David only being legitimate, had title of government. He
by charter^ submits himself and his Principality to the
English Crown, acknowledges that he would stand to the
judgment of the King's Court, in c(mtroversies 'twixt his
brother and himself, and that what portions soever were so
allotted to either of them, they would hold of the Crown
in chief ; and briefly makes himself and his Barons (they
joining in doing homage) Tenants, and subjects of England.
All this was confirmed by oath, but the oath, through
favour, purchased at Borne, and delegate authority in that
kind to the Abbots of C'oivei/ and llemer, was (according to
persuasion of those times, the more easily induced, because
gain of Regal liberty was the consequent) soon released,
and in lieu of obedience, they all drew their rebellious
swords ; wliereto they were the sooner urged, for that the
King had transferred the Principality of J Talcs'- (by name of
1 Charta Davidis 25. Hen. -3. Sfncn, wife to Ori/ffi/h then im-
prisoned, was with others a pledge for her husband's part.
- In Archiv. Scaccar. et Polydor. Hist. Angl. IG.
una cum Conquestu nostra JVall'm) to Prince Edward Long-
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
shankes (afterward Edward I.) since when our Sovereign's
eldest sons have borne that hopeful title. But Avhen this
Edward, after his father, succeeded in the English Crown, ^
soon came that fatal conversion, here spoken of by the
Author, even executed in as great and worthy a Prince, as
ever that third part of the Isle was ruled by; that is
Lhewdin a^ Grvffiitli, who (after uncertain fortune of war,
on both sides, and revolting of Southirales) was constrained
to enter a truce (or rather subjection) resigning his Princi-
pality to be annexed wholly to the Crown, after his death,
and reserving, for his life only, the Isle of Anglesey and five
Baronies in Snowdon, for which the King's Exchequer should
receive a yearly rent of one thousand marks, granting also
that all the Baronies in JVales should be held of the King,
excepting those five reserved, with divers other particulars
in Walsingluim, Mattheio of Westminster, Nicholas Trivet, and
Humfrey Lhuyd, at large reported. The Articles of this
instrument were not long observed, but at length the death
of Llieioelin, spending his last breath for maintenance of his
ancestors' rights against his own covenant, freely cast upon
King Edinird all that, whereof he was, as it were, instituted
there. What ensued, and how JFales was governed after-
ward, and subject to England, Stories and the Statute of
Rathlan- will largely show you ; and see what I have to the
Seventh Song. In all that follows concerning Edward of
Carnarvan, the Author is i)lain enough. And concluding,
observe this proper personating of Snowdon Hill, Avhose
limits and adjacent territories are best witnesses, both of
the English assaults, and pacifying covenants between both
1 1277. " 12. Ed. 1.
rilE NINTH SONG. 31
390. IFas call'd in former times her country Cambria's mother.
In the Welsh Proverb iilon* mam Cumbri) ;^ in such
sense as Sidle was styled Itahj's Store-house,^ by reason of
fertile ground, and plenteous liberality of corn thence yearly
supplied. And Girald tells me, that this little Isle was
wont to be able to furnish all JFales with such provision, as
Snmcdon Hills were for pasture. Of its antiquities and
particidars, with plain confutation of that idle opinion in
Polydore, Hector Boethius, and others, taking the (now-called)
Isle of Man for this Mon (now Angkseij) learned Lhiiijd in
his Epistle to Ortelius hath sufficient. Although it be
divided as an Isle (but rather by a shallow ford, than
a sea : and in the Roman times, we see by Tacitus, that
Paulinus and Agricolas soldiers swam over it) yet is it, and
of ancient time hath been, a County by itself, as Caernarvan,
Denbigh, and the rest neighbouring.
409. So that the Eubonian Man, a Kingdom long time knoion.
It is an Isle lying twixt Cwnberland, and the Irish Bonn
County, almost in the mid-sea, as long since Julius Ccesar
could affirm, calling it Mona,^ Avhich being equivalent, as
well for this, as for Anglesey, hath with imposture blinded
some knowing men. Nenuias (the eldest Historian amongst
us extant) gives it the name of Eidjonia-manay, like that
here used \>y the Author. It was of ancient time governed
by Kings of its own, as you may see in the Chronicle of
Rtijfin, deduced from time of IS. Edward, into the reign of
Edward the Second. After this, the government of the
English and Scots were now and then interchanged in it,
beiug at last recovered, and with continuance, ruled by such
as the favour of our Sovereigns (to whose Crown it be-
longed^) honoured with that title King of Man. It is at
* Mon the mother of Wales. ^ Girald. Itiuerar. 2. cap. 7. et 9.
- Strabo. lib. t. ^ (Jommentar. 5. * \\'alsiui:h. in Ed. II.
this day, and since time of Henry IV. hatli been, in that
noble family of the Stanleys Earls of Derhy^ ; as also is the
patronage of the Bishopric of Sodor, whereto is all judicial
government of the Isle referred. There was long since a
controversy, whether it belonged to Ireland or England (for
you may see in the Civil law,^ with which, in that kind,
ours somewhat agrees, tliat all lesser Isles are reckoned part
of some adjoining continent, if both under the same Empire)
and this by reason of the equal distance from both. To
decide it, they tried if it would endure venomous beasts,
which is certainly denied of Ireland ; and, finding that it
did,^ adjudged it to our Britain. The other Isles here
spoken of lie further North by Scotland, and are to it sub-
417. The fearless British Priests under an aged oak.
He means the Druids; because they are indeed, as he
calls them, British Priests, and that this Island was of old
their Mother : whence, as from a Seminary, Gaul was fur-
nished with their learning. Permit me some space more
largely to satisfy you in their NAME, FBOEESSION,
SACRIFICE, 1' LACES of Assemhlimj, and lastly, SUB-
VERSION. The name of Druids hath been drawn from
AsDs, i.e., an Oak, because of their continual^ using that tree
as superstitiously hallowed ; according as they are called
also 2agov/6a/ or '^.u^mldig,^ which likewise, in Greek, is Old
Oak. To this compare the British word Drib) of the same
signification, and, the original here sought iur, will seem
surely found. But one,*^ that derives all from Dutch, and
^ Camden, in Insulis.
2 Ulpiiin rt'. (le .ludiciis 1. 9. et verb. fig. 1. 1)9.
3 'I'oiiograph. Hiherti. flist. 2. caj). 15.
* I'lin. J list. Kat. 10. cap. 44.
® Diodor. Sicul. de Anti(iuoruin gestia fab. t.
^ (jloropius Gallic. ."J.
THE NINTH SONG. 33
prodigiously supposes tliat the first tongue'spoken, makes
them so styled from ^rob) tois, i.e., truly wise, %o expressing
their nature in their name. Nor is this without good reason
of conjecture (if the ground were true) seeing that their like
in proportion among the Jews and Gentiles were called (until
Pythigoras his time) JFise-men,* and afterward by him turned
into the name of Philosophers, i.e.. Lovers of wisdom ; and
perhaps the old Dutch was, as some learned think, commu-
nicated to Gaul, and from thence hither ; the conjecture
being somewhat aided in that attribute which they have in
Pomponius,^ calling them Masters of tvisdom. A late great
Scholar^ draws it from Cntttn, in an old Dutch copy of the
Gospel, signifying, as he says, God ; which might be given
them hy hyperbole of superstitious reverence; nay, we see
that it is justifiable by Holy Writ, so to call great Magis-
trates and Judges ; as they were among the people. But
that Avord Trutin or Trtichtin. in the old Angelical salutation,
Zachanfs Song, and Simeon's, published by Vulcan, is always
Lml ; as this ©ihithtt St tiniciitin got Ssraelo, i.e.. Blessed
he the Lord God of Israel, and so in the Saxon Ten Command-
ments,^ Ic eom Dpihten Sin God, i.e., I am the Lord thy God.
These are the etymologies which savour of any judgment.
To speak of King Druis or Sarron, which that Dominican
Friar* hath cozened vulgar credulity withal, and thence
fetch their name, according to Doctor JFhite of Basingstoke,
Avere with him to suffer, and, at once, offer imposture. Of
them all, I incline to the first, seeing it meets in both
tongues Greek and British; and somewhat the rather too.
* a-oan ti?2K. i.e. dixerunt sapientes, Capnio de Art. Cabalistic. 1. 3.
quod Hebnuis in usu ut avrog t<pt] Pythagor;vis, uec Druidum disci-
piilis rcfragari sentoutiis j\Iagistronim fas erat.
' Geograph. 3. cap. 2.
" Paul. Morula C'osmog. part. 2. lib. 3. cap. 11.
' Pricfat. ad Leg. Aluredi Saxonic.
* Berosus (ille Annianus subdititius) Chaldaic. Antiquitat. 5.
VOL. II. 3
because Antiquity did crown their infernal Deities (and
from Dis, if you trust Ccesar, the Gauls, and by consequence
our Britons, upon tradition of these Priests, drew their
descent) Anth Oak ; as Sophocles'^ hatli it of Hecate, and
Catullus* of the Three Destinies. Neither will I desire you
to spend conceit upon examination of that supposition which
makes the name- corrupted from Sitrccrglits, which in
Scolthh were such as had a holy charge committed to them ;
Avhereupon, perhaps, Bale says S. Columhan. was the Chief of
the Druids: I reckon that among the infinite fables and
gross absurdities, whicb its author hath, without judgment,
stuffed himself withal. For their PROFESSION, it was
both of learning Profane and Holy (I speak in all, applying
my words to their times) : they sat as Judges, and deter-
mined all causes emergent, civil and criminal, subjecting the
disobedient, and such as made default to interdicts, and
censures, prohibiting them from sacred assemblies, taking
away their capacities in honourable offices, and so disabling
them, that (as our now out-laws, excommunicates, and at-
tainted persons) tliey miglit not commence suit against any
man. In a multitude of verses they delivered what they
taught, not suffering it to be committed to writing, so imi-
tating both Cahalists, Pi/thagoixans, and ancient Christians;^
but used in other private and public Inisiness Greek letters,
as Ccesar's copies have ; but hereof see more to the Tenth
Song. Their more jirivate and sacred learning consisted in
])ivinity, and Philosopliy (see somewhat of that to the First
»Soug), which was such, that although I think you may truly
' In 'PiZornfi. apiul Scholiast. Apollonii uti primum diilici i Josepho
Scaligcro in Conjectaneis.
* De nuptiis Pelci et Thetidos. 308. His Corpus t.reimd urn, &c., nbi
vulgatis (leest ista, qux, antiquorum codicum lidc, est vera lectio,
- Hector Boeth. Scot. Hist. 2.
' Ciel. Khodigin. Antiq. lect. 10. cap. 1.
THE NINTH SONG. 35
say with Origen,^ that, before our Saviour's time, Britain
acknowledged not one true God, yet it came as near to what
they should have done, or rather nearer, than most of other,
either Greeh or Roman, as by their positions in Ca'sar, Sfraho,
Lucan, and the like discoursing of them, you may be satis-
fied. For although AjkjUo, Mars, and Mercury were wor-
shipped among the vulgar Gauls, yet it appears that the
Druids' invocation was to one All-healing'^ or All-saving
power. In Morality, their instructions were so persuasive,
and themselves of such reverence, that the most fiery rage
of Mars kindled among the people, was by their grave coun-
sels often quenched.^ Out of Pliny receive their form of
ritual SACRIFICE (here described by the Author) thus:
In such gloomy shadows, as they most usually for contem-
plation retired their ascending thoughts into, after exact
search, finding an Oak, whereon a Mistletoe grew, on the
sixth day of the Moon (above all other times) in which was
beginning of their year, they religiously and with invocation
brought with them to it a ceremonial banquet, materials for
sacrifice, with two white Bulls, filleted on the horns, all
which they placed under the Oak. One of them, honoured
with that function, clothed all in white, climbs the tree, and
with a golden knife or scythe cuts the Mistletoe, which
they solemnly wrapped in one of their white garments.
Then did they sacrifice the Bulls, earnestly calling on the
All-healing* Deity to make it prosperous and happy on
whomsoever they shall bestow it, and accounted it both
preservative against all poisons, and a remedy against
barrenness. If I should imagine by this All-healing Deity
to be meant Ajwllo, whom they Avorshipped under name of
Belin (as I tell you to the Eighth Song) my conjecture were
1 Ad .Tehezkel. 4. ^ Plin. Hist. Nat. 16. cap. 44.
^ ytrab. (jicograpli. iv. * Oiiinia saiianteni.
every way receivable ; seeing that Apollo^ had both among
Gi'eeks and Latins the Divine titles of ' AXs^izaxoc.,* Aoi/j,ioc,
Medicus, and to him the invocation was 'Ir, na/av,t all con-
curring in the same proof; but also if they had (as probabi-
lity is enough to conjecture it) an Altar inscribed for this
devotion, and used Greek letters (which to the next Song
shall be somewhat examined) I could well think the dedica-
tion thus conceived.
Which, very probably, was meant by some, making in Latin
termination, and nearer ApoUds name
As, an Inscription, in Gcml, to abiding memory committed
by that most noble Joseph Scaliger^ is read ; and perhaps
some relics or allusion to this name is in that
yet remaining in Cumberland.^ Nor is it strange that
Apollo's name should be thus far of ancient time, before
communication of religion twixt these Northern jjarts and
^ !^Incrob. Satnrnal. cap. 17.
* All tJirce words as much as Phi/.fician. + Heal ApoVo.
* To All-healing Apollo: ct HulutarM Ajwllo in Isuiiim. Apud
Goltzium. ill Thes. § To God i^e/i?t. \\ To God Abeltio.
- .iVusoniariim. Leot. 1. cap. 9. * Camd. ibid.
TEE NINTH SONG. 37
the learned Gentiles, seeing that Ccesar affirms him for one
of their Deities ; and, long before that, Abaris (about the
beginning of the Olympiads^) an Huperhorean is recorded for
Apollo's'^ Priest among the utmost Sci/thians, being further
from Hellenism than our British. But I return to the
Mistle : Hereto hath some referred^ that which the Sibyl
counselled ^neas to carry with him to Proserpine ;
Icdet arbore opacd
Aureus et foliis et lento limine ramus
Junoni infernce dictns sacer: hunc tegit omnis
Luciis, et ohscuris claudnnt convallibus umbrce, *
Which may as well be so applied, as to Chymistry;* seeing
it agrees also with what I spake before of Dis, and that,-
Virgil expressly compares it to the Mistle,
quod non sua seminal arbos,f
for it springs out of some particular nature of the oaken
stem, whereupon it is called by an old poet Apuhg 'ihsHjg :J and
although it be not ordinarily found upon oaks, yet, that oft-
times it is, any apothecary can tell, which preserveth it for
medicine, as the Ancients used to make lime of it to catch
birds : of which Argentarius^ hath an admonitory epigram
to a black-bird, that she should not sing upon the oak, be-
i-~' 'cividiSffi (p'spii Tov avdpaiOi/ 'l^o'i/,§
but on the vine, dedicated to Bacchus, a great favourite of
^ Hippostrat. ap. Suid in Abar. - Malcbus Yit. Pj^thagorre.
* Virgil zEneid. 6. Petr. C'rinit. Hist. Poet. G. cap. 10.
* She directs him to seek a golden branch in the dark woods, con-
secrate to Proscrjune.
* Bracesch. in Ligno vitaj. t ]Vlikh ijrmcs not ofUsi^lf.
t Hiveat of the Oak. lou apiid Athenit-uni Ueipnosoph. 10.
* Antholog. u. cap. ?. g Bred lime to catch her.
singers. Upon this Bnddian custom,^ some have grounded
that unto this day used in France, where the younger
country-fellows, about New- Year's tide, in every village give
the wish of good fortune at the inhabitants' doors, with
this acclamation, Au guy Van ncvf ;* which, as I remember,
in Rahlam is read all one word, for the same purj^ose.
Whether this had any community with the institution of
that Temple- 'l^ivr-^olag rv^rni in Antmm, or that Ovid
alluded to it in that verse, commonly cited out of him,
At (some read ad) Viscum Druidce, Viscum clamare solehant;X
I cannot assure you, yet it is enough likely. But I see a
custom in some parts among us, in our language (nor is the
digression too faulty) the same in effect; I mean the yearly
baaS'^hntle in the country on the vigil of the New-Year,
which had its beginning, as some say,^ from that of Ronix
(daughter to Hemjlst) her drinking to Vortigem, by these
words, SpOuerU fei'ng bjns=hril,§ he answering her by direc-
tion of an interpreter, J9rinc-heile,|l and then,'*
flustc hivt antj sittc iit've ntjounc akTs glati tJionUc hive hril
HntJ that bias tho in this lanU the brrst hias^hail
2ls in langagc o£ ^aJCoiinc that inc might tunc iUjitc
EnlJ so bjcl he ^ailh the fole about, that he is not iiut
Afterward it appears that 2^2!las-hailc and Sn'ut^heil were
the usual phrases of quaffing among the EiujlisJi., as we see
^ lo. Goropius Gallic. 5. et alii. * To the Mistle, this New Year.
- riutarch. Problem. lUmi. o5. Ccelius Khodigin. Aiitiq. lect. 18.
t As if you should say of Mint led Fortune.
X To Ike MIhIIc, till- JJnti(/s used to cry.
* Galfred. Monuiuuth. 1. 3. cap. 1. § Lord Khif/, a health.
II Drink the h<:aUh. •* Jlob. Glocestrens.
THE NIXTII SONG. 39
in Thomas dc la Mowe,'^ and before Lira the old Ilavillan,-
Ecce vagante cifo distento guthire iMass^hctl
But I rather conjecture it a usual ceremony among the
Saxons before Ilengist, as a note of health-wishing (and so
perhaps you might make it bat'sh-hctl), Avhich was expressed
among other nations in that form of drinking to the health
of their mistresses and friends,
Benh* vos, henh nos, henh te, benk me, bent nostram eiiam
in Plautus,^ and infinite other testimonies of that nature (in
him Martial, Ovid, Horace, and such more) agreeing nearly"
with the fashion now used ; we calling it a Health, as they
did also in direct terms ;t which, with an Idol called Hell,
anciently worshipj)ed at Cerne in Dorsetshire,^ by the English-
Saxons, in name expresses both the ceremony of Drinking,
and the New-Year's acclamation (whereto in some parts of
this kingdom is joined also solemnity of drinking out of a
cup,;]: ritually composed, decked, and filled with coimtry
liquor) just as much and as the same Avhich that All-healing
Deity, or All-helping medicine did among the Druids. You
may to all this add, that, as an earnest of good luck to fol-
low the New Year beginning, it was usuaP among the Ro-
mans, as with lis, and I think, in all Europe, at this day is,
to greet each other with auspicious gifts. But hereof you
say I unfitly expatiate : I omit, therefore, their sacrificing of
1 Vita Eihmrdl II. 2 j^ Arcliitren. lib. 2.
* Sub iiitellige i^))(T0ai aut quid simile. ^ In Sticho.
+ Prophio tibl saluteiii plcnis fauclbiis. Plautus eudem comcedia.
* Camdeiius. | The Wasuhail-boll.
* Ovid. Fastor. 1. Fest. in Strena.
human bodies, and such Hke, and come to the PLACES of
their assembly. This v/as about Chartres in Gaul, as Ccesar
tells us ; Fmil Menda (for affinity of name) imagines it to
be Dreux, some eight miles on this side Chartres. And per-
adventure the Galatians' public Council called Drymenehtw}
had hence original. The British Druids took this Isle of
Anglesey (then well-stored with thick woods and religious
groves, insomuch that it was called 3)iti3-^oh3tl*) for their
chief residence ; as, in the Roman- story of FauUnus and
Agricola's adventuring on it, is delivered. For their SUB-
VEFiSION ; under Augustus and Tiberius they were prohi-
bited Eome;^ and Claudius endeavoured it in Gaful^ ; yet in
the succeeding Emperors' times there were of them left, as
appears in Lamj/ridias and Vopiscus, mentioning them in their
lives ; and, long since that, Frocopius,^ writing under Jus-
tinian above five hundred years after Christ, affirms that
then the Gauls used sacrifices of human flesh, which was a
part of Druidian doctrine. If I should upon testimony of,^
I know not what, Veremund, Camphell, and the Irish Cornill,
tell you that some hundred and sixty years before Christ,
Finnan King of Scotland first gave them the Isle, or that
King Crathlint in Diocletian's persecution, turned their reli-
gion into Christianism, and made Amphilmlus first Bishop of
Sodor, I sliould fabulously abuse time, as they have igno-
rantly mistook that Isle of Man for this. Or to speak of
the supposed their DruttrnCuss, i.e., a pentagonal figure,
ingraveu with 'XriEIA or 'Tyiia (it is the same, in fashion,
^ iStrab. Geograph. xii.
♦ The Dark hh, Brit.
^ Tacit. Annal. 14. et Vit. Agricolre.
^ Sueton. lib. 5. cap. 24. et I'lin. Hist. Nat. 30. cap. 1.
* Senec. in Apocoloc. et Suetou. ubi supn'i.
5 lie Bell. Oothic. /3.
« Hector. Boet.^Scotor. Hist, 2. et 6.
THE NINTH SONG. 41
with the victorious seal of Antiochus Soter,^ being admo-
nished by Alexander in a dream, to take it) which in Gar-
many they reckon for a preservative against hobgoblins,
were but to be indulgent to old wives' traditions. Only
thus much for a corollary, I will note to you ; Conrad CeltesP'
observes, to be in an Abbey at the foot of Vkhtelherg Hill,
near Voitland, six statues, of stone, set in the church-wall,
some seven foot every one tall, bare head and foot, cloaked
and hooded, with a bag, a book, a staff, a beard hanging to
his middle, and sj^reading a mustachio, an austere look and
eyes fixed on the earth ; which he conjectures to be images
of them. Upon mistaking of Straho, and applying what he
saith in general, and bracelets and gold chains of the Gaids,
to the Druhh, I once thought that Conrad had been de-
ceived. But I can now upon better advice incline to his
445. Which loith my Princes' Court / sometimes pleas'd to grace.
For, as in Soutlv-lFcdes, Caermardhin, and afterward Dine-
rowr; in Powis, Shreivsbury, and then Mathraval, so in North-
JFales was Aber-fraw, in Anglesey, chief place of the Princes'
Lest (l)y reason of the composition in print) some pages
should have been idle, and because also here is so much of
the JFelsh Story, I inserted this Chronology of the Kings
and Princes of JFales, from Arthur, until the end of the
British blood in them.
^ Lucian. vttIp tov Iv ry Trpoirayonevan irTrnTficiTog ; Alii et habe-
tur apud Agripjjam. in [i. de Occulta riiilosoph. cap. .SI. ati^ue ox
Antiochi miminis apud I. lleuchliuuui. in 3. de arte Cabalistica.
- Tract, de Heicynia Sylvd.
^ Pris. in Descript. Wall.
Arthur succeeded his Mlier Uther Pendragon:
of his death, see to the Third Soug.^
Comtnnthie, son to Cculor Duke of Cormcall
(understand Governor or Loi'd Lieutenant; for,
neither in those times nor long after, was any
such title particularly honorary) : he lies buried
Catheric. In his time the Britons had much
adverse fortune in v/ar with the Saxons, and
then, most of all, made that secession into Wales
and Cornwall, yet in name retaining hereof re-
Cadwalin or Cadwallo : the Britons as in token
of his powerful resistance and dominion against
the Saxons, put him,* being dead, into a brazen
Horse, and set it on the top of the West gate of
London: it seems he means Lndgate.
Cadwallader, son to Cadwallo. Of him and his
name, see before. Nor think I the British and
English Chronicles, concerning liim, reconcile-
able. In him the chief monarchy and glory of
the British failed.
Irar, song to yllaii, i\.iiig of yl niioric Britain.
This Ivor they make (but I examine it not now)
1 I will not justify tlic times of this Arthur, nor the rest, before
Cadumliadtr ; so disconliiig aru our ( 'liroiioloycrs : nor had 1 time to
examine, nor think tliat any man liath siillifient means to rectify
• 'i'his report is, as the Brllkh story tells, hardly justifiable, if
THE NINTH SONG. 43
Ine King of West-Saxons in our Monks • that is,
he which began the Peter-pence to Borne.
720 Roderic Molwinoc, son of Edical Shirch**
755 Conan Tmlaethwy, son of Eoderic.
Near 820 Mervin Urich, in right of his wife Esylht,
dauirhter and heir to Roderic.
843 Roderic Mawr, son to Mervvn and Esyhlt.
Among his sons was the tripartite division of