signed and dated.) Stockholm

St. Peter in Prison. {Dated.)

Holy Family. (Signed Eembrandt f. and dated.)
Munich Gallery.

Lot and His Daughters. (A design, engraved by
J. G. van Vliet.)

The Baptism of the Eunuch. (Do. In the Olden-
burgh Museum there is a picture by Van Vliet
in which exactly the same composition is re-

Portrait of a Young Man. (Signed eh. and dated.)
Windsor Castle,

Portrait of a Man. {Signed Eembrandt f., with the




date 1631, over which 1632 has been painted )
Brunswick Gallery.

A Eabbi. Formerly in the King of Holland's Collec-

Old Womaa seated in an aim-chair ; called the
Prophetess Anna. (Signed RH. and dated.) Col-
lection of the Errand Duke of Oldenburg.

Portrait of a Young 'Woman.

1632. The Lesson in Anatomy. (Signed Bemlrandt, ft.

1632.) Hague Museum.
The Kape of Proserpine.
The Bape of Europa (?).
The Finding of Moses.
Bust of a Yoimg Man. (BH. van Bijn, 1632.)

JDulmck Gallery.
Portrait of a Man. (BH. van Bijn, 1632, se. 40.)

Seillieres Collection.
Portrait of Matthijs Kalkoen. (BH. van Bijn, and

dated.) Same Collection.
Portrait of Maurits Huygens. (BH. van Bijn, and

dated.) Herr Wesselhoeft, Hamburg.
Portrait of Lieven WUlemsz van Coppenol. (Signed

BH. van Bijn.) Cassel Gallery.
Male Portrait. Hermitam Gallery,
An Aged Oriental. (BH.f., and dated.)
Portrait of an Old Man. (BH. van Rijn, and dated.)
Bust of a Young Woman. (BH. van Bijn, and

date.) Vienna Academy.
Portrait of a Young Woman, called a Sasbia.

(BH. van'Rijn, and the date.) Stockholm Museum.
Two Portraits in the Vienna Gallery, a Man and

a "Woman.
Portrait of a Lady. JSridgewater Gallery.
Two portraits formerly in the Wynn Ellis Collection.
1632 Portraits of Jan Pellicome and his Wife. (Signed

to Bembrandtf.) Sir Bichard Wallace, Bart.

1634. Portrait of Nicolaas Buts.
Portrait of Martin Looten.

1633. Susanna and the Elders. Yonssawpoff Collection,

Baising the Cross. Munich Gallery.
Descent from the Cross. (Bemlrandt, 1633.) Munich

The Good Samaritan. Sir Bichard Wallace, Bart.

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