the House of Delegates of the State Medical
Society steps were taken to amend the by-
laws and make a majority vote sufficient for
election to membership instead of four-fifths
majority, as heretofore.
A banquet was served in the Dryden cafe at
Jour. M. S. M. S.
At the evening session W. C. Kelly, of
Flint, read a paper entitled "Uterine Curet-
tage; Pathological Conditions Demanding it;
Its Field of Usefulness; its Possible Dangers."
Howard W. Longyear, of Detroit, presented a
paper on "Immediate and Late Closure of the
Both papers were freely discussed and Dr.
Longycar's was admirably illustrated by draw-
ings and charts.
A case of strangulated omental hernia and
obstruction of the bowel was reported by Dr.
Jackson County Medical Societ>i held its
regular meeting at Jackson, October 4, 1904.
A resolution, introduced at the last session,
to change the dates of the regular meetings to
the first Thursday of March, June, September
and December was adopted.
J. . A. Porter, Brooklyn, read an article on
"Some Observations on the Blood." Discussion
by Wm. Lyop, Grass Lake, and G. R. Pray,
George Dock, of Ann Arbor, then gave a
talk on "The Diagnostic Examination of
Blood, with Demonstrations."
As a general thing, the examination
of the blood is one of the things to do in
making out the diagnosis of a given case. The
findings of the blood examination should be
considered with the result of the other exam-
inations. Therein comes the art of diagnosis
— to apply the essential things. In all obscure
diseases an examination of the blood is highly
important and should not be neglected.
In all diseases of the blood, an examination
is necessary in order that the diagnosis may
be exact, and the treatment guided by definite
facts. The first essential in blood examination
is familiarity with appliances and with the
The study of blood in various ways for a
considerable time is the only way to acquire
skill in that branch of diagnosis. No brilliancy
of intellect will make up for want of study.
Without going into details of blood examin-
ation, let me cite some cardinal points. One
of the most important things to recognize is
the relative amount of hemoglobin.
The first practical methods for this purpose
were Growers' and Fleischel's. Both expensive
apparatus. Ehrlich noted one could make a
good guess from the color of the spot on
Tallquist applied this in a more accurate way
by using a graduated scale of colors and using
filter paper of uniform quality. The Tallquist
scale answers all practical purposes. It gfivcs
not absolute but relative amount of hemo-
globin. In a case of chlorosis with hemoglobin
of 50 or 60 per cent, can see the improvement
from week to week. One point to be men-
tioned—note the behavior of the drop of blood
on the filter paper. Normal blood and blood
of relatively low hemoglobin sink in evenly —
form an even red spot on paper.
In blood of very low hemoglobin the cor-
puscles collect in the middle of the drop and
there will be a light wet spot around this. Such
a reading would give an error of 20 to 30 per
cent. Not valueless, however, as this usually
means hemoglobin less than 30 per cent. The
Tallquist scale is convenient and cheap, and
should have wide and general use.
Would encourage the use of Fleischcl, Cow-
ers and others, however, by those who make
special study of blood.
COUNTING OF BLOOD ESSENTIAL.
When counting blood every day one can
estimate if a large or small reduction from
fresh drop. It is necessary in exact work to
use instrument for counting. Thoma-Zeiss
combines good points of all others. Easy to
use, simple in construction, and reasonable in
There is no other way to determine the
number of cells. Hematokrit valueless as di-
agnostic aid. Gives volume but not number
of cells. Useful for certain scientific studies
of blood but does not replace counter. In use
of counter practice absolutely essential. Rapid
and accurate manipulation must become auto-
This should always begin with the fresh
drop. Take the drop between the slide and
coverglass. If the drop is of the right size,
it will run out at the side of the coverglass,
coagulate and make a seal, which will prevent
evaporation and allow of the examination of
the drop three or four hours after securing the
specimen. If the drop is not large enough, can
smear about the edge of the coverglass with
oil or vaseline. Examination of fresh drop
useful in malaria when parasites will be found
Note from fresh drop:
1. Relative number of red corpuscles.
2. Relative number of leucocytes and kinds
— cosinophites — small lymphocytes. All the
rest lumped together.
3. Relative amounts of fibrin.
This is much neglected at the present time.
Surgeons use complicated instruments to de-
termine amounts of fibrin, when can see it
forming in fresh drop, and by studying many
specimens, one learns to detect variations
from the normal.
4. Notice blood plates. Of no present di-
agnostic value, but of most scientific interest.
Systematic observation along this line would
without doubt reveal something of value.
Study of stained blood of immense value.
Diseases of the blood reached a scientific basis
when we first learned to stain. Many begin-
ners make cardinal mistake by seeking to
stick to one stain. No single stain' that will
answer all purposes. Hematoxylin and eosin
invaluable for many purposes, but we need a
stain which stains the granules also; for this
Wright's stain — easy to make and has few
sources of error.
Stain must be properly made.
Told by testing upon blood.
Blood must be well spread and not too old.
Use distilled water for washing coverglass.
Must have practice to get the proper time for
using the stain.
A serious mistake to use anilin dyes only
in the examination of blood. Use protoplasmic
dyes as hematoxylin and eosin, for instance in
pernicious anaemia show presence of nucleated
reds and protoplasmic degeneration. These
few facts are the essentials for the practical
examination of blood.
Histology is in advance of application.
Eosinophilous granules increased in leukaemia
and in cases of intestinal worms, for instance.
Mast-cells — Increase of value in the diag*
nosis of leukaemia. Can not go so far as to
say they occur only in leukaemia. Can find
them in normal blood. They are increased in
leukaemia as an eosinophiles. In. study of
leukaemia, mast*cells have been too much neg-
DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF LEUCOCYTES.
The finding of an increase of leucocytes of
great value. Sometimes do not absolutely re-
quire counting to determine this. When one
finds as many leucocytes as red cells — as in
specimen shown — we are forced to say leu-
In difi^erentiating between typhoid fever and
malaria— when some quinine been given— and
no parasites iound. The absence of increase
of leucocytes would be in favor of malaria.
Absence of increase in pneumonia unfavorable
Examination of leucocytes of value in sur-
gical, diseases. The last word has not been
said in this regard. Leucocytosis in relation
to appendicitis as given by the speaker seven
years ago at State Medical Society holds good.
They are increased quite early in appendicitis.
In an hour after primary ache, speaker has
seen them increased two and a half or three'
times above normal. Not increased in some
cases and these are the troublesome ones
which even with operation often die. To find
leucocytosis docs not mean suppuration. May
be increased up to 25,000 and no pus. May be
10,000 to 20,000 and a pint of pus around the
appendix. If 30,000, pus is nearly always pres-
ent. Of practical use in determining the treat-
ment of appendicitis, whether surgical or not.
H leucocytes go up — even though other symp-
toms not increasing — Dr. Dock usually says
operate. Of wide bearing in all diseases of
the peritoneum. Leucocytosis does not mean
suppuration but an inflammation. Of value in
cases of typhoid fever with perforations and
in other forms of peritonitis carried up from
the pelvis, and in obstruction of the bowel.
Dr. Dock then demonstrated a fresh drop
preparation from a case of pernicious anaemia.
R. Grace Hendrick, Sec'y.
The fall meeting of the Marquette County
Medical Society was held at Ishpeming, Octo-
ber 11, 1904. In point of attendance and in
the interest displayed in the discussions, it
was the most successful meeting which this
society has yet held.
The staff of the Ishpeming Hospital pre-
sented their usual number of interesting clini-
cal cases. The conxmittee on credentials re-
ported favorably on the application of Dr.
Goodnow for membership in this society. A
committee was appointed to negotiate with
the trustees of the Peter White library rela-
tive to getting a suitable room in which to
start a Marquette County Medical Library.
W. S. Picotte, of Ishpeming, presented a
paper on "The Pioneer Physician."
Louis David Cyr, whose name recalls to
memory the typical pionc;jer phy&ician, was
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Jour. M.S. M.S.
born in Lower Canada, December 25, 1833.
He graduated from the classic department of
St. Hyacinth College in 1851. The following
year he took up the study of medicine in the
College of Physicians and Surgeons in Mon-
treal, receiving his degree from that institu-
tion May, 1856. After practicing a few months
at Lacolle, P. Q., and Sable Fork, N. Y., Dr.
Cyr set out for the Lake Superior region. He
finally settled in Negaunee. He was appointed
surgeon to the Jackson, Palmer and Rolling
Mills~ mines. He was also surgeon for the
MacCumber, Bessemer and Cambria Iron com-
panies. Realizing the need of a drug store he
established one in Negaunee. This, with the
addition of various lines, soon developed into
a general store which for many years was
considered the trading cetiter for the mining
district. The doctor also opened a photo-
graph gallery, which was generally patronized.
This was also followed by the addition of a
stock of jewelry. With the growing demands
of his business for more space he erected the
first brick structure in the town. He was also
a member of the L. A. Marsell & Co.'s dry
goods establishment. In the early sixties he
was appointed to the office of postmaster,
which he held for eight to ten years. On Jan-
uary 31, 1865, Dr. Cyr was married to Miss
Florence M. Watson, who died in Chicago
December 10, 1886. Three daughters were
born of this union, two of whom still survive.
The doctor was a true sportsman and a firm
lover of nature, taking great delight in hunt-
ing and fishing expeditions. He died of paraly-
sis March 27, 1904.
Dr. Cyr was helpful by reason of the broad
learning he possessed; sympathetic because of
his keen understanding of humanity; attentive
through his love for his profession and his
untiring devotion to his patients. In his death
we mourn the loss of an esteemed and beloved
F. A. Grawn, of Munising, presented a paper
on "Veratrum Viride in Eclampsia," with a re-
port of a case.
Veratrum Viride meets the indications in
eclampsia perhaps better than any other
remedy at our command. Parvin in the
Universal Medical Journal (October, 1896) re-
ported 100 cases of eclampsia treated with
veratrum viride, 92 of which terminated in re-
I was called March 8, 1901, to see Mrs. H.
W., who presented the following history: Age,
26; nationality, German. The family and per-
sonal history were good. She was seven
months pregnant. She was suffering a slight
heiporrhage without pain. There were no pre-
monitory signs of eclampsia at this time:
Thinking I had to deal with a partial separa-
tion of the placenta I left a prescription for
the F. E. viburnum pruni folium, one teaspoon-
ful to be given every three hours, and gave
directions that patient should remain quietly
in bed. Five hours later I was hastily sum-
moned and found the patient in coma follow-
ing a convulsion. I endeavored to control
the convulsion by means of chloroform, chloral
and bromides and to secure elimination by the
use of croton oil, pilocarpine and normal salt
solution enemas. Some six hours later the
patient's condition was so little improved that
consultation seemed advisable and Dr. G. A.
Trueman was called. Induction of labor was
decided upon. In about one hour the mother
was delivered of a dead foetus. Convulsions
kept recurring at irregular intervals. The
pulse rate ranged from 140 to 150 per minute,
with high tension. Eight minims of fluid ex-
tract of veratrum viride were given subcutan-
eously. In twenty minutes the pulse rate was
70 and did not again rise above 75. The pulse
was regular and full. The other effects of the
drug noticed soon after the injection was a
free sweating and a marked increase in the
excretion of the urine. No convulsion oc-
curred after the administration of the vera-
trum viride and the patient made an unevent-
H. F. HoRNBOGEN, Sec'y.
The Mecosta County Medical Society held
its annual meeting Ocober 7, 1904.
All of the officers of the past year were re-
R. O. Allen, of Remus, read a paper entitled
''Dangerous Communicable Diseases: How
Spread, Suggestions as to Their Restriction."
Our cities' mortality records disclose the
fact that the most dangerous, communicable
diseases, named in the order of their fre-
quency as causes of death, are pneumonia,
consumption, typhoid fever, diphtheria, meas-
les, influenza, whooping cough, scarlet fever
People should be educated through the
health officials and practitioners of medicine
as to the chief sources of danger in contract-
ing contagious diseases.
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First — They should be made to know that
the dust from infected handkerchiefs, when
the secretion has dried, often contains' germs.
They should be taught that handkerchiefs
should under no circumstances be used after
any secretion from the nose has been permit-
ted to dry upon them.
Second — Contagion is liable to be spread
by dust from floors or articles upon which in-
fected sputum or saliva has been ejected.
Third — Contagion is liable to be spread by
contact with the hands of persons who cough
or spit into handkerchiefs, and then handle the
Fourth — Clothing may often contain the
germs of a communicable disease.
Fifth — Books, pencils, chewing gum, drink-
ing cups, etc., which are used in common, are
often sources for the spread of contagious
Sixth — While typhoid fever is ordinarily
caused through the medium of drinking water
which has been contaminated with sewage or
with leakings from privies, it is not improbable
that the disease is sometimes spread by means
of dust containing the germs of the disease.
It is a well-known fact that consumption is
a communicable disease and that it is spread
by the dust of dried sputum, by milk and by
meat of tuberculous animals. Many people die
of this yearly. It would seem that humani-
tarians, physicians, statesmen, philanthropists
and sanitarians should all enlist themselves in
an earnest, heroic endeavor to arrest this de-
stroyer of human life, and the knowledge that
consumption is preventable should go all over
the land. Physicians and sanitary officers es-
pecially should disseminate information con-
cerning the importance of preventative precau-
tions wherever consumptive patients are
found. The time must come when institutions
for treating people suffering with this disease
will be found in all the progressive cities and
states in the country.
Pneumonia is spread by a germ which is
found in the sputum of those who have the
disease. Care should always be taken to de-
stroy or disinfect all sputa of those who have
pneumonia. It is very clear that measures
which should be adopted for its restriction are
isolation and disinfection.
Diphtheria is spread by the sputa, saliva
and whatever comes from the throat and
mouth of the patient and by the dust which
results from the drying of such saliva, etc.
It is well to remember that the germs of this
disease sometimes remain in the throat for
weeks after the patient has apparently recov-
ered. For the restriction and prevention of
this disease isolation and disinfection are all
Scarlet fever is a dangerous contagious dis-
ease. The communicability of scarlet fever
from person to person is a well-known fact
It is spread by the discharges from the nose,
mouth, and throat and probably also by min-
ute scabs which are thrown off from the sur-
face of the body. The contagion of scarlet
fever surpasses that of any other eruptive
fever except smallpox in its tenacious attach-
ment to objects and its portability to disjtant
localities. The means of prevention are isola-
tion, quarantine and disinfection.
Unmodified smallpox is one of the most
contagious, fatal and loathsome of all the dis-
eases to which the human family is subject
It is spread by means of particles given off
from the surfaces of the body. That vaccina-
tion properly done will prevent almost with-
out exception the contraction of smallpox is
proven by the statistics of the world of today.
The protective influence of vaccination has
been established beyond dispute.
A. A. Spoor, Sec'y-
The Saginaw County Medical Society held
its annual meeting October 11, 1904, at Sagi-
naw. The following officers were elected:
President — W. L. Dickinson, Saginaw.
Vice-President — B. B. Rowe, Saginaw.
Secretary-Treasurer— J. N. Kemp, Saginaw.
Board of Directors — F. Smith, Saginaw; S.
I. Small, Saginaw; F. W. McMeekin, Saginaw.
J. N. Kemp, Sec'y.
The regular quarterly meeting of the Sani-
lac County Medical Society was held at Brown
City October 3, 1904, and proved one of the
most instructive and entertaining gathering's
held by that society this year. The paper
read by Hal C. Wymann, of Detroit, on
"Some Cases of Brain Surgery" was the fea-
ture of the day and highly appreciated by
The same principles should govern in the
preparation, operation and after-treatment in
cases of brain surgery that apply in the sur-
gery of serous membranes elsewhere. The
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Jour. M. S. M. S.
bowels should be freely opened before the
operation is performed, unless the case hap-
pens to be one of recent injury, in which the
symptoms are so threatening that there is not
time to wait for a cathartic. The operation-
should always be performed as quickly as pos-
sible with minimum of manipulation of the
brain substance. After the operation is fin-
ished and the process of repair is beginning,
the bowels should be again freely opened. A
vigorous elimination should be maintained in
the after-treatment until convalescence is es-
tablished. Brain surgery means such opera-
tions as are indicated for the relief of cerebral
compression, no matter whether it is due to
tumor, effusion, hemorrhage, depressed bone
and inflammatory exudates. The symptoms
by which the conditions mentioned can be
recognized are in tumor of the brain, pafti,
headache more or less persistent, but rarely
intermittent, generally in the same place, local-
ized paralysis and paresis, generally involv-
ing or impairing some special sense and the
movements of the eyeball. The probably dis-
tinctive feature of brain tumors, intra-cranial
tumors, is their chronicity. The symptoms
will generally be found to have existed too
long to be accounted for by anything else. A
headache due to tumor will continue long after
one due to inflammation of the membranes of
brain has progressed to fatal coma, and like-
wise, for example, are due to inter-cranial hem-
orrhage, will go from bad to worse more gen-
erally than when due to tumor. Convulsions
sometimes confuse the symptom complex, as
they are usually the result of irritation of cells
which may be located remotely from the cause
of the compression.
The Lapeer County Meaical Society were
the guests of the Sanilac Association and an
extremely agreeable social time was had.
The. doctors present were unanimous in their
praise of the royal entertainment given them
by the Brown City physicians, and will always
look forward to the time when their next
meeting will be held in that enterprising little
G. S. TwEEDiE, Sec'y.
The Shiawassee County Medical Society adopted
the following resolution :
Whereas, The Medical Faculty of the Univer-
sity of Michigan are required to furnish gratui-
tous medical and surgical service, at the expense
of the state, to all people of this or any other
state, regardless of their financial ability to pay
for such service, and
Whekeas, We believe that such policy encour-
ages the spirit of mendicancy, is unjust and in-
jurious to the medical profession, the medical
student body, good citizens generally, and un-
politic and unbusincss-like in the extreme, there-
Resolved, That we ask the Michigan State
Medical Society to request the Regents of Michi-
gan University to reconsider their action in adopt-
ing such policy.
Chas. Shickle, Sec'y-
The Schoolcraft County Medical Society
held its annual meeting at Manistique Octo-
ber 3, 1904. The following officers were
President — F. M. Sattler, of Manistique.
Vice-President — C. S. Layton, of Blaney.
Secretary-Treasurer — G. M. Livingston, of
Board of Directors — ^F. H. Cole, of Manis-
tique; Andrew Nelson, of Manistique, and
Frank Rainie, of Manistique.
F. M. Sattler read a paper on "Lobar Pneu-
It is not my purpose tonight in presenting
this paper to the members of the Schoolcraft
County Medical Society to startle you with
anything new or original, either in the path-
ology or treatment of one of the most preva-
lent and fatal diseases that the general prac-
titioner is called upon to treat. It has been
truthfully said "that pneumonia continues to
be, in our country, one of the grreatest medi-
cal problems of the day."
Lobar pneumonia is an acute, infectious dis-
ease caused by the pneumococcus. It is
known to many of us that prolonged exposure
to cold and sudden chilling of the body is fol-
lowed by an attack of pneumonia. It is prob-
able that this condition only prepares the tis-
sues for the reception of the pneumococcus
which is present in the throat and nasal pas-
sages of so many in health, only waiting for
a favorable opportunity to develop. There
are three periods in life in which this dreaded
disease attacks its victims — childhood, young
adult life, between the ages of twenty and
thirty years, and old age. Dr. Loomis said
"that nine-tenths of all those who die after
the age of sixty-five die of pneumonia."
Digitized by LjOOQIC
While the careful and painstaking physician
roust not place too much confidence and depend-
ence in subjective or rational symptoms, yet in
pneumonia there are some few cardinal symptoms
that can nearly always be depended upon in mak-
ing a diagnosis. Among these may be mentioned
a pronounced chill, high temperature, painful and
rapid respiration. Whenever any or all of these
are present, the physician's attention should be
attracted to the pleural cavity. In only a small
per cent, are any prodromal symptoms present,
such as nasal and pharyngeal catarrh, headache,
epistaxis, shooting pains through the limbs and
lumbar regions, etc. In a typical case, the patient
is suddenly seized during the night with a severe
chill, lasting usually nearly an hour; in a certain
per cent, this chill is not present, at least not
severe; only a prolonged attack of shivering and
pain in affected side; and in still another class,
not a large per cent., a hacking cough, an irreg-
ular and gradually increasing respiration are
about the only objective symptoms noticeable.
Generally after the initial chill, the face is flushed,
the temperature high, from one hundred and three
to one hundred and five degrees, Fahrenheit, skin