Michael Drayton.

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And oft at Barley-break, and Prison-base, to tell
(In carols as they course) each other all the joys,
The passages, deceits, the sleights, the amorous toys i40
The subtile Sea-Xymphs had, their JFyrraH's love to win.

But Weever now again to warn them doth begin
To leave these trivial toys, which inly he did hate,
That neither them beseem'd, nor stood with his estate
(Being one that gave himself industriously to know 145
"What monuments our Kings erected long ago :
To which, the Flood himself so wholly did apply,
As though upon his skill the rest should all rely)
And bent himself to shew, that yet the Britans bold,
Whom tlie laborious Muse so highly had extoll'd, i5o

Those later Saxon Kings cxcell'd not in their deeds.
And therefore with their praise thus zealously proceeds :

Whilst the Celestial Powers th' arrived time attend.
When o'er this general Isle the Britans' reign should end,
Ami for the spoiling Phi here prosp'rously had wrought, 155
Into th' afflicted land which strong invasion brought,
And to that proud attempt, what yet his power might want,
The ill-disposed heavens, Bnde's offspring to supplant,
Their angry plagues down-pour'd, insatiate in their waste
(Needs must they fall, whom Heaven doth to destruction
haste). 100

And that which lastly came to consummate the rest.
Those prouder Sd.'vn powers (which liberally they jjrest
Against th' invading Pid, of purpose hired in)
From those which paid them wage, the Island soon did win ;

^ A wood growing ou a hill or knoll.
* High wood, ^ Low coppice.


And sooner overspread, being masters of the field ; lOo

Those, first for whom they fought, too impotent to wield,

A land within itself that had so great a foe ;

And therefore thought it fit them wisely to bestow :

Which over Sercrne here they in the mountains shut,

And some upon that point of Conuvall forth they put. iro

Yet forced were they there their stations to defend.

Nor could our men pei^mit the Britans to descend
From Jore or Mars alone ; but brought their blood as high,
§ From Woden, by which name they styled Mercury.
Nor were the race of Brute, which ruled here before, irs
More zealous to the Gods they l)rouglit unto this shore
Than Hengist's noble heirs ; their idols that to raise,
§ Here put their German names upon our Aveekly days.

These noble Saxons were a nation hard and strons;.
On sundry lands and seas in warfare nuzzled long; iso

Affliction throughly knew ; and in proud Fortune's spite,
Even in the jaws of Death had dar'd her utmost might :
Who under Hcngist first, and Horsa, their brave Chiefs,
From German;/ arriv'd,^ and with the strong reliefs
Of th' Angles and the Jutes, them ready to supply, is5

Which anciently had been of their affinity,
By Scijth'ia first sent out, which could not give them meat,
AVere forc'd to seek a soil wherein themselves to seat.
Them at the last on Dansk their ling'ring fortune drave,
AVhere Ilulst unto their troops sufficient harbour gave, loo
These witli the Saxons went, and fortunately wan :
Whose Captain, Hengist, first a kingdom here began
In Kent ; where his great heirs, ere other Princes rose
Of Saxong's descent, their fulness to oppose,
With swelling Humber's side their empire did confine. 195
And of the rest, not least renowned of their line,

^ See, concerning their coming, to the First, Fourth, and Eighth


§ Good Efhelhert oi Kent, tli' first Christ'ned Euglish King,

To preach the Faith of Christ, was first did hither bring

Wise'^ Augu st 1716 the Monk, from holy Gregory sent.

This most reh'gioiis King, with most devout intent, 200

That mighty Fane to Foul, in London did erect.

And privileges gave, this Temple to protect.

His equal then in zeal, came Ercomhert again,
From that first Christ'ned King, the second in that reign.
The gluttony then us'd severely to suppress, 205

And make men fit to prayer (much hind'red by excess)
§ That abstinence from flesh for forty days began.
Which by the name of Lent is known to every man.

As mighty Hengist here, by force of arms had done,
§ So Ella coming in, soon from the Britans won 210

The Countries neighbouring Kent : which lying from the

Directly to the South did properly obtain
The Southern Saxons' name ; and not the last thereby
Amongst the other reigns which made the Heptarchy :
So in the high descent of that South-/S'«.';o/j, King, 215

We in the bead-roll here of our religious bring
Wise Elhehrald : alone who Christian not became.
But willing that his folk should all receive the name,
§ Saint Jntfrid (sent from Yort) into his realm receiv'd,
(Whom the Northumbrian folk had of his See bereav'd) 220
And on the South of Thames a seat did him afford.
By whom that people first receiv'd the saving Word.

As likewise from the loins of Errhimoin (Avho rais'd
Th' ^ust-Saxons' kingdom first) brave Sebert may be

prai.s'd :
^V^lich, as that King of Ke7it, had with such cost and state 225
Built Paul's ; his greatness so (this King to imitate)
Began the goodly Church of jre.stininster to rear :
The primer English Kings so truly zealous were. ^


Then Sebba* of his seed, that did them all surpass,''
Who fitter for a shrine than for a sceptre was, 230

(Above the power of flesh, his appetite to sterve,
That his desired Christ he strictly might observe)
Even in his height of life, in health, in body strong.
Persuaded with his Queen, a lady fair and young,
To separate themselves, and in a sole estate, 235

After reli2;ious sort themselves to dedicate.

Whose nephew Uffa next, inflam'd with his high praise,
(Enriching that proud Fane his grandsire first did raise)
Abandoned the world he found so full of strife,
And after liv'd in Rome a strict religious life. 240

Nor these our Princes here, of that pure Sawn strain,
AVhich took unto themselves each one their several reign.
For their so godly deeds deserved greater fame.
Than th' Angles their Allies, that hither with them came ;
Who sharing-out themselves a kingdom in the East, 245

With th' Eastern Angles' name their circuit did invest,
By Uffa in that part so happily begun :
Whose successors the crown for martyrdom have won
From all before or since that ever suff'red here ;
Itedwald's religious sons : who for their Saviour dear, 250
By cruel heathenish hands unmercifully slain.
Amongst us evermore rememb'red shall remain.
And in the roll of Saints must have a special room,
Where Dencald to all times with Erpemvakl shall come.

When in that way they went, next Sehert them succeeds,
Scarce seconded again for sanctimonious deeds : 256

Who for a private life when he his rule resign'd,
And to his cloister long had strictly him confin'd,
A corslet for his cowl was glad again to take
His country to defend (for his religion's sake) 2co

Against proud Peiula, com'n with all his Pagan power,
* SebOa, a Monk in Paul's.


Those Christ'ned Angles then of purpose to devour :
And suff'ring with his folk, by Penda's heathenish pride,
As he a Saint had liv'd, a constant ]\Iartyr died.

"When, after it fell out, that Offa had not long 2C5

Held that by cruel force, which Fenda got by wrong,
§ Adopting for his heir young Edmond, brought him in,
Even at what time the Danes this Island sought to win :
Who Christ'ned soon became, and as religious grown
As those most heathenish were who set him on his throne,
Did expiate in that place his predecessor's guilt, 2:1

"Which so much Christian blood so cruelly had spilt.
For, taken by the Danes, who did all tortures ixj,
His Saviour Jesus Christ to force him to deny ;
First beating him with bats, but no advantage got, 2T5

His body full of shafts then cruelly they shot ;
The constant martyr'd King, a Saint thus justly crown'd.
To whom even in that place, that jMouuraent renown'd
Those after-Ages built to his eternal fame.
What English hath not heard Saint Edmond Bunj's* name ?

As of those Angles here, so from their loins again, 2Si
Whose hands hew'd out their way to the JFest-Sexian reign
(From Ken rich, or that claim from Cerdick to descend)
A partnership in fame great Ina might pretend
With any King since first the Saxons came to shore. 2Sf.

Of all those Christ'ned here, who higlilier did adore
The God-head than that man 1 or more that did apply
His poAver t' advance the Church in true sincerity?
Great Glastenhari/ then so wondrously decay'd.
Whose old foundation first the ancient Dritans lay'd, 200
He gloriously rebuilt, enriching it with plate.
And many a sumptuous cope, to uses consecrate :
Ordaining godly laws for governing this Land,
Of all the Saxon Kings the Salon, he shall stand.

• In Sufolk.


From Otfa} (born with him who did this Isle invade) 2 jo
And had a conquest first of the Nortluiinhnans made,
And tributary long of mightier Heiigist held,
Till Ida (after born) the Kentish power expell'd,
And absolutely sat on the Dierkin seat,
But afterward resign'd to Ethel/rid the Great : sjo

An army into JFales who for invasion led,
At Chester and in fig'it their forces vanquished :
Into their utter spoil, then public way to make,
The long-Religious House of goodly Bangor brake,
§ And slew a thousand Monks, as they devoutly pray'd. 305
For which his cruel spoil upon the Christians made
(Though with the just consent of Christian Saxons slain)
His blood the heathenish hands of Eedwald did distain.
That murth'rer's issue next this Kingdom were exil'd :
And Edwyn took the rule ; a Prince as just and mild yio
As th' other faithless were : nor could time ever brinsr
In all the Seven-fold Rule an absoluter King ;
And more t' advance the Faith, his utmost power that lent :
§ Who re-ordained York a Bishop's government ;
And so much lov'd the poor, that in the ways of trade, 315
Where fountains fitly were, he iron dishes made,
And fast'ned them with chains the wayfarer to ease,
And the poor Pilgrims' thirst, there resting, to appease.

As Mercia, 'mongst the rest, sought not the least to raise
Tlie saving Christian Faith, nor merits humbler praise. 320
§ Nor those that from the stem of Saxon Creda came
(The Britans who expuls'd) were any whit in fame,
For piety and zeal, behind the others best ;
Though heathenish Pcnda long and proudly did infest
The Christ'ned neighbouring Kings, and forc'd them all to
bow ; 325

Till Oswij made to God a most religious vow,
^ Otta, brother to Jlemjusl.


Of His aboundant grace would He be pleas'd to grant,

That he this Panim Prince in battle might sujiplant.

A recluse he would give his daughter and delight,

Sweet Alfled then in youth, and as the morning bright : 330

And having his request, he gave as he obtain'd ;

Though his unnatural hands succeeding Wulpher stain'd

In his own children's blood, whom their dear mother had

§ Confirm'd in Chiist's belief, by that most reverend Chad :

Yet to embrace the Faith when after he began 335

(For the unnatural'st deed that e'er was done by man)

If possible it were to expiate his guilt.

Here many a goodly House to holy uses built :

And she (to purge his crime on her dear children done)

A crowned Queen, for him, became a veiled Nun. 340

What Age a godlier Prince than Etlichlred could bring 1
Or than our Kinred here, a more religious King ?
Both taking them the cowl, th' one here his flesh did tame,
The other went to liome, and there a monk became.

So, Ethelhald may well be set the rest among : 345

Who, though most vainly given wlien he was hot and young.
Yet, by the wise reproof of godly Bishops brought
From those unstay'd delights by which his youth was caught,
He all the former Kings of Mercia did exceed,
§ And (through his rule) the Church from taxes strongly
freed. 350

Then to the Eastern sea, in that deep wat'ry Fen
(Which seem'd a thing so much impossible to men)
He that great Abbey built of Crowlaml ; as though he
Would have no oth(!rs' work like his foundation be.

As, 0(fa greater far than any him before : 355

Whose conquests scarcely were suffic'd with all the shore,
But over into ITtdca adventurously he shot
His Mercians spacious mere,^ and Powsland to it got.

J 0/a'« Ditch.


This King, even in that place, where with rude heaps of

§ The Britans had interr'd their Proto-martyr's bones, seo
That goodly Abbey built to Alhan ; as to show
How much the sons of Brute should to the Saxons owe.

But when by powerful Heaven it Avas decreed at last,
That all those Seven-fold Eules should into one be cast
( Which quickly to a head by Britrilcs^ death was brought) :ir.5
Then Egbert, who in France had carefully been taught,
Eeturning home, was King of the West-Sexians made.
AVhose people, then most rich and potent, him persuade
(As once it was of old) to Monarchize the land.
Who following their advice, first with a warlike hand 370
The Cornish overcame ; and thence, with prosperous sails.
O'er Severne set his powers into the heart of Wales ;
And with the Mercians there a bloody battle wag'd :
Wherein he wan their rule; and with his wounds enrag'd.
Went on against the rest. Which, sadly when they saw 375
How those had sped before, with most subjective awe
Submit them to his sword : who prosperously alone
lieduc'd the Seven-fold Eule to his peculiar Throne,
§ (Extirping other styles) and gave it England's name
Of th' Angles, from whose race his nobler fathers came, aso

When scarcely Egbert here an entire Rule began,
But instantly the Dane^ the Island over-ran ;
A people, that their own those Saxons paid again.
For, as the Britans first they treacherously had slain,
This thii-d upon their necks a heavier burthen lay'd 385

Than they had upon those whom falsely they betray 'd.
And for each other's states, though oft they here did toil,
§ A people from their hrst bent naturally to spoil.
That cruelty with them from their beginning brought.

^ Egbert's predecessor. « See to tlie First Song.


Yet when the Christian Faith in them had throughly
wrought, sao

Of anj^ in the Avorld no story shall us tell,
Which did the Saxon race in pious deeds excell :
That in these drowsy times should I in puhlic bring
Each great peculiar act of every godly King,
The world might stand amaz'd in this our Age to see 395
Those goodly Fanes of theirs, which irreligious we
Let every day decay ; and yet we only live
By the great freedoms then those Kings to these did give.

AVise Seghert (worthy praise) preparing us the seat
§ Of famous Camhridrje first, then with endowments great
The !Muses to maintain, those Sisters thither brought. 401
, By whose example, next, religious Alfred taught,
Renowned Oxford built t' jlpullus learned brood ;
And on the hallowed bank of his' goodly Flood,
Worthy the glorious Arts, did gorgeous Bowers provide. 405
§ He into several Shires the Kingdom did divide.

So, valiant Edgar, first, most happily destroy'd
The multitudes of wolves, that long the land annoy'd.
And our good Edward here, the Confessor and King,
(Unto whose sumptuous Shrine our Monarchs off'rings
bring) 410

That cank'red Evil cur'd, bred twixt the throat and jaws.
When Physic could not find the remedy nor cause,
And much it did afflict his sickly people here.
He of Almighty God obtaiu'd by earnest pray'r.
This Tumour by a King might cur^'d be alone : 4ii

§ Which lie an heir-loom left unto the English Throne.
So, our Saint Edicard here, for England's general use,
§ Our Country's Common Laws did faithfully produce.
Both from th' old JJrilish writ, and from the Saxon tongue.

Of Forests, Hills, and Floods, when now a mighty throng
For audience cry'd aloud ; because they late had heard, 421



That some high Cambrian Hills the Wrehn proudly dar'd
With words that very much had stirr'd his rancorous spleen.
Where, though clear Severne set her princely self between
The English and the Welsh, yet could not make them cease.
Here, JVeever, as a Flood affecting godly peace, 426

His place of speech resigns ; and to the Muse refers
The hearing of the cause, to stickle all these stirs.



OW are you newly out of Wales, returned into Eng-
land : and, for conveniency of situation, imitating
therein the ordinary course of Chorography, the
first Shire Eastward (from Dmhtgh and Flint, last
sung by the Muse) Cheshire is here surveyed.

6. Of our great English bloods as careful

For, as generally in these Northern parts of England, the
Gentry is from ancient time left preserved in continuance
of Name, Blood, and Place ; so most particularly in this
Cheshire, and the Sidioining Lancashire : which, out of their
numerous families, of the same name, with their chief
Houses and Lordships, hath been observed.^

9. And, of our Counties, ^j/ace of Palatine doth hold.

We have in England three more of that title, Lancaster,
Durham, and Elg : and, until later time,^ Jlexamshire in the
Western part of Nmihumherland was so reputed. IFilliani
the Conqueror first created one Hugh IVolfe, a Nwman, Count
Falatine of Chester, and gave the Earldom to hold, as freely

' Camden, in Cornav. et Brigant.
» Stat. 14, Eliz. cap. 13.


as the King held his Crown. By this supremacy of liberty he
made to himself Barons, which might assist him in Council,
and had their Courts and Cognizance of Pleas in such sort
regarding the Earldom, as other Barons the Crown, Ego
Comes Hugo et mei Barones cnnfirmavhnus isfa omnia,* is sub-
scribed to a Charter, Mdiereby he founded the Monastery of
S. JVerhurg there. For the name of Falatine, know, that in
ancient time under the Emperors of declining Borne, tiie
title of Count Palatine was ; but so, that ib extended first
only to him which had care of the Household and Imperial
revenue^ ; which is now (so saitli JFeseucbech- : I afiirm it
not) as the Marshal in other Courts ; but was also commu-
nicated by that honorary attribute of Gomitiva Dignitas to
many others, which had anything proportionate, place or
desert, as the Code teacheth xis. In later times both in
Germany (as you see in the Palgrave of Bhine) in France
(which the Earldom of Cliamjxigne shows long time since in
the Crown ; yet keeping a distinct Palatine Government, as
Peter Pithou^ hath at large published) and in this Kingdom
such were hereditarily honored with ib, as being near the
Prince in the Court (which they, as ^ve, called the Palace)
had by their state-carriage, gained full opinion of their
worth, and ability in government, by delegate jDower of ter-
ritories to them committed, and hereafter titled Coimtes cle
Palais, as our Law Annals call them. If you desire more
particulars of the power and great state of this Palatine
Earldom, I had rather (for a special reason) send you to the
marriage of Jlen. III. and Queen Ellanor in Matthew Paris ;
where John Scot, then Earl of Chester, bare before the King
S. Edward's Sword, called Curtcin, wliich the Prince at

* I Earl Jfu'jh and my Barons have confirmed all this.

1 0. de Offic. Cora. Sac. Palat. v. Euseb. de vit. Constantin. S. et
Cod. lib. 12. " In Paratit. C. 1. tit. 34.

=* Livre 1. des Comtes de Champagne et Brie. De Palatinoriim
nostrorum nomine yarisbur. Policrat. 6. cap. IG. efc Epist. 2()S.



Coronation of Henry IV. is recorded to hare done as Duke
of Lancaster^ ; and Avisli you to examine the passages there,
with what BractoTi^ hath of Earls, and our Year-books^ of
the Iliyh Constable of England, than here ofter it myself.
To add the royalties of the Earldom, as Courts, Officers,
Franchises, forms of Proceeding, even as at Westminster, or
the diminution of its large liberties by the Statute of Re-
sumption,* were to trouble you with a harsh digression.

31 . Our Leopards they so long and bravely did advance.

He well calls the Coat of England, Leopards. Neither can
you justly object the common blazon of it by name of
Lions, or that assertion of Pohjdore's ignorance,^ telling us
that the Cuncjueror bare three FkursHle-lis, and three Lions,
as quartered for one Coat, which hath been, and is, as all
men know, at this present borne in our Sovereign's arms for
France and England; and so, that the quartering of the
Fleurs was not at all until Ed. III. to publish his title, and
gain the Flemish forces (as you have it in Froissart) baretlie
French arms,*^ being then Azure semy with Fleurs-de-lis, and
were afterward contracted to three in time of Hen V. by
Charles VI. because he would bear different from the English
King, who notwithstanding presently seconded the change,
to this hour continuing. Nor could that Italian have fallen
into any error more palpable, and in a professed antiquary
so ridiculous. But to prove them anciently Leopards, Misit
ergo (saith MattJunn Paris') hnpcratur (that is Frederic II.)
Itegi Anglorum tres Leopardos in signum Itegalis Clypei, in
quo tres Leopard i transeuntes fgurantur.* In a MS. of

^ Archiv. in Tur. Lond. iam ver6 et typis commiss. apud Crompt.
Juri.sdict. Cur. "^ De acq. rer. dom. cap. 16. §. 3.

=* 0. J/oi. 8. Kclaway. et v. Brook, tit. Prerogat. .31.

* 27. Ihn. 8. cap. '24. * A gross error of Pohjdore.
« V. Stat. 14. A'</. III. 7 19 y/„j. 3.

• The Einncror sent to lien. III. three Leopards, as alluding to
the arms of En<jluud.


/. Gowefs Confessio Amantis, which the printed books have


Ad laiulem Christ i, quern hi Virgo pcpcristi,

Sit laus RICHA.RDI, queiii scei^tra cokuit Leopardi.

And Edicard IV.^ granted to Lewes of Bruges Earl of JVin-
chestcr, that he should bear d' Azure, a dix Muscles enarme
d'uii Canton de Nostre Propre amies d'Engleterre, Cestassacoir
de Goides ung Leopard passant d'Or, arme d'Azur, as the
Patent speaks : and Hkewise He7i. VI.^ to King's College in
Cambridge, gave a Coat Armour, three Roses, and Summo
scuti partitum principale de Azoreo cum Francorumflore deque
Eubeo cum peditante Leopardo, and calls them Parcelloi Armo-
rum, qum nobis in regnis AngVm et Francice jure debentur regie.
I know it is otherwise now received, but withal, that .
Princes, being supreme Judges of Honor and Nobility, may
arbitrarily change their Arms in name and nature ; as was
done^ upon return out of the Holy War in Godfreij of
Bohgne's time; and it seems it hath been taken indifferently,
whether you call them the one or other, both foi- similitude
of delineaments and composture (as in the bearing of Nor-
onandg, the County of Zutplien, and such more) being bla-
zoned in Hierom de Bara, and other French heralds, Lion-
Leopards: and for that even under this Hen. YI. a great
student in heraldry,* and a writer of that kind, makes the
accession of the Lion of Guienne to the Coat of Nornunulg
(which was by Hen. II. his marriage with Queen Elianor,
divorced from Lewes of France) to be the first three Lions
borne by the English Kings.

4(3. Caerlegion u-hilst proud Rome lier conquests here did lioJd.
You have largely in that our most learned Antiquary, the

1 Pat. 1-2. Ed. 4. p.art. 1. memb. 12.

2 Pat. '27. //<". 6. num. 4<). » Pout. Heuter. de Yet. Belgio. '2.
* Kichol. Uptou. de Ke Militari. lib. 3.


cause of this name from, the tents of Roman Legions there
about Vespasian s time. I will only note, that Lelaml^ hath
long since found fault with JFiUium of Malmesburif for
affirming it so called, qubd ihi Emeriti Legionum Julianarum
resedere* ; whereas it is plain, that Julius Ccesar never came
near this territory. Perhaps, by Julius, he meant Agricola^
(then Lieutenant here) so named, and then is the imputa-
tion laid on that best of the Monks, unjust: to help it with
reading Milifariuui for Jvliananmi, as the printed book pre-
tends, I find not sufficiently warrantable, in respect that my
MS. very ancient, as near Malmeshuri/s time as (it seems)
may be, and heretofore belonging to the Priory of S. Augus-
tine's in Canterbury, evidently persuades the contrary.

50. the Fmircss upon Dee.

At this day in British she is called C«iir lliicoti ar iJoiii*
Db)!},'* i.e., the Citij of Legions upon the river Dee. Some vulgar
antiquaries have referred the name of Leon to a Giant
builder of it : I, nor they, know not who, or when he lived.
But indeed ridiculously they took 3Lron itlniirt for King
Leon the Great ; to whom the Author alludes presently.

64. But in himself thereby doth holiness retain.

He compares it with Dee's title presently, which hath its
reason given before to the Seventh Soiig. JVever by reason
of the salt-pits at Nortlncich, Nantwich, and jMiddkwich (all
on his banks) hath this attribute, and that of the Sea-gods'

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