Michael Drayton.

The complete works of Michael Drayton, now first collected (Volume 2) online

. (page 8 of 21)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

which among common Notaries or Scriveners was so Avell
known, that they called it by one general name, Trinoda
Necessitas,f as out of Cedwalla's Charter to Wilfrid, first
Bishop of Selsey,^ of the ]\Ianor oiPagenham (now Paghani)

* Excepting those three, Aid in war, meniling of Bridges .in;l
Forts, vid. L'liartani hujusmodi apiul D. Ed. Cok. in Epiit. a.l lib. 0.
t A thiec-kuottcd uccesaity. ^ GSO.



100 POLY-OLBION,

in Sussex, I have seen transcribed ; whereupon in a Delibe-
rative (concerning Papal exactions, and subjection of Church-
living) held under Hen. the Third/ after examination of
ancient Kings' Indulgence to the Clergy, it was found,
tliat ; Non adeb libertuil dederunt hujusmodi possessiones, quin
Tria sibi reservarent semper propter puhlicam regni utiUtatem,
videlicet, Expeditionem, Pontis, et Arcis reparationes, ml refec-
tiones, ut per ea resisterent hostium inrjirsionibus* ; although
by words of a Statute of EthelnJpli King of JFest-Saxons in
the year 855 made by advice both of Laity and Spirituality,
the Church was quitted also of those three Common-wealth
causes of Subsidy, but enjoyed it not; for, even the Canons^
themselves subject their possessions to these services and
duties, and upon interpretation of a Charter made by Henry
Bcauderc, Founder of the Priory of S. Oswald in Yorkshire,
containing words of immunity and liberty of tenure, as
general and effectual as might be, a great lawyer^ long
since affirmed that yet the House was not freed of repairing
Bridges and Causies. But all lands, as well in hands of
Clerks as Lay, were subjected to particular tenures after
the Conquest : and so these kind of charges and discharges
being made rather feodal (as Bradoii* calls them) than ^^cr-
sonal, use of them in Charters consequently ceased. I note
here to students of antiquity, that, where the printed In-
gulph says this was done by Ethclhald in the third year of
his reign, they must with correction make it the twenty-
tliird,'^ as is, without scruple, apparant in the date of the
Synod,''^ which was 745 of our Saviour.

J :\Tath. Paris, pag. 8.38.

* They always roscrtcil tho.se that so tlicy might the better be
furnished agaiii.st the enemies' invasion.

- (iregor. Decret. tit. tie I mm. Ecoles. c. Pervenit. 2.
=» Knivet 44. E<1. .S. fol. 2,^). a.

* De Ac(|uir. nr. I)f)m. 2. caj), Ifi. g. 8.

' Ijigulphus ememlatus, ® Maljm;sb. Lib, de Gcst, Pontif. 1.



THE ELEVENTH SONG.



101



360. The Britons had interred their Proto-martyr's hones.

In that universal persecution under Dioddian, and He,'
culius, tliis Isle gave, in S. Alhan, testimony of Christian
profession ; even to his last breath drawn among torment-
ing enemies of the Cross.^ His death (being the first
Martyr, as the Author here calls him, that this country
had) was at JFerlamcester {i.e., the old Vendam) where by
the Abbey of S. Albans was afterward erected.-

379. [Extirping other styles) and gave it England's* name.

Look back to the last note on the First Song. Thus, as
you see, hath the Muse compendiously run through the
Heptarchy, and united it in name and empire under Egbed
King of West-Saxons : after whom, none but his successors
had absolute power in their Kingdoms, as course of story
shows you.''^ Likely enough I imagine, that as yet expectii-
tion of the reader is not satisfied in these Seven Kingdoms,
their beginnings, territory, and first Cliristianity ; therefore
as a corollary receive this for the eye's more facile instruc-
tion.



Began in



First received
the Faith in



(1. Kent






The now |L Hengist4:5G,^ I.Ethelbert,5d7,
Kent. from whose son of Augustine

from Gregory I.



a



11. South Sex



I. Hengist4:5G,^
from whose son
Oisc the suc-
ceeding (Kings
were called Ois-
cings.

II. In yElla
about -191.



Sussex. II. In yElla II. EdiJwakh
Surrey, about -191. GGl, and the

whole Country
converted by
JFilfrid 679.

^ See the Author in the Sixteenth Song. ^ TOO aut circiter.

* Ann. Circa 800. •* See the Sixteenth Song.

* I follow here the ordinary Chronology of our Monks.



102



POLY-OLBIOX,



Berjan in



Flr-^f received
tlw Faith in



^1



III. JTest-
Sex.






IV. N(rr-

thumher-

lund.



V. Ed-
Sex.



' Cormvall.

Devonshire.

Dorset.

Somerset.

jnitmi.

Southamp-
ton.

Berkshire.

Lancaster.

Yorke.

Durham.

Westmer-

land.
Northum-

herland,
and the
neighbour-
ing terri-
tory to
Edinburgh
Frith ;
■vvliither
from Tine
was the
name of
Bernidand,
and what
hiy on this
side Tine,
called De Ir-
eland.
I Essex.
) Middlesex.
I Purtofi/e-
' reford. *



III. Certic, 519,
whose grand-
father was "Ge-
^'.•m', and thence
his people and
posterity called
Gewises.



IV. Ida 547,
taking all Ber-
nidand,a,s yElIa
twelve years
after began in
Deirland ; but
both Kingdoms
soon were con-
founded in one.



III. Kinegils
635, baptized
by Birin first
Bishop of Dor-
chester in Ox-
fordshire.



IV. Edwin 625,
Christened by
Paidin first
Archbishop (in
the. S'l'^ro?i times)
of Yorke.



V. Sleda after V. Sehert 604,
some (others dipped in holy
say in Erchin- tincture by
win before him) j MeUitus, first
about 5 80, both Bishop of Lon-



uncertain, and
their succes-
sors.



don.



• i.e., Hertford. — Ed.



THE ELEVEXTE SONG.



103



Began in



First received
the Faith in



r






I



VI. Est-
Angle.



VII.

Merc-land. '^



\



' Norfolk

Suffolk.

Cambridge-
shire.

Vaxtoi Ely.

Glocester.

Hereford.

Worcester.

Warwick.

Leicester.

Rutland.

Northamp-
ton.

Lincoln.

Hunting-
don.

Bedfm-d.

Bucking-
ham.

Oxford.

Stafford.

Derby.

Salop.

Nottingham

Chester.

The Nortli-

ern part of

Hereford. *

But in

these the

Inhabit-
ants of then

Inlands

were called

Middle-

Engles, and

the il/er-



VI. Redicald
about 600. But
sometalkof one
Viiffa (whence
these Kings
were called
Vuffings) to be
Author of it
near thirty
years before.



VII. InPenda
62 G. Others
will in Crida
some forty be-
fore.



VI. Eorpicald
632, although
Reclwcdd were
Christened, for
he soon fell to
apostasy, by
persuasion of
his wife, and in
the same
Chapel made
one altar to
Christ, another
to the Devil.



VII. Peada
King of Midle-
Engle 653,
baptized by
Finna Bishop
of Liudisfarne,
but enlarged
the profession
of it in Vulpher
next King
there.



i.e., Hertford.



104



POLY-OLBION,



Began in



First received
the Faith in







a



ciavs divi-
ded into
names of
their local
quarters.



Perhaps as good authority may be given against some of
my proposed Chronology, as I can justify myself with. But
although so, yet I am therefore freed of error, because our
old Monks exceedingly in this kind corrupted, or deficient,
afford nothing able to rectify. I know the Fast-Angles, by
both ancient and later authority, begin above one hundred
years before; but if with synchronism you examine it, it will
be found most absurd. For, seeing it is affirmed expressly,
that Redwald was slain by EtheJfrkl King of Noi-ikumherkmd,
and being plain by Bede^ (take his story together, and rely
not upon syllables and false printed copies) that it must
needs be near 600 (for Fdivin succeeded Mhelfrid) and that
Uffa was some thirty years before : what calculation will
cast this into less than five hundred years after Christ?
Forget not (if you desire accurate times) my admonition to
the Fourth Song, of the twenty-two years' error upon the
Dionysian account, especially in the beginning of the King-
doms, because they are for the most part reckoned in old
Monks from the coming of the Saxons. Where you find
different names from these, attribute it to misreading old
copies, by such as have published Carpemrald for Eorpen-
wald, or EarpwaJd ; Penda also perhaps for Wcnda, mis-
taking the Saxon p. for our P. and other such, variably both
written and printed. How in time they successively came



^ Eccles. Hist. 2. cap. 9. ubi legcndum sexcentesimo vice rov quin-
genttsimo.



THE ELEVENTH SONG. 105

under the West-Saxon rule, I must not tell you, unless I
should untimely put on the person of an Historian. Our
common Annals manifest it. But know here, that although
Seven were, yet but Five had any long continuance of their
supremacies :

Wit ^a):ons tho in thtr jjotocr (tiio thtt faocre so rtuc)
^tvit Hingtlomes matte iw Engelonde auli suthc* but biuf,
Ehe Iting of Northomberlond, anlJ oE Eastangle also
®f Kent anU o! Westsex, antj of the March therto,

as Robert of Glocester, according to truth of Story hath it ;
for Estsex and SoiUhsex were not long after their beginnings
(as it were) annexed to their ruling neighbour Princes.

3S8. A Nation from their first lent naturally to spoil.

Indeed so were universally the Germans (out of whom
our Saxons) as Tacitus relates to us ; Nee arare terram aut ex-
sjjectare annum tarn facilh persuaseris, quam vocare hastes et vul-
nera mereri. Pigrum quinimb et iners videtur sudore acquirere
quod 2^ossis sanguine parare,f and more of that nature we
read in him.

400. Of famous Cambridge first



About the year 630, Sigehert (after death of Eorjnvnld)
returning out of France, whither his father Bedivald had
banished him, and receiving the East-angle Crown, assisted
by Fidlx a Bnrgognone, and first Bishop of Dunmch (then
called Dunmoc) in Suffolk, desiring to imitate what he had
seen observable in France, for the common good, Inst it nit
scholaiii (read it scholas, if you will, as some do, I see no

* Afterward,

+ You could not so easily persuade them to husbandry, as to mar-
tial conllii't ; nor thought they it better than slothful, to get that by
swuftt whiyh they miyht have by blood.



106 POLY-OLBION,

consequence of worth) in qua pueri Uteris erudlrejitur* as
Ilede writeth. Out of these words thus general, Cambridge,
being in Uasiangle, hath been taken for this School, and the
School for the University, I will believe it (in so much as
makes it then a University) not much sooner than that (I
know not what) Gurgimtius with Cantaber, some hundred
and fifty years before Christ, founded it ; or, those Charters
of King Art/mr, Bulls of Pope Honorius and Sergius sent
thither, Anaximander or Anaxagoras their studies there,
with more such pretended and absurd unlikelihoods; unless
every Grammar School be an University, as this was, where
children were taught by Pcedagogi et Magistrijuxta morem Can-
tuarioriim,f as Bede hath expressly: which so makes Canter-
hunj an University also. But neither is there any touch in
authentic and ancient story, which justifies these Schools in-
stituted at Cambiidge, but generally somewhere in Eastangle.
Reasons of inducement are framed in multitudes on both
sides. But, for my own part, I never saw aily sufficiently
probable, and therefore most of all rely upon what authori-
ties are afforded. Among them I ever preferred the Ap-
pendix to the Story of Cruivland supposed done by Peter of
Blols, affirming that under Hen. I. (he lived very near the
same time ; therefore believe him in a matter not subject to
causes of Historians temporizing) Joffred Abbot of Crowland,
with one Gilbert his commoigne, and three other Monks,
came to his Manor of Catenham, as they used oft-times, to
read; and thence daily going to Cambridge, Condudo quodam
horreo publico suas scientias pallim projitcntes, in brevi iemporis
excursu grundem discipidorum numerum contraxerunt. Anno
verb secundo adventus illorum, tantum accrevit discipulorum nu-
merus, tarn ex totd patrid qiohm ex oppldo, qubd quoiUbet domus



* Instituted a School for cliildren.

\ To Schoolmasters, according to the fashion at Canterbury.



THE ELEVENTH SONG. 107

maxima, Jiorreum, nee ulla ecdesia sufficerei eoriim receptamlo;*
and so goes on with an ensuing frequency of Schools. If
before this there were an University, I imagine that in it
was not professed Aristotle s Ethics, which tell us ts^/ r^c
SivixTii <piXiag : for, then would they not have permitted
learned readers of the Sciences (whom all that hated not
the Muses could not but love) to be compelled into a Barn,
instead of Schools. Nor is it tolerable in conceit, that for
near five hundred years (which interceded twixt this and
Sigebert) no fitter place of profession should be erected. To
this time others have referred the beginning of that famous
Seminary of good literature : and, if room be left for me, I
offer subscription ; but always under reformation of that
most honoured Tutress's pupils, which shall (omitting fabu-
lous trash) judiciously instruct otherwise. But the Author
here out of Polydore, Leland, and others of later time relying
upon conjecture, hath his warrant of better credit than Can-
tilap, another relater of that Arcadian Original, which some
have so violently patronized.

403. Renowned Oxford hiiilt t' Apollo's learned brood.

So is it affirmed (of that learned King yet knowing not a
letter until he was past twelve) by Polydore, Bale, and
others ; grounding themselves upon what Alfred's benefi-
cence and most deserving care hath manifested in Eoyal
provision for that sacred Nourice of Learning. But justly
it may be doubted, lest they took instauration of what was
deficient, for institution : for although you grant that he
first founded University College; yet it follows not, but there
might be common Schools, and Colleges, as at this day in
Leyden, Gicsse, and other places of High and Low Germany.
If you please, fetch hither that of Greckiade (to the Third

* Hired a barn to read in, and so continued, till the number of
tlieir fcicliolars exceeded the content of that, or any Church.



108 POLY-OLBION,

Song) which I will not importune you to believe: but with-
out scruple you cannot but credit that of a Monk of S.
Dewi's^ (made Grammar and Rhetoric Reader there by
King Alfred) in these words of the year 886. -JSxorta est
pessima-ac teterrima Oxonue discordia inter Grimboldunt (this
was a great and devout Scholar, whose aid Alfred used in
his disposition of Lectures) doctisdmosqiie illos viros secum
illuc adduxit, et veteres illos scholasticos quos ibidem invenisset :
qui eius adventu, leges, modos, ac prcelegendi formulas ah eodem
Grimboldo institutas, omni ex parte ampledi recumbant. And
a little after, Quin etiam prohahant et ostendebant idque indtibi-
tato veterum annalimri, testimonio illius loci Ordines ac Instituta,
a nonnullis piis et eniditis hominibus, fuisse sancita, tit a Glldd
(MelJdno he was a great Mathematician, and as Gildas also
lived between 500 and GOO) Nennio (the printed book hath
falsely JVemrio) Kentigerno (he lived about 509) et uliis, qui,
omnes Uteris illic consenuerunt, omnia ibidem foelici pace et con-
cordla administrantes ; and affirmed also that Letters had
there been happily professed in very ancient time, with fre-
quency of Scholars, until irruptions of Pagans^ (they meant
Danes) had brought them to this lately restored deficiency.
After this testimony, greater than all exception, what can
be more plain than noble worth and fame of this Pillar of
the Muses long before King Alfred's? Neither make I any
great question, but that, where in an old copy of Gildas his
life (published lately l)y a Frenchman'^) it is printed, that he
studied at Iren, which clearly he took for a place in this
Land, it should be Ichca (and I confess, before me one hath

^ Asser. Menevcns. de Gest. Alfred.

* A great controversy grew twixt tliose new Scholars which Alfred
brought thither, and those whicli of ancient time were there before,
&c.

* About Alfred' K time before his instauration a Grammarian was
not found in his Kingilom to teach him. Florent. Wigorn. pag. .SOU.

* Joann. a Bosco rarisicusis. iu JBibliothec. iloriacous. \ it. Gild,
cap. 0.



THE ELEVENTH SONG. 109

well published the conjecture) for S^wtJ-SIchm the Wehh
name of that City, ex2)re3sing as much as Oxen ford. Yet I
would not willingly fall into the extremes of making it
Memprikes, as some do ; that were but vain affectation to
dote on my Reverend Mother. But because in those remote
ages, not only Universities and Public Schools (being for a
time prohibited by Pope Gregory^ for fear of breeding Pelor
gians and Ar'ians) but divers Monasteries and Cloisters
were great Auditories of learning, as appears in Theodor and
Adrian's professing at Canterbury,^ Maldidjjh and Aldelm at
Malmeshury (this Aldelm first taught the Unglish to write
Latin prose and verse) Alcuin at Yorhe, Bede at Jarrov;^
and such other more I guess that hence came much obscu-
rity to their name, omitted or suppressed by envious Monks
of those times, than whose traditions descending through
many hands of their like, we have no credible authorities.
But whichsoever of these two Sisters have prerogative of
primogeniture (a matter too much controverted twixt them)
none can give them less attribute, than to be two radiant
Eyes fixed in this Island, as the beauteous face of the earth's
body. To what others have by industrious search commu-
nicated, I add concerning Oxford out of an ancient MS.^ (but
since the Clementines) what I there read: Apud Montem
Pessulanum, Farisios, Oxoniam, Colonias, Boloniam, generalia
studia ordinamus. Ad quce prior Provincialis quilibet pos&it
mittere duos fratres qui habeant Studentium libertatem ;* and
also admonish the reader of an imposture thrust into the
world this last Autumn Mart in a Provincial Catalogue of
Bishoprics, by a professed Antiquary^ and Popish Canon of

1 Bri. Twin. Apolog. Oxon. 2. §. 84.

- Leland ad Cyg. Cant, in Grantil. ' Camel, in WiltoniA.

* Cunstitutiones Fratrum. cap. de Studiis et Magist. Student.

* At Mompdier, Paris, Oxford, Cologne, Bolo'jna we institute
general Studies.

* Aubert. Minuus. in Notit. Episcopat. edit. Parisiis, 1610.



no POLY-OLBION,

Antwerp, telling us, that the MS. Copy of it, found in S.
Victor's Library at Paris, was written five hundred years
since, and in the number of Canterbury Province, it hath
Oxford; which being written Oxoniensis, I imagined might
have been mistaken for Exoniensis (as Exonia ioT Oxnnia
sometimes) until I saw Exoniensis joined also ; by which
stood Petrohurgensis, which bruised all the credit of the
monument, but especially of him that published it. For,
who knows not that Peterborough was no Bishopric till Hen.
VIII.? nor indeed was Oxford, which might be easily thought
much otherwise, by incidence of an ignorant eye on that
vainly promising title. I abstain from expatiating in matter
of our Muses' seats, so largely, and too largely treated of by
others.

406. And into several Shires the Kingdom did divide.
To those Shires he^ constituted Justices and Sheriffs,
called jepepas and j-hyjijejiepas, the office of those two being
before confounded in Vice-Dornini., i.e. Lieutenants ; but so,
that Vicedominus and Vicecomes remained indifferent words
for name of Sheriff, as, in a Charter of King Edred 950
Ego Bingidph Vicedominus consului t^. Ego Alfer Vicecomes
audivi ►J^. I find together subscribed. The Justices were, as
I think, no other tlian those whom they called eolbop man-
num, being the same with Gojiles, now Earls, in whose dis-
position and government upon delegation from the King
.(the title being officiary, not hereditary, except in some
particular Shire, as Leicester, &c.*) the County was ; with
the Bishop of the Diocese : the EarP sate in the Scvfieje-
nioce twice every year, where charge was given touching^
Gobej- pihce-] jepeojiulb jiihce"* : But by the Conqueror, this

^ Histor. Crowlandcnsis. * See to Thirteenth Song.

^ Edgar. Leg. Human, cap. 5.; Edward, caj). 11. ; Canut. cajj. 17.

•♦ I'ot. Chart. 2. li'ivh. 2. jiro Decan. et Capit. Lincoln, transcrip-
Bimus in Jauo Angloruni, lib. 2. §. 14. et videas ai)ud Fox. Hist,
tcclea, 4. * (Jod's right aud the world's.



THE ELE VENTH SONG': 1 1 1

meddling of the Bishop in Turnes was prohibited. The
Sheriff had then his Monthly Court also, as the now Countij
Court, instituted by the Saxon Ed. I. as that other of the
Turne by Iving Edgar. The Sheriff is now immediate
officer to the King's Court, but it seems that then the Earl
(having always the third part of the Shire's profits, both
before and since the Normans*) had charge upon him. For
this division of Countries : how many he made, I know not,
but Malmeshury, under Ethelred, affirms, there were thirty-
two (Robert of Glocester thirty-five) about which time JVin-
chelcomb was one,^ but then joined to Glocester shire : those
thirty-two- were

Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hantshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Somer-
set, Dorset, Devonshire. — Nine, governed by the JVest-Saxon
law.

Essex, Middlesex, ~jSitffolke, Norfolke, Hertford, Camhridge,
Bedford, Buckinglmm, Huntingdon, Northampton, Leicester,
Derby, Nottingham, Lincolne, Yarke. — Fifteen, governed by
the Danish law.

Oxford, IVancicke, Glocester, Herefm'd, Shropshire, Stafford,
Clieshire, Worcester. — Eight, governed by the Mercian law.

Here was none of Cornwall, Cumberland (styled also
Carlileshire) Northumberland, Lancaster, JFestmerland (which
was since titled Aplebyshire) Durham, Monmouth, nor Hut-
land, which at this day make our number (beside the twelve
in Wales) forty. Cornwall (because of the Britons there
planted) until the Conqueror gave the County to his brother
Robert of Morcton, continued out of the division. Cumber-
land, Northumberland, Westmcrland, and Durham, being all
Northern, seem to have been then under Scottish or Danish

* See to the Tliirteenth Song.

^ (.'oilex W'igoniiensis apiul Cam. in Dohimia.

- Polychrouicon lib. 1. cap. de Proviuciis.



112 ' POLY-OLBION,

power. But the two first received their division, as it
seems, before the Conquest ; for Cumherland had its par-
ticular ] 'governors,^ and Northumherlandr Earls: Westmer-
land perhaps began when King John gave it Robert Vipont,
ancestor to the Cliffords, holding by that Patent to this day
the inheritance of the Sheriffdom. Durham religiously was
with large immunities given to the Bishop, since the Nor-
77ian invasion. Lancaster, until Hen. III. created his younger
son Edmund CrooTce-hacke Earl of it, I think, was no County :
for, in one of our old Year-Books^ a learned Judge affirms,
that, in this Henry's time, was the first Sheriff's Tourne
held there. Nor until Edward (first son to Edmund of
Langh'i/ Duke of Yorke, and afterward Duke of Aumerle)
created by Rich. II. had Rutland any Earls. I know for
number and time of those, all authority agrees not with
me ; but I conjecture only upon selected. As Alured
divided the Shires first ; so to him is owing the Constitu-
tion of Hundreds, Tithings, Lathes, and Wapentakes, to the
end that whosoever were not lawfully, upon credit of his
Boroughes, i.e., pledges, admitted in some of them for a good
subject, should be reckoned as suspicious of life and loyalty.
Some steps thereof remain in our ancient and later Law-
books.*

410. Which he an heirloom left unto the English Throne.

The first healing of the Ki7ig's Evil is referred to this
Edirard the Confessor^ : and, of a particular example in his
curing a young married woman, an old monument*^ is left to

^ Matth. West. f<.l. 306. = ingulph. Hist. Crowland.

8 Tlioi'i). 17. E'l. 3. fol. 56. b.

* liract. lib. '.i. Tract, do Coronil, cap. 10. Quamplurimi casus in
aimis Ed. 3. ct 5. .Jacob, apud Doui. lul. Cok. lib. 6. fol. 77. maximi
vero hftc faciunt Itinera ilia //. 3. et Ed. 1.

* J'olydor. Hist. 8.

* Eilrcd. Khivalleus. ap. Took, in Charismat, Sanat. cap. 6.



THE ELEVENTH SONG. 113

posterity. In France such a kind of cure is attributed to
their Kings also ; both of that and this, if you desire par-
ticular inquisition, take Dr. Tooker's Charisma Sanationis.

41S, Our Country's Common Laws did faithfully produce.

In Lamhard's Archceonomy and Boger of Hoveden's Hen. II.
are Laws under name of the Confessor and Conqueror joined,
and deduced for the most part out of their predecessors ;
but those of the Confessor seem to be the same, if Malmes-
bury^ deceive not, which King Cnut collected, of whom his
words are, Omnes leges ab antiquis regibus d maonmh antecessare
suo Ethelredo latas, sub interminatione Ilegice mvldce, ijerpettiis
temporihus observari prmcepit, in qicancm custodiam etiam nunc
tempore Bonorum sub nomine Begu Edwardi juratur, non qubd
ille statuerit, sed qubd observavcrit* : and under this name
have they been humbly desired by the subject, granted
with qualification, and controverted, as a main and first
part of liberty, in the next age, following the Norman Con-


1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21