Missionary Conference on Behalf of the Mohammedan.

Islam and missions : being papers read at the Second Missionary Conference on Behalf of the Mohammedan World at Lucknow, January 23-28, 1911 online

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BP60 .M67 1911 c.l

Islam and missions : being pa


read at the second missionary
Cqnferehce qh Behalf qf the M
ohammedan world
AT LucKNOW, January 25-28, 19
11 /


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Islam and Christianity

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Constantinople and Its Problems

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2 vols., 8 vo... Cloth, $4.00 net





Being papers read at the Second ^^ - -^v nf PcjTir - -
Missionary Conference on behalf X"^^^ . , *^^^
of the Mohammedan World at

Lucknow, January 23-28, 1911 [* NOV 16 1911

Edited by


New York Chicago Toronto

Fleming H. Revell Company

London and Edinburgh

Copyright, 191 1, by

New York: 158 Fifth Avenue
Chicago: 123 North Wabash Ave.
Toronto: 25 Richmond Street, W.
London: 21 Paternoster Square
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street


I. An Introductory Survey

Rev. Samuel M. Zwemer, D.D., F. R. G. S.


II. Pan-Islamism in Turkey ....

Rev. W. S. NelsoTiy D.D., Syria

III. Pan-Islamism in Africa ....

Rev. Friedrich IFurz, Basel

IV. The Dervish Orders in Africa

Rev. Canon E. Sell, D.D., Madras

V. The Moslem Advance in Africa

Prof. Carl Meinhof, LL. D., Hamburg

VI. Pan-Islamism in Malaysia

Rev. G. Simon, Sumatra

VII. Political Changes in Turkey

Prof. J Stewart Crawford, Beirut

VIII. Political Changes in Arabia .

Rev. J. C. Toung, M. Z)., Aden, Arabia

IX. Political Changes in Persia .

Rev. L. F. Esselstyn, Persia

X. The Situation in India ....

Rev. W. A. Wilson, M. A., D.D., Indore

XI. The Old and the New Regime in Turkey

Rev. S. F. R. Trowbridge, Aintab, Turkey

XII. Conditions in Central Asia ...

Colonel G. Wingate, C. I. E., London

XIIL, Islam Under Pagan Rule

Rev. Charles R. Watson, D.D., Philadelphia

XIV. Islam Under Christian Rule . . . '195

Rev. W. H. T. Gairdner, B. A., Cairo







6 Contents

XV. Moslem Advanc in India .... 206

Rev. John Takii-, Bengal

XVI. Moslem Advancf p: Malaysia . . . 220

Rev. N. Adrianiy Celebes

XVII. Islam in China . , . . » . 233

Mr. F. H. Rhodes y China

XVIII. Islam in Russia 249

Miss Jen vie Von Meyer y 7 if As

XIX. Reform Movements in Ind.a .... 273

Rev. Canon H. U. Weitbrechty Ph. D.y
D.D.y Simla

XX. Reform Movements in the Near East . . 288

Rev. John Giffciy D.D.y Cairo


Mohammedan Religious Service at Delhi, India, Frontispiece

Facing page

Islam and Modernism. Opening of Parliament by the
Sultan at Constantinople. The Sultan — Caliph
Stands Alone in the Central Box

Mosque at Mombasa, British East Africa
The Mohammedan College at Aligarh, India
Mosque at Samarkand, Central Asia
Street in Askabad .....



Where Islam Meets Paganism in Africa-.

Street Singer, Assuan, Egypt, a Moslem From

the Nyam-nyam Tribe . . . .187

Warriors of the Bisharin Tribe, Pagans, in the

Eastern Sudan . . . . .187

Chinese Mohammedans :

A Mohammedan Teacher .... 234
Butchers From West China .... 234

The Late Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan, Founder of the

Mohammedan College at Aligarh . . . 273

" And it came to pass, when Joshua was by Jericho,
that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there
stood a man over against him with his sword drawn in
his hand ; and Joshua went unto him and said unto him.
Art thou for us or for our adversaries ? And he said
Nay, but as prince of the host of Jehovah am I now
come." — Joshua v. /j, i^.

" When the strong man fully armed guardeth his own
court his goods are in peace, but when a stronger than
he shall come upon him and overcome him he taketh
from him his whole armour wherein he trusted and divideth
his spoils." — Luke xi. 21, 22.

"Not by might, nor by power, but by ray Spirit, saith
Jehovah of hosts." — Zechariah iv. 6, R. F.



THE Moslem world is not a haphazard expression
invented by missionaries to represent a portion
of the great world problem of evangelization,
but is a literalism which sums up an actual situation.
Six years before the Cairo Conference the first number of
the Eeviie du Monde Musulman was published in Paris,
and for ten years this monthly magaziue has, from a
purely scientific standpoint, tried to survey the extent
of Islam, its coudition, and developments iu those lands
where it holds sway, and which as a world by itself scien-
tifically requires unity of treatment.

Nor is the Moslem world merely a geographical expres-
sion for the vast areas covered by Moslem conquest or
conversion. The term is of much deeper significance. As
Dr. C. H. Becker pointed out in his article in the first num-
ber of Der Islam, the word Islam itself stands for a unity
of religious conception, a unity of political theory and of
ideals of civilization, as well as of religion, which to-
gether form the problem of Islam. Therefore the essen-
tial and philosophical unity of the problem, in lands
which constitute the Moslem world, has been recognized
by all those who have made a study of the subject.

It is possible, for this reason, to give a general survey
of the Moslem world as a unit, and there are three reasons
why this survey should be given at the opening of the
Conference which succeeds that held at Cairo five years
ago. The Cairo Conference marked a great step in ad-
vance towards the evangelization of the Mohammedan


lo Islam and Missions

world because it gave the first fall iuformation through
its published reports of the actual state of Mohammedan
lands early in the twentieth century ; but for one reason
or another some lands were left out in that survey, and in
other cases the survey was inadequate or inaccurate.
The chief value of the Cairo Conference was to inaugu-
rate or stimulate more accurate observation and more
careful report among missionaries in Moslem lands. The
first reason, therefore, for a general survey of the Moslem
world at the opening of this Conference is to supplement
the Cairo Conference Eeports. The second reason is to
correct its returns and statistics by later investigations
and developments ; and the third reason, sufficient in it-
self, is that only by a general survey can the delegates to
this Conference see the whole problem at the outset and
recognize its unity, its opportunity, and the importunity
of the situation because of both.
We will take up the present survey in four divisions :

First, as regards Statistics ;

Second, Political conditions and developments ;

Third, Social and intellectual movements since
the Cairo Conference ; and,

Fourth, The changed attitude towards the Mos-
lem world and missions to Moslems in the
home Churches as a result of the Caii'o Con-

Such a survey can only be general, and preparatory to
the more careful consideration of the topics that follow
on our programme : Pau-Islamism, Missions and Govern-
ments, The Moslem Advance, Eeform Movements, The
Training of Missionaries, and The Methods to be used.

1. Statistical
We must still answer the question as to the total pop-
ulation of the Moslem world by conjecture instead of

An Introductory Survey 11

accurate statistics, at the begiuuing of the twentieth cen-
tury. The discrepancies in the statistical surveys of the
Moslem world given by various authorities are as dis-
concerting as they are surprising. The total population
of the Moslem world, for example, has been variously
estimated as follows :

Statesman's Year Book, 1890 . 203,600,000
Brockhaus, ' ' Convers- Lexicon, ' ^

1894 175,000,000

Hubert Jansen, ^' Verbreitung des

Tslams," 1897 . . . 259,680,672
S. M. Zwemer {Missionary Be-

view\l%^% .... 196,491,842
Allgemeine Missions Zeitschrifty

1902 . ... 175,290,000

H. Wichmann, in Justus Perthes'

*^ Atlas," 1903 . , 240,000,000

Encyclopedia of Missions, 1904 193,550,000

*^ The Mohammedan World of

To-day" (Cairo Conference,

1906) . . . o 232,966,170

Martin Hartmann (1910) . . 223,985,780

Yet the discrepancy between the highest figures given,
for example, by Hubert Jansen and Dr. Hartmann, and
the lowest figures of the Allgemeine Missions Zeitschrift are
partly explained by the varying estimates placed as to
the number of Moslems in the Sudan and in China. For
the rest of the world there seems to be at least partial
agreement. The most detailed statistics can be found in
Jansen, but they are not reliable in many respects and
not as conservative as the results obtained in the papers
prepared for the Cairo Conference. The latest statistical
survey of the Moslem world is that given by Dr. Hart-
mann in an appendix to his valuable book, *' Der Islam."
The chief discrepancies between the statistics he gives
and those of the Cairo Conference are the following :

1 2 Islam and Missions

Turkey in Europe is put down with a Moslem popula-
tiou of 3,295,000 instead of the 2,500,000 given at Cairo.
The Moslem population of the Philippine Islands is given
as 725, 30d instead of 300,000 ; that of Indo- China is only
1,U6,000, while the Cairo survey gives it as 1,430,383.
The Moslem population of British India, including Cey-
lon, Burma, Aden and Perim, is given as only 59,796,-
800 ; according to the last census it is 62,458,077 for India
proper. The Moslem population of Abyssinia was given
at the Cairo Conference as 350,000 : Dr. Hartmann
makes it 800,000. Morocco was given at Cairo as 5,600,-
000 : here it is put down as 7,840,000. The Moslem
population of German East Africa as 6,700,000 is evi-
dently a misprint.

We turn now to the totals of Dr. Hartmann' s survey.
That for all Europe, 12,991,000, including Eussia, does
not differ much from the total of the Cairo survey. In
the case of Asia his total is slightly below that of Cairo,
which included all the Eussian Moslems. In Africa his
total is nearly 6,000,000 less than that given at Cairo,
while his total for the whole world is 223,985,780 ; that
given at Cairo was 232,966,170. If we deduct from Dr.
Hartmann's statistics the excessive figures for Siam,
China and the Philippine Islands, together with the
printed error in regard to the Kameruns, the total esti-
mated population of the Moslem world according to this
latest survey would be a little less than 200,000,000.

In regard to two large areas of the Moslem world we
are able to speak with much greater accuracy now than
at the Cairo Conference. Miss Jennie Von Meyer and
Madam Sophie Bobrovnikoff have published careful sur-
veys of the extent and character of Islam in the Eussian
Empire, showing that the total Moslem population of
Eussia, including those of Khiva and Bokhara, is not
much less than 20,000,000. And Mr. Marshall Broom-

An Introductory Survey 13

hall, in his recent volume on Islam in China, after most
careful investigations, proves beyond a doubt that the
Moslem population in the Chinese Empire lies somewhere
between the minimum and maximum figures of 5,000,000
and 10,000,000. And although this number is less than
one-third of the supposed Moslem population of the
Chinese Empire given in the Statesman's Year Book, it
is too large to be ignored. We quote a paragraph from
Mr. Broomhall's chapter on the subject :

^*In spite of the somewhat uncertain light which at
present exists we may, however, safely say that the Mos-
lem population of China is certainly equal to the entire
population of Algeria, or Scotland or Ireland ; that it is
in all probability fully equal to that of Morocco, and
possibly not less than the total population of Egypt or
Persia. A few millions among the hundreds of millions
of China may not seem many, but if we think of a com-
munity equal to that of Egypt or Persia, i:)eculiarly ac-
cessible to the Gospel, and yet practically without any
missionaries specially set apart or qualified to deal with
them, and, apart from one or two small exceptious, with
no literature for use among them, we shall have a more
adequate conception of the real problem.

^' What should we think of Manchuria or Mongolia
without any missionaries, or of no interest centering
around the closed land of Tibet? Yet the accessible
Moslem population of China are certaiuly too or three
times that of Mongolia, are fully equal to that of Tibet,
and probably not less than that of Manchuria. It may,
therefore, be said that within China there is a special
people equal in number to the population of any of
China's dependencies, for whom practically nothing is
being done, and whose presence hitherto has been almost

The Moslem population of the Eussian Empire and the
Mohammedans of China are peculiarly accessible, and it
would seem that perhaps in both of these empires work

1^ Islam and Missions

among tliein iniglit be followed by larger results tlian in
other lands where Islam has been the predominant faith
for centuries.

Summing up the statistical survey, and without going
into such detail as is found in the survey published by
the Cairo Conference, the 200,000,000 in the Moslem
world are found chiefly in the following countries :

India leads the list with 62,458,077 Moslems, and it is
a startling fact that there are now under British rule more
Mohammedans than under any other government in
modern or in medieval days. Counting her possessions
and dependencies, at least 95,000,000 followers of the
prophet of Mecca are to-day enjoying the blessings of
British rule, and the total number of Moslems in the
British Empire is 5,000,000 in excess of the Christian
population of that empire. As Dr. Jones points out in
his book, '^ India, Its Life and Thought," this is a most
significant fact. The Moslem population of India is not
at a standstill, but is growing. According to the same
authority, during the last decade it increased by 9.1 per
cent, while the population of India as a whole increased
by only 1.9 per cent.

Next to India Java has the largest Moslem population
of any country in the world, with a total of 24,270,600
Moslems. The Eussian Empire follows closely with its
20,000,000 ; then the Turkish Empire in Asia and in
Europe with 15,528,800 Moslems. Following this we
have a group of Moslem lands, Egypt, Persia, Morocco,
Algeria, Arabia, Afghanistan, almost wholly Moslem,
with populations of from 4,000,000 to 9,000,000 each.
There is scarcely a country in Africa or Asia to-day where
a Moslem population is not found. In some cases this
population may be very small, but in nearly every case
it is a growing population. For example Tibet, the
great closed land, counts to-day some 20,000 Moslems,

An Introductory Survey 15

and in tlie case of South Africa, Moslems are now found
in all the region from the Cape to the Congo. A recent
correspondent of the London Morning Fost states : ' ' So
far throughout the centuries Mohammedan influence,
which has always spread along the great slave trade and
caravan routes, has been, as far as is known, invariably
turned aside by the vast swamps and forests of the Congo
Basin, which has thus acted as a kind of breakwater for
British South Africa. But just as the incursion of the
British into Uganda seems to have let loose all kinds of
dormant insect plagues and pests, so European civiliza-
tion and railways are breaking down the barrier between
the North and South and allowing a freer circulation of
ideas and religions throughout the whole circuit of the
continent." He goes on to say that there is a real danger
of Islam spreading among the Zulus and Basutos, who, if
swept into the Moslem fold, would become propagators
of Islam on account of their martial instincts and their
anti-foreign proclivities.

I have not been able to learn whether the 70,000
Mohammedans living along the north coast and south-
east coast of Madagascar, among a total population of
3,000,000, are at present increasing, but the fact that
Islam has a long history back of it in this island, and the
recent change of attitude on the part of the French
government may well call our attention to the need of
the Moslems there. The story of Islam in Madagascar
has recently been told in two volumes by a French writer
who seems to think that the faith is at present growing.

Since the Cairo Conference attention has been called to
the rapid increase of Islam in Abyssinia, especially in
the north. It is reported that whole tribes once Chris-
tian, and still bearing Christian names, have become
Moslem. Dr. Enno Littmann, in a recent article in
Ver Mam, shows the advance which Islam has made dur-

l6 Islam and Missions

iug the past fifty years among tribes which still bear
Chriatiau uames. Of the Mensa Tribe he says that two-
thirds are at present Mohammedan, and only one-third
nominally Christian. The Bogos, who were Christian in
18G0, have more than half of them become converted to
Islam, and the Betguk have all turned Moslem. It is in-
teresting, however, to note what this writer states :
**The Swedish Mission has successfully withstood the
advance of Islam, and has brought Moslems back in many
cases to their early Christianity, since in North Abyssinia
it is not regarded as a very great crime to leave Islam, as
it is in Arabia, Syria, or Persia."

The increase of Islam, and therefore its menace and
peril, is, however, not confined to the domains of King
Menelik. <' The threatening advance of Islam in Equato-
rial Africa,'^ to use the words of the Edinburgh Confer-
ence Eeport, *' presents to the Church of Christ the
decisive question whether the Dark Continent shall be-
come Mohammedan or Christian," and it is the unani-
mous opinion of missionary statesmen that the crucial
problem of missions in Africa is to stem the tide of
Islam. In a letter to the Edinburgh Conference,
Dr. Gustav Warneck of the University of Halle wrote :
** There is no difference of opinion that Christian missions
dare not halt on the borders of the Mohammedan world,
yet the crucial question at present is. Where are Chris-
tian missions most seriously threatened by Islam?
There can be no doubt about the answer: In Central
Africa ; perhaps also in the Dutch East Indies. If we do
not counteract the advance of Islam with all our energy
and along the whole line, we shall lose not only large
parts of now pagan Africa, but even territories already
Christianized. The main battle against Mohammedan-
ism in the immediate future will be fought on East
African soil."

An Introductory Survey 17

The statement made by Commission No. 1 of the
Edinburgh Conference in regard to this advance was
none too strong. It was based on the accumulated
evidence of a large correspondence with missionaries in
every part of the continent, and every word could be
expanded into a paragraph if authorities were quoted.
^ ^ The absorption of native races into Islam is proceeding
rapidly and continuously in practically all jyarts of the con-
tinent. The Commission has had convincing evidence of this
fact brought to its attention by missionaries along the Nile^ in
East Central Africa^ in Southeast Africa, on different parts
of the West Coast, in Northern Nigeria, in the Sudan, in
different parts of the Congo Basin, in pa^is lying south of
the Congo, and even in South Africa. Mohammedan
traders are finding their way into the remotest parts of
the continent, and it is well known that every Moham-
medan trader is more or less a Mohammedan missionary.
The result of this penetration of the field by these repre-
sentatives of Islam will be that the Christian missionary
enterprise will year by year become more difficult.
Paganism is doomed. Animistic faiths crumble quickly
before any higher and more dogmatic religion. Either
Christianity or Islam will prevail throughout Africa."

From every part of the mission field voices are raised
to call attention to this advance in the Dark Continent.
A few years ago Canon Sell of Madras wrote : ''There
are times when it is very difficult to balance the compet-
ing claims of various parts of the mission field. I see no
difficulty now. . . . Certain parts of Africa form
now, in military language, the objective, and are the
strategical positions of the great mission field. Parts of
Africa in which the Moslem advance is imminent have
for the present a preeminent claim. The absorption of
pagan races into Islam is so rapid and continuous that in
a few years' time some may be quite lost to us."

1 8 Islam and Missions

The Bishop of Eangoon wrote in reply to questions for
the Edinburgh Conference : ' ^ First in urgency are the races
at present animistic but threatened by Islam, as in Africa.'^

''The most urgent of all mission problems," says Mis-
sionary Landgrebe of Sumatra, ''are the countries
threatened by Islam in Africa.'^

Mr. McNairn of Peru wrote on the same question :
*' Foremost among all fields where the call is imperative,
and the very urgency of the need is God's call to His
Church to go in and possess the land, is Africa, in view
of the great Moslem advance. We must take the Light
to the Dark Continent before the apostles of Mohammed-
anism enshroud it in yet greater darkness.'^

And finally here is the testimony of Dr. Holland of
Baluchistan : " Africa should first receive concentrated
attention because if pagan Africa once embraces Islam,
then the work of converting them to Christianity will be
much more difficult and slow. Once Africa is under the
sway of Islam, the days of spiritual harvest such as have
taken place in Uganda will be forever over. Africa, in my
opinion, offers the most urgent call in the present time."

In the Dutch East Indies the progress of Islam has
been disputed, and in some cases arrested efiectually by
the splendid missionary effort of Dutch and German so-
cieties. Nevertheless the character of Islam in the East
Indies is changing. Formerly it was a mere veneer of
external observances covering the animistic faith. It is
now becoming more pervasive and dominant. Increased
travel to Mecca by better means of communication, pan-Is-
lamism through the dervish orders, and the power of Mos-
lem journalism from Cairo and Constantinople as centres,
are compacting and strengthening the Mohammedanism of
the Malays. In regard to Sumatra and Java the Edin-
burgh Conference Eeport states : " In Sumatra, Islam is
advancing into hitherto pagan territories. Had Chris-

An Introductory Survey 19

tian missionary work been prosecuted vigorously a gen-
eration ago, Islam would not have gained such a strong
foothold there. In Java, Mohammedanism shows new
life in the establishment of a Moslem university, and in
the production of an edition of the Koran in Javanese.
The number of teachers of the Koran is multiplying
greatly. The inhabitants are coming more and more
under the influence of Mohammedanism, and are thus
being made more inaccessible to the work of the Dutch
missionaries. Unless the Church promptly does more to
meet the desire for education and enlightenment, there
is danger that the population will more and more accept
Mohammedanism. ' ^

Nor is the Mohammedan population of South America
and the West Indies any longer a negligible factor in our
survey. In British Guiana there are, according to Dr.
Hartmann, 22, 200 Moslems ; in Dutch Guiana, 5, 800 j in
Central America and the West Indies, 20,600. These,
together with the 8,000 Moslems in the United States,
make a total of 56,600 Mohammedans in the 'New World.
Such a small fraction of the population might well be
omitted in our survey were it not that undoubted testi-
mony comes in regard to the activity of Islam, especially
in British Guiana and the West Indies. Eev. J. B. Hill
writes in a recent number of the Toronto Missionary Wit-

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Online LibraryMissionary Conference on Behalf of the MohammedanIslam and missions : being papers read at the Second Missionary Conference on Behalf of the Mohammedan World at Lucknow, January 23-28, 1911 → online text (page 1 of 23)