Mo.) Washington University (Saint Louis.

A catalogue of the officers and students of Washington University, for the academic year .. online

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Civil Engineering, 14.
Mechanical Engineering, 4^



Senior Year,
first term.



Mechanics, 4.

Mechanical Engineering, 0.

Astronomy, 1.



Civil Engineering, 7.
Civil Engineering, 11.
Economics, 1.



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8TUDIB8 IN THE SCHOOL OF KNGINEBBINO. 56

SECOND TERM.

Mathematics, 6. Civil Engineering, 12.

Mechanics, 5. Civil Engineering, 13.

Astronomy, 2. Civil Engineering, 15.

Civil Engineering, 8. Thesis.



II. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

AND

III. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

Freshman and Sophomore Years.
(See p. 53.)

Junior Year.
first term. •

Mathematics, 5. Mechanical Engineering, 1.

Mechanics, 2. Mechanical Engineering, 2.

Physics, 5. Mechanical Engineering, 5.

Civil Engineering, 3. Mechanical Engineering, 7.

N. B. — Students who have not had instraction in Shop-work
before admission are required to omit Mechanical Engineer-
ing 7, and for a part of Mechanical Engineering 5 to substitate
Shop-work.

SECOND TERM.

Mechanics, 3. Mechanical Engineering, 3.

Physics, 6. Mechanical Engineering, 4.

CSvil Engineering, 9. Mechanical Engineering, 6.

Civil Engineering, 10. Mechanical Engineering, 7.

N. B. — Students who have not had instruction in Shop-work
before admission are required to substitute Shop-work for
Civil Engineering 10.



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56 WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.

II. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.
Senior Year,
first term.
Mechanics, 4. Mechanical Engineering, 10.

Mechanical Engineering, 9. Mechanical Engineering, 11.

Physics, 7. Mechanical Engineering, 15.

Physics, 8. Mechanical Engineering, 18.

SECOND TERM.

Mathematics, 6. Mechanical Engineering, 13.

Mechanics, 5. Mechanical Engineering, 14.

Civil Engineering, 13. Mechanical Engineering, 17.

Mechanical Engineering, 12. Mechanical Engineering, 19.

Thesis.

N. B. — S|$^ifli|it8 who have not had instruction in Shop-work
before admission are required to take Civil Engineering, 10, in
addition to the above.



III. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.
Senior Year,
first term.
Mechanics, 4. Physics, 9.

Mechanical Engineering, 9. Mechanical Engineering, 10.

Physics, 7. Mechanical Engineering, 11.

Physics, 8. Mechanical Engineering, 16.

SECOND TERM.

Mathematics, 6. Physics, 14.

Mechanics, 5. Mechanical Engineering, 12.

Physics, 10. Mechanical Engineering, 13.
Physics, 12. Thesis.

N. B.— Students who have not had instmction in Shop- work
before admission are required to take Civil Engineering, 10, in
.addition to the above.



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STUDIES IN THE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING.



67



IV. CHEMISTRY.

Freshman and Sophomore Years.

(See p. 53.)

Junior Year,
first term.



Mathematics, 5.
Mechanics, 2.
Physics, 6.



Chemistry, 5, 6.
Chemistry, . 12.
Botany, 1.



Mechanics, 3.
Physics, 6,
Chemistry, 7, 8.



SECOND TERM.



Chemistry, 13.
Chemistry, 14.
Mechanical Engineering, 4.



Senior Year,
first term.



Mechanical Engineering, 10.
Physics, 7.
Chemistry, 9, 10.
Chemistry, 15.



Chemistry, 16.
Chemistry, 18 or 20.
Botany, 16.



Chemistry, 11.
Chemistry, 17.



SECOND TERM.



Chemistry, 19 or 21.
Botany, 17.
Thesis.



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68 WASHINGTON 0NIVBB8ITY.

V. SCIENCE AND LITERATURE.

Frbshman and Sophomobb Ybabs.

(See p. 58.)

Junior Yeah.

The work of the Junior year consists of nine coarses, all
elective. The choice of studies must be approved by the Dean
of the School of Engineeiing at the beginning of each term.

Senior Year.

The work of the Senior year consists of nine courses, all
elective. The choice of studies must be approved by the Dean
of the School of Engineering at the beginning of each term.

APPLIANCES IN CIVIL ENGINEERING.

Surveying Instruments, — The equipment includes
three transits for ordinary field work, one altazimuth
instrument for triangulation and astronomical work,
reading to ten seconds of arc on both horizontal and
vertical c-irdes, two engineers' levels, two needle com-
passes, one sextant, one plane table, one 300 -foot steel
tape standardized, with all the necessary accompanying
apparatus for field and office work, such as stadia
boards, stadia slide rules, chains, tapes, signals, pro-
tractors, parallel rules, etc.

There is also a complete mining transit, adapted to
the use of the stadia, which may be used for topo-
graphical work if required.

Library^ Models and Drawings. — There is a well
selected working library accessible to students which



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CMDBR6RADCATB DEPARTMENT. 59

they consult freely on assigned topics. There is also
a large assortment of drawings of the most interesting
engineering and architectural structures at home and
abroad. Many photographs and blue prints have been
collected illustrating all the more common styles of
bridges with their details.

Hie Testing Laboratory, — The facilities in the testing
laboratory are very complete. A floor space of about
2,400 square feet is occupied with the following appli-
ances: two Biehle universal testing machines with a
capacity of 100,000 lbs. and 20,000 lbs. respectively,
a beam testing machine, with a capacity of 100,000 lbs.
on a length of 24 feet; two beam testing machines with
a capacity of 6,000 lbs. on a length of five feet with
micrometer deflection measuring apparatus; a column
testing machine with capacity of 1,000,000 lbs. on a
length of 36 feet or less; cement testing machines of
the Fairbanks, theRiehle, and the Olsen types; a com-
plete standard set of German briquet making and test-
ing machines and scales, with pounding apparatus ; an
extensometer apparatus reading to ten thousandths of
an inch; one eight- horse power steam engine; one
.five -horse power dynamo; one planer and one lathe for
iron work ; one wood planer, one band saw, and one
cutting off circular saw for shaping timber specimens;
two drying ovens and three sets of scales; a dry
kiln with steam coil and exhaust fan for drying lum-
ber; complete sets of bench and carpenter's tools,
standard gauges, scales, etc.



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60 WASHINGTON UNIVKR8ITY.

APPLIANCES IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

Drawings and photographs illastrating the best prac-
tice in all branches of mechanical engineering, includ-
ing a number of drawings of the machinery of ships
for the U.S. Navy, and examples of the best practice
in the construction of locomotives, stationary engines,
and machine tools are provided. Students have access
to a small but modern and carefully selected technical
library, and to a number of the best technical journals.

The laboratory contains a steam engine, a Westing-
house air compressor, a Bogart gas and gasoline en-
gine, a Carpenter steam calorimeter, a pair of Crosby
indicators, a planimeter, a tachometer, a Thompson
coal calorimeter, a pryometer, a complete set of appa-
ratus for testing lubricants, a standard gas meter, a
standard test gauge, a Prony brake, thermometers,
revolution counters, and such tools as are necessary.

Students have access to the shops of the St. Louis
Manual Training School, in which they receive a train-
ing in the use and care of metal and wood working
tools and machinery.

APPLIANCES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.

The Electrical Engineering Laboratory contains a
high speed Buckeye Engine of twenty horse power;
two Gramme dynamos, the one being a series and the
other a shunt- wound machine; smaller motors of vari-
ous types; voltmeters, amperemeters and galvano-
meters of various types and capacities; a Brackett



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UNDSRQRADUATB DEPARTMENT . 61

cradle -ergometer upon which one dynamo is mounted
and by which the power applied to it can be measured;
a Wheastone bvidge; a Prony brake; a Siemens elec-
tro-dynamometer; a mercury column fifty feet in
height, which is arranged for testing steam gauges and
indicator springs at any temperature, and a compres-
sion air-pump capable of working to twenty atmos-
pheres.

The rooms are wired conveniently for practical
measurements upon the electric plant, and for the
measurement of candle power of lamps. The alternat-
ing current from the public mains of the Missouri
Electric Light and Power Company is carried to the
laboratory switchboard, and is thus available for
experimental work.

LECTURE FOUNDATIONS.

A Lecture Endowment Fund, amounting to twenty -
seven thousand dollars ($27,000), was created in 1875,
by one of the early friends of the University, Mr.
William Henry Smith. It was given without any
restrictions, except that the fund should be increased,
if practicable, by accruing interest, to $30,000, which
has been accomplished, and that no part of the princi-
pal should be expended.

The beginning of a fund for the encouragement of
the study of American History has been made by a
gift of $15,000, by Mrs. Mary Hemenway, of Boston,
Massachusetts.



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WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.



Upon this foundation a University Professorship of
American History has been established, and the chair
was filled in 1884 by the appointment of Dr. John
Fiske, of Cambridge, Mass.



LIBRARY AND READING ROOM.

Necessary books of reference are provided, and also
a good selection of periodical literature. No attempt
is made at present to gather a general library. Dur-
ing the year 1880 a gift of about three thousand vol-
umes was received from the family of the late Joseph
Coolidge, of Boston. The collection, known as the
CooUdge Library, is especially rich in excellent editions
of Italian and French authors, and is a very material
addition to the usefulness of the library.

Through the liberality of a number of citizens of
St. Louis, an arrangement has been made by which
the privilege of using the Mercantile Library has been
extended, under prescribed conditions, to such mem-
bers of the University as may be designated by the
Chancellor.

Property valued at $66,000 has been given to the
University by the late Mr. Stephen Ridgley, of St.
Louis, upon the condition that the income shall accu-
mulate until, in the judgment of the Board of Direct-
ors, the amount shall be sufficient to erect and main-
tain a fire -proof Library Building. The gift has been
thankfully accepted upon that condition.



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UNDBBOBADUATK DKPABTMKNT. 63

GYMNASIUM.

A gymnasium for the use of the Undergraduate
Department is supplied with all necessary apparatus.
While encouraging and even requiring systematic and
wholesome exercise, the University does not wish to
foster undue interest in the feats of athletes, and dis-
courages exercises which involve personal risk to the
performers. All class exercises are conducted by a
professional instructor.

SCHOLARSHIPS.

One perpetual scholarship, founded by the payment
of $5,000 and entitling the holder to all the advantages
of all the departments of the University forever, has
been placed at the disposal of the Mercantile Library
Association with the recommendation ''that when ap-
plicants for seholai-ship are of equal merit, the prefer-
ence shall be given to one for some mechanical pur-
suit."

One scholarship is also held by the St. Louis High
School which entitles the ranking student of the
graduating class of each year to free admission to the
Undergraduate Department, in accordance with a
resoulution of the Board of Directors when the College
was organized.

One Si'holarship is also held by the School Board of
Kansas City for the benefit of a graduate of the Kansas
City H igh School. This scholarship entitles the holder
(who is to be selected by the School Board) to free



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64 WASHINGTON UNIVKR81TY.

tuition in the College or the School of Engineering.
Reports of the standing of the student will be made
to said Board annually by the Dean.

A trust fund of $30,000 has been accepted by the
University from the Western Sanitary Commission,
for the establishment of twenty free scholarships
in the Undergraduate Department, to be filled by
children or descendants of Union soldiers who served
in the late civil war. In default of such applicants,
candidates will be appointed by the Chancellor of the
University with the advice of the Faculty. Preference
is given to those in straitened circumstances, and no
student is accepted or continued who is not of good moral
character, ivho does not sustain satisfa^ctory examina-
tions, or who fails to comply with the rules of the
University,

Prom the same source a Sustentation Pund of
$10,000 has been accepted, the income of which is ex-
pended in aid of students in straitened circumstances,
giving preference always to the descendents of Union
soldiers, as above.

EXAMINATIONS.

The examinations in the Undergraduate Depart-
ment are frequent and rigid. No promotions to higher
classes are made except upon conclusive evidence that
the Mntecedent subjects have been well mastered. Re-
ports of the standing of individual students will be made
by the Deans of the Paculties to parents or guardians, if
such are requested.



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UNDBRGRADUATB DBPARTMBNT. 65

DEGREES IN THE UNDERGRADUATE
DEPARTMENT.

I. In the College.

The degree of Bachelor of Arts is conferred upon
the satisfactory comphetion of the requisite number of
courses.

II. In the School of Engineering.

1. On the satisfactory completion of four years'
work the iegree of Bachelor of Science is conferred.

2. The professional degrees Civil Engineer, Mechan-
ical Engineer and Electrical Engineer, are conferred
only after three or more years of actual and successful
engineering practice, one year of which must have
been spent in responsible charge of engineering work,
and the presentation of an acceptable thesis ; both the
experience and the thesis to be such as to show an
ability to design and execute engineering work.

The Bachelor degrees are in three grades indicated
by the words cum laude, magna cum laude and summa
cum laude, respectively.

Every member of the graduating class who has at-
tained ninety per cent of the maximum mark on the
general scale for the four years, may be recommended
for a degree summa cum laude .

Every member of the graduating class (not recom-
mended for the degree summa cum laude) who has
attained eighty -five per cent of the maximum mark on



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66 WASHINGTON UNIVEBSITY.

the general scale for the four years, may be recom-
mended for a degree magna cum laude.

Every member of the graduating class (not recom-.
mended for a degree summu or magna cum laude) who
has attained eighty per cent on the general scale for
the four years, may be recommended for a degree cum
laude.

No student will be recommended for a degree who has
not passed all his examinations successfully and handed
in such projects or theses as may be required.

The diploma fee is three dollars, payable in advance.

ADVANCED DEGREES.

The degree of Master of Arts is open to all who have
received from this University the degree of Bachelor
of Arts.

The degree of Master of Science is open to all who
have received from this University the degree of Bache-
lor of Science, of Civil Engineer, of Mechanical En-
gineer, of Electrical Engineer, or of Engineer of Mines.

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy is open to all who
have received the degree of Master from this University.

The degrees of Master of Arts, Master of Science and
Doctor of Philosophy are open to graduates of other
institutions who shall have satisfied the Faculty of the
Undergraduate Department that the courses of study
for which they have received degrees are equivalent to
those for which such degrees are given in Washington
University.



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UNDERGRADUATE DEPARTMBKT. 67

Requirements for the Master's Degree.

Candidates for the degree of \ Master must offer at
least one year's residence at the University, and satis-
factory evidence, to be determined by examination, of
a proper amount of non- professional study and attain-
ment in advance of undergraduate work, and must
present an acceptable thesis based upon such work.

Requirements for the Doctor's Degree.

The degree of Doctor will not be recommended in
less than one year after the granting of the Master's
degree.

Candidates for the degree of Doctor must offer at
least one year of residence at the University, and
satisfactory evidence, to be determined by examination,
of a proper amount of non professional study and
attainment in advance of the work required for the
Master's degree; and must present an acceptable
thesis, the result of original investigation.

Candidates for the degree of Masisr, or that of
Doctor, must present as early as the first of October of
each year a written statement of subjects, courses of
study, etc., for the approval of the Faculty.

All these must be presented to the Faculty as early
as the fifteenth of May.

The diploma fee is five dollars, payable in advance.



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68 WASHINGTON UNIVBB8ITY.

TUITION.

Tuition in the Undergraduate Department is $150 a
year, payable semi-annually, in advance if required,
and always before the middle of the term.

A matriculation fee of five dollars is charged to all
who enter this Department, payable in advance.

BOARD AND LODGING.

Students living at a distance from the University
have no difficulty in securing rooms and board at
reasonable rates. The yearly expenses may range
between the following estimates, according to taste
and habits of economy: —

Tuition |150 00 — $160 00

Board, lodging, and washing, 9 months 200 00 to 300 00

Books and inetraments 10 00 ** 20 00

Incidentals 16 00 " 30 00

Total for the year S376 00 to $500 00

Books and instruments may be obtained at cost
from the Co-operative Association, organized and man-
aged by the students of this Department.



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HENRY SHAW SCHOOL OF BOTANY.



(a DBPARTMENT of WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY.)



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HENRY SHAW SCHOOL OP BOTANY.

ESTABLISHED JUNE 8, 1885.



ADVISORY COMMITTEE.

THE CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY, ex ojffUiiK

WILLIAM G. FARLOW, M. D.

GEO. J. ENGELMANN, M. D.

GEORGE E. LEIGHTON.

WILLIAM L. HU8E.

INSTRUCTORS.
WILLIAM TRELEA8E,

DIRBCTOB AND
ENGELMANN PROFESSOR OF BOTANY.

WILLIAM H. RUSH,

GENERAL INSTRUCTOR.

HERMANN VON 8CHRENK,

INSTRUCTOR IN CRYPTOGAMIC BOTANY.

ELLEN C. CLARK,

ASSISTANT AT THE MARY INSTITUTE.



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SCHOOL OP BOTANY. 71

GENERAL INFORMATION.

In June, 1885, Mr. Henry Shaw, of St. Louis, author-
ized the Chancellor of the University to place before
the Board of Directors a plan of action for the estab-
lishment of a School of Botany, as follows: —

That he proposed, with the concurrence of the
Directors, to endow a School op Botany as a depart-
ment of Washington University, by donation of im-
proved real estate, yielding over $5,000 revenue, and
to place it in such relation with the largely endowed
Missouri Botanical Garden and Arboretum, as would
practicaUy secure their best uses, for scientific study
and investigation, to the professor and students of the
said School of Botany, in all time to come.

At the meeting of the Board of Directors held June
8, 1885, the following resolutions were, therefore,
offered, in grateful acceptance of Mr. Shaw's pro-
posal: —

1. That a School ot Botany be established as a special de-
partment of Washington University, to be known as the
Henry Shaw School of Botany.

2. That a professorship of Botany be therein established, to
be known as the Engelmann Professorship.

3. That Professor Wm. Trelease, of the University of Wis-
consin, be invited to fill the same ; his duties to begin at the
commencement of the next academic year, September 17.

4. That said School of Botany be placed ander the special
care and direction of an advisory Committee, to consist of five
members, of whom two ehall be members of this Board, and
two shall be selected outside of the Board, — the Chancellor of
*he University being a member ex officio.



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72 WASHINGTON UNIVEB8ITY.

This report was accepted and the resolutions unani-
mously adopted. The record of such action was then
submitted to Mr. Shaw and approved by him.

On this foundation, the School of Botany was opened
in the autumn of 1885. In his will, admitted to pro-
bate in 1889, Mr. Shaw further provided for the main-
tenance of the income of the School up to a certain
limit, and took steps calculated to secure the proposed
close co-operation between the School of Botany and
the Botanical Oarden.

The laboratory of the School of Botany is tem-
porarily located at 1724 Washington avenue, and a
small library, containing the usual laboratory manuals
and class books, which is kept at the laboratory for
reference, is added to as new books, needed for class
work, appear. In addition to alcoholic and imbedded
material, a small herbarium is being formed, which is
intended to contain representatives of the local flora.
Advanced students, some of whose work is done at the
Garden, also have the privilege of consulting, under
necessary restrictions, the excellent herbarium and
library maintained there, and now comprising about
300,000 sheets of specimens, something over 30,000
books and pamphlets, and a large collection of wood
veneers and sections; and no effort is spared to make
the Garden equipittent as complete as possible in any
line of work taken up by competent investigators.

The instrumental equipment of the laboratory-
includes one microscope by Zeiss, with the necessary
objectives, ranging from A. A. to 1-18 in. oil immer-



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SCHOOL OF BOTANY. 73

sion, and accessories for spectroscopic studies and
work with polarized light; twenty microscopes by
Leitz, with the objectives needed for the best work
(including five 1-12 in. oil immersion lenses, one 1-16
in. oil immersion, and one 1-20 in. oil immersion),
polariscope, camera lucidas of several patterns, etc.;
sixteen dissecting microscopes by Bausch and Lomb;
two dissecting microscopes by Leitz, one of them pro-
vided with camera lucida; a projecting apparatus for
delineating objects under a low power of enlargement;
a simple outfit comprising all that is necessary for
ordinary bacteriological investigation; and the appar-
atus needed for histological work and elementary
physiological experimentation. Students are provided
by the laboratory with all necessary instrument* and
supplies (excepting razors or other cutting instru-
ments) without charge except for breakage or other
injur\' and for slides and cover glasses used for per-
manent preparations; but when alcohol or other ex-
pensive substances are used in quantity, as in work on
bacteria, a special charge may be made for material
used.

The working year of the School of Botany is of the
same extent as that of the Undergraduate Department
of the University, and is similarly divided, except for
a few special teachers' classes corresponding to the
usual school terms.

The work offered students is of two classes: under-
graduate studies, including at present fifteen stated
electives, — ^the equivalent of nearly three full years'



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74 WASHINGTON UNIVSBSITY.

work, — and post-graduate or special courses for ad-
vanced students, planned in each case to meet the
needs of the student. For the convenience of students,
nearly all elementary instruction is given at the lab-
oratory, near the other University buildings, where
the principal instrumental equipment is kept, but the
study of living plants, and advanced herbarium and
library work, are provided for at the Garden. All
courses capable of being so taught are given in the
laboratory, and supplemented by lectures and quizzes
by the teacher. The few lecture courses offered are
iUustrated wherever possible by specimens exhibiting
the subject under consideration, and by wall charts
and the stereopticon.

A list of the undergraduate electives is given above
(p. 31), in the general information concerning the
Undergraduate Department. Under the advice of the
Dean of the College, and the professor of botany,
students who wish to make a specialty of botany
through their course may arrange to take all of these
electives and to follow them by a piece of investigation
on which a thesis is to be based; and regularly enrolled
special students who are not candidates for a degree
may give the greater part of their time to botanical
study, subject to such regulation as is prescribed by
the Faculty.

Special classes for the benefit of teachers and other
persons not in attendance at the University, are formed



Online LibraryMo.) Washington University (Saint LouisA catalogue of the officers and students of Washington University, for the academic year .. → online text (page 28 of 70)