Mo.) Washington University (Saint Louis.

A catalogue of the officers and students of Washington University, for the academic year .. online

. (page 17 of 70)
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is equipped in the most complete manner.

Chronograph — Bond Spring Governor.

Break-circuit Clocks — Mean-time clocks by Hohwii,
mean-time clock by Howard and sidereal clock by

Chronometer (Break-circuit) — By Dent.

Altazimuth — Circle 2 feet in diameter — mounted as
meridian circle.

A temperature box for delicate tests in thermomotric
and horological work has been presented by the Waltham
Watch Company of Waltham, Mass.

Several hack clocks and a large amount of electrical
apparatus are used in the time service.

The time service of the Observatory has become an im-
poi-tant feature of its work both in the city and through-
out the Mississippi Valley.

The signals sent consist of automatic clock beats trans-
mitted over the wires and give the time referred to the
ninetieth meridian from Greenwich, known as '* central "
time. They are sent daily over many thousands of miles
of wire and reach most of the railroad towns in Missouri,
Kansas, Iowa, Arkansas, Illinois and the more important

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cities in Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana,
Mississippi and Alabama.

The longitude of the Observatory has been determined
from Washington by four independent exchanges involv-
ing change of observers to eliminate personal equation.
Its astronomical position is now among the best deter-
mined in the country. This fact, together with its posi-
tion at the center of a large telegraph system, makes it a
most convenient reference point for the determination of
western and southern longitudes.


Sin^veying Instruments, — The equipment includes three
transits for ordinary field work, one altazimuth instrument
for triangulation and astronomical work, reading to ten
seconds of arc on both horizontal and vertical circles, twa
engineer's levels, two needle compasses, one sextant, one
plane table, one 300-foot steel tape standardized, with
all the necessary accompanying apparatus for field and
office work, such as stadia boards, stadia slide-rules,
chains, tapes, signals, protractors, parallel rules, etc.

There is also a complete mining transit, adapted to the
use of the stadia, which may be used for topographical
work if required.

Library^ Models and Draivhigs, — There is a well
selected working library accessible to the Senior and
Fifth Year students which they consult freely on assigned
topics. There is also a large assortment of drawings of
the most interesting engineering and architectural struc-
tures at home and abroad. Many photographs and blue

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prints have been collected illustrating all the more com-
mon styles of bridges with their details.

The Testing LaborcUory. — The facilities in the testing
laboratory are very complete. A floor space of about
2,400 square feet is occupied with the following appli-
ances: two Riehle universal testing machines with a
capacity of 100,000 lbs. and 20,000 lbs. respectively,
a beam testing machine, with a capacity of 100,000 lbs.
on a length of 24 feet ; two beam testing machines with a
capacity of 6,000 lbs. on a length of Ave feet with micro-
meter deflection measuring apparatus ; a column testing
machine with capacity of 1,000,000 pounds on a length
of 36 feet or less ; cement testing machines of the Fair-
banks, the Riehle, and the Olsen types ; a complete stand-
ard set of German briquet making and testing machines
and scales, with pounding apparatus; an extensometer
apparatus reading to ten thousandths of an inch; one
eight-horse power steam engine ; one five-horse powe^
dynamo ; one planer and one lathe for iron work ; one wood
planer, one baud saw, and one cutting off circular saw for
shapingtimber specimens ; two drying ovens and three sets
of scales ; a dry kiln with steam coil and exhaust fan for
drying lumber ; complete sets of bench and carpenter's
tools, standard gauges, scales, etc.


Drawings and photographs illustrating the best prac-
tice in all branches of mechanical engineering, including
a number of drawings of the machinery of ships for the
U. S. Navy, and examples of the best practice in the

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construcliuti of locomotives, stationary engiDes, and
machine tools are provided. Students have access to a
small but modern and carefully selected technical library,
and to a number of the best technical journals.

The laboratory contains a steam engine, a Westing-
house air compressor, a Bogart gas and gasoline engine,
a Cai'penter steam calorimeter, a pair of Crosby indi-
cators, a planimeter, a tachometer, a Thompson coal
calorimeter, a pyrometer, a complete set of apparatus
for testing lubricants, a standard gas meter, a standard
test gauge, a Prony brake, thermometers, revolution
counters, and such tools as are necessary for the proper
use of the above.

Students have access to the shops of the St. Liouis
Manual Training School, in which they receive a training
in the use and care of metal and wood-working tools and


The Electrical Engineering Laboratory contains a high
speed Buckeye Engine of twenty horse power; two
Gramme dynamos, the one being a series and the other
a shunt- wound machine ; smaller motors of various types ;
voltmeters, amperemeters and galvanometers of various
types and capacities ; a Brackett cradle -ergometer upon
which one dynamo is mounted and by which the power
applied to it can be measured ; a Wheatstone bridge ; a
Prony brake; a Siemens electro-dynamometer; a mer-
cury column fifty feet in height, which is arranged for
testing steam gauges and indicator springs at any tem-

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perature, and a compression air-pump capable of work-
ing to twenty atmospheres.

The rooms are wired conveniently for practical meas-
urements upon the electric plant, and for the measure-
ment of candle power of lamps. The alternating current
from the public mains of the Missouri Electric Light and
Power Company is carried to the laboratory switch-
board, and is thus available for experimental work.


A Lecture Endowment Fund, amounting to twenty-
seven thousand dollars ($27,000), was created in 1875, by
one of the early friends of the University, Mr. William
Henrt Smith. It was given without any restrictions,
except that the fund should be increased, if practicable,
by accruing interest, to $30,000, which has been accom-
plished, and that no part of the principal should be

The beginning of a fund for the encouragement of the
study of American History has been made by a gift of $15,-
000, by Mrs. Mary HEMENWAr, of Boston, Massachusetts.

Upon this foundation a University Professorship of
American History has been established, and the chair
was filled in 1884 by the appointment of Dr. John Fiske,
of Cambridge, Mas^s.


Necessary books of reference are provided, and also a
good selection of periodical literature. No attempt is
made at present to gather a general library. During the

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year 1880 a gift of about three thoosaDd volumes was
received from the family of the late Joseph Coolidge, of
Boston. The collection, known as the CooUdge Library^
is especially rich in excellent editions of Italian and
French authors, and is a very material addition to the
usefulness of the library.

Through the liberality of a number of citizens of St.
Louis, an arrangement has been made by which the privi-
lege of using the Mercantile Library has been extended,
under prescribed conditions, to such members of the
University as may be desigqated by the Chancellor.

Property valued at $66,000 has been given to the
University by the late Mr. Stephen Ridgley, of St. Louis,
upon the condition that the income shall accumulate until,
in the judgment of the Board of Directors, the amount
shall be sufficient to erect and maintain a fire-proof
Library Building. The gift has been thankfully accepted
upon that condition.


A gymnasium for the use of the Undergraduate De-
partment is supplied with all necessary apparatus. While
encouraging and even requiring systematic and whole-
some exercise, the University does not wish to foster
undue interest in the feats of athletes, and discourages
exercises which involve personal risk to the performers.
All class exercises are conducted by a professional


One perpetual scholarship, founded b}' the payment of
$5,000 and entitling the holder to all the advantages of

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•all the departments of the University forever, has been
placed at the disposal of the Mercantile Library Associa-
tion with the recommendation ^' that when applicants
for scholarship are of equal merit, the preference shall
be given to one for some mechanical pursuit."

One scholarship is also held by the St. Louis High
School which entitles the ranking student of the gradu-
ating class of each year to free admission to the Under-
graduate Department, in accordance with a resolution of
the Board of Directors when the College was organized.

One scholarship is also held by the School Board of
Kansas City for the benefit of a graduate of the Kansas
City High School. This scholarship entitles the holder
(who is to be selected by the School Board) to free
tuition in the College or the School of Engineering.
Reports of the standing of the student will be made to
said Board annually by the Dean.

A trust fund of $20,000 has been accepted by the Uni-
versity from the Western Sanitary Commission, for the
establishment of twenty free scholarships in the Under-
graduate Department, to be filled by children or descend-
ants of Union soldiers who served in the late civil war.
In default of such applicants, candidates will be appointed
by the Chancellor of the University with the advice of
the Faculty. Preference is given to those in straitened
circumstances, and no student is accepted or continued
who is not of good moral character, who does not sustaiji
satisfactory examinations, or who fails to comply toith the
rules of the Institution,

From the same source a Sustentation Fund of $10,000
has been accepted, the income of which is expended in

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aid of students in straitened circumstances, giving pref- ,
crence always to the descendants of Union soldiers, as


The examinations in the Undergraduates Department are
frequent and rigid, and, wlaenever it is possible, in writing.
No promotions to higher classes are made except upon
conclusive evidence that the antecedent subjects have
been well mastered. Reports of the standing of individ-
ual students will be made by the Deans of the Faculties
to parents or guardians, if such are requested.

I. In the Collegk.

The degree of Bachelor of Arta is conferred upon the
satisfactory completion of the reciuisite number of courses.

II. In the School of Engineering.

1. On the satisfactory completion of four years' work
the degree of Bachelor of Science is conferred.

2. On the completion of a fifth year, degrees corre-
sponding to the courses of study are conferred, as

follows: —

I. Civil Engineer.

II. Mechanical Engineer.

III. Electrical Engineer.

The Bachelor degrees are in three grades indicated by
the words cum laude^ magna cum lande and snmma cum
laude^ respectively.

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Every member of the graduating class who has attained
ninety per ceiU of the maximum mark on the general
scale for the four years, may be recommended for a
degree summa cum latule.

Every member of the graduating class (not recom-
mended for the degree aumma cum laude) who has at-
tained eighty-five per cent of the maximum mark on the
general scale for the four years, may be recommended for
a degree magna cum laude.

Every member of the graduating class (not recom-
mended for the degree siimma or magna cum laude) who
has attained eighty i^er ceyit on the general scale for the
four years, may be recommended for a degree cum laude.

No student will be recommended for a degree who has
not passed all his examinations successfully and handed in
such projects or theses as may be required.

The diploma fee is three dollars, payable in advance.


The degree of Manter of Arts is open to all who have
received from this University the degree of Bachelor of

The degree of Master of Science is open to all who have
received from this University the degree of Bachelor of
Science, of Civil Engineer, of Mechanical Engineer, of
Electrical Engineer, or of Engineer of Mines.

The degree of Doctor of Philofiophy is open to all who
have received the degree of Master from this University.

The degrees of Master of Arts, Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosophy are open to graduates of other

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institations who shall have satisfied the Faculty of the
Undergraduate Department that the courses of study
for which they have received degrees are equivalent to
those for which such degrees are given in Washington

Requirements fok the Master's Degree.

Candidates for the degree of Master must offer at least
one year's residence at the University, and satisfactory
evidence, to be determined b}' examination, of a proper
amount of non- professional study and attainment in
advance of undergraduate work, and must present an
acceptable thesis based upon such work.

Requirements for the Doctor's Degree.

The degree of Doctor will not be recommended in less
than one year after the granting of the Master's degree.

Candidates for the degree of Doctor must offer at least
one year of residence at the University, and satisfactory
evidence, to be determined by examination, of a proper
amount of non-professional study and attainment in
advance of the work required for the Master's degree;
and must present an acceptable thesis, the result of
original investigation.

Candidates for the degree of Master^ or that of Doctor^
must present as early as the first of October of each year
a written statement of subjects, courses of study, etc.,
for the approval of the Faculty.

All theses must be presented to the Faculty as early as
the fifteenth of May.

Tiie diploma fee is five dollars, payal)le in advance.

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Tuition in the Undergraduate Department is $150 a
year, payable semi-annually, in advance if required, and
always before the middle of the term.

A matriculation fee of five dollars is charged to all who
enter this Department, pa^'able in advance.


Students living at a distance from the University have
no difficulty in securing rooms and board at reasonable
rates. The yearly expenses may range between the fol-
lowing estimates, according to taste and habits of
economy : —

Tuition $150 00 — $160 00

Board, lodging, and washing, 9 moutlis . . 200 00 to 800 00

Books and instruments 10 00 *^ 20 00

Incidentals 15 00 " 30 00

Total for the year $375 00 to $600 00

Books and instruments may be obtained at cost from
the Co-operative Association^ organized and managed by
students of this Department.

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(a department of WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.)

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In June, 1885, Mr. Henry Shaw, of St. Louis, author-
ized the Chancellor of the University to place before the
Board of Directors a plan of action for the establishment
of a School of Botany, as follows: —

That he proposed, with the concurrence of tlie Direct-
ors, to endow a School of Botany as a department of
Washington University, by donation of improved real es-
tate, yielding over $6,000 revenue, and to place it in such
relation with the largely endowed Missouri Botanical
Garden and Arboretum, as would practically secure their
best uses, for scientific study and investigation, to the
professor and students of the said School of Botany, in
all time to come.

At the meeting of the Board of Directors held June 8,
1885, the following resolutions were, therefore, offered,
in grateful acceptance of Mr. Shaw's proposal : —

1. That a School of Botany be established as a special depart-
ment of Washington University, to be known as the Henry Shaw
School of Botany.

2. That a professorship of Botany be therein established, to
be known as the Engelmann Professorship.

8. That Professor Wm. Trelease, of the University of Wis-
consin, be invited to fill the same ; his duties to begin at the
commencement of the next academic year, September 17.

4. That said School of Botany be placed under the special
care and direction of an advisory Committee, to consist of five
members, of whom two shall be members of this Board, and
two shall be selected outside of the Board,— the Chancellor of
the University being a member ex officio.

This report was accepted and the resolutions unani-
mously adopted. The record of such action was then
submitted to Mr. Shaw and approved by him.

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On this foundation, the School of Botany was opened
in the autumn of 1885. In his will, admitted to probate
in 1889, Mr. Shaw further provided for the maintenance
of the income of the School up to a certain limit, and took
steps calculated to secure the proi)osed close co-operation
between the School of Botany and the Botanical Garden.

The laboratory of the School of Botany is temporarily
located at 1724 Washington avenue, and a small library,
containing the usual laboratory manuals and class books,
which is kept at the laboratory for reference, is added to
as new books, needed for class work, appear. In addition
to alcoholic and imbedded material, a small herbarium is
being formed, which is intended to contain representatives
of the local flora. Advanced students, some of whose
work is done at the Garden, also have the privilege
of consulting, under necessary restrictions, the excellent
herbarium and library maintained there, and now com-
prising about 250,000 sheets of specimens, something over
23,000 books and pamphlets, and a large collection of
wood veneers and sections ; and no effort is spared to
make the Garden equipment as complete as possible in
any line of work taken up by competent investigators.

The instrumental eciuipment of the laboratory includes
one microscope by Zeiss, with the necessary objectives,
ranging from A. A. to 1-18 in. oil immersion, and accesso-
ries for spectroscopic studies and work with polarized
light; twenty microscopes by Leitz, with the objectives
needed for the best work (including five 1-12 in. oil im-
mersion lenses, one 1-16 in. oil immersion, and one 1-20
in. oil immersion), polariscope, camera lucidas of several
patterns, etc. ; sixteen dissecting microscopes by Bausch
and Lomb ; two dissecting microscopes by Leitz, one of

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them provided with camera hieida; a projecting apparatus
for deliueating objects under a low power of enlargement ;
a simple outfit comprising all that is necessary for ordinary
bacteriological investigation ; and the apparatus needed
for histological work and elementary physiological experi-
mentation. Students are provided by the laboratory with
all necessary instruments and supplies (excepting razors
or other cutting instruments) without charge except for
breakage or other injury and for slides and cover glasses
used for permanent preparations ; but when alcohol or
other expensive substances are used in quantity, as in
work on bacteria, a special charge may be made for
material used.

The working year of the School of Botany is of the same
extent as that of the Undergraduate Department of the
University, and is similarly divided, except for a few special
teachers' classes corresponding to the usual school terms.

The work offered students is of two classes: under-
graduate studies, including at present fifteen stated
electives, — the equivalent of nearly three full years'
work, — and post-graduate or special coui-ses for ad-
vanced students planned in each case to meet the needs
of the student. For the convenience of students, nearly
all elementar}' instruction is given at the laboratory, near
the other University buildings, where the principal instru-
mental equipment is kept, but the study of living plants,
and advanced herbarium and library work, are provided
for at the Garden. All courses capable of being so
taught are given in the laboratory, and supplemented by
lectures and quizzes by the teacher. The few lecture
courses offered' are illustrated wherever possible by

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specimens exhibiting the snbject under consideration,
and by wall charts and the free use of the crayon.

A list of the undergraduate electives is given above
(p. 31), in the general information concerning the Under-
graduate Department. Under the advice of the Dean of
the College, and the professor of botany, students who
wish to make a specialty of botany through their course
may arrange to take all of these electives and to follow
them by a piece of investigation on which a thesis is to
be based, and regularly enrolled special students who are
not candidates for a degree may give the greater part of
their time to botanical study, subject to such regulation
as is prescribed by the Faculty.

Special classes, for the benefit of teachers and other
persons not in attendance Ut tlie University, are formed
from time to time, and such persons may be admitted to
any of the regular electives on the payment of a tuition
fee conformed to the general rates of the Univereity,
namely, $15.00 for each full course (of three exercises
per week during a semester), and $7.50 for each half
course (of less than three exercises per week for the same
length of time). Graduates of the University and of the
Mary Institute are not subject to any charge for tuition.

Graduate students who are eligible under the rules of
the Faculty to candidacy for higher degrees, if suitably
prepared may elect researcli work in botany as their
principal study for such degrees.

Applications for the formation of special classes, and
all correspondence concerning the School of Botany,
should be addresse<l to

William Trelease,

Shaw School of Botany^

St.' LoufSy Mo.

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(art department op WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.)
19th Street and Lucas Place.

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First Term, Day School, begins Monday, September 21, 1896.
First Term, Day School, ends Saturday, December 12, 1896.
First Term, Night School, begins Monday, November 2d,

First Term, Night School, ends Saturday, January 30th, 1897.
Second Term, Day School, begins Monday, December 14th,

Second Term, Day School, ends Saturday, March 13th, 1897.
Second Term, Night School, begins Monday, February 1st,

Second Term, Night School, ends Saturday, April 24th, 1897.
Third Term, Day School, begins Monday, March 16th, 1897.
Third Term, Day School, ends Saturday, June 5th, 1897.
Exhibition of Students' Work, June 8-10, 1897.

First Term, Day School, begins Monday, September 20, 1897.
First Term, Day School, ends Saturday, December 11th, 1897.
First Term, Night School, begins Monday, November 1st,

First Term, Night School, ends Saturday, January 29th, 1898.
Second Term, Day School, begins Monday, December 13th,

Second Term, Day School, ends Saturday, March 12th, 1898.
Second Term, Night School, begins Monday, January 31 st,

Second Term, Night School, ends Saturday, April 23d, 1898.
Third Term, Day School, begins Monday, March 14th, 1898.

Online LibraryMo.) Washington University (Saint LouisA catalogue of the officers and students of Washington University, for the academic year .. → online text (page 17 of 70)