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We will do our best to provide this information in accessible format, on
request, in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.



Montana Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses

2002



State of Montana
Judy Martz, Governor



Department of Labor and Industry
Wendy Keating, Commissioner



For more information contact:

Research and Analysis Bureau

PO Box 1728

Helena MT 59624-1728

(406) 444-2430 (800) 541-3904

Prepared by: Peggy Coggeshall, Research Specialist III



Special thanks to all employers who responded to our survey.
Without their participation, this report would not have been possible



INTRODUCTION

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) became an official part of the
nation's labor laws in 1971. With its passage Congress declared its intent "...to assure as far
as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working
conditions and to preserve our human resource."

In order to measure and evaluate the effectiveness of governmental efforts in reducing work
related injuries and illnesses, a standardized system to collect, compile, and analyze the
health and safety statistics was established and implemented. This standard system enables
data users to identify those industries that need improvement, plan future monitoring and
education programs, and allow employers to compare their incidence rates with other firms in
the same industry.

Under this system, employers with more than 10 workers are required to keep records of all
work-related deaths; any diagnosed occupational illness; and any occupational injury which
involves loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion, transfer to another job, or
requires medical treatment beyond first aid. These employers maintain a log and summary of
occupational injuries and illnesses (OSHA No. 300) and supplementary record (OSHA No.
301) of each incident or occurrence within the calendar year. These records are retained at
the work site for five years and must be available for inspection by representatives of the U.S.
Department of Labor, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, or the Montana
Department of Labor and Industry.

Employers with 10 or fewer employees and those employers who conduct business in one of
the low -hazard industries specified by OSHA in the Federal Register notice of Dec. 28, 1982,
are generally exempt from these record-keeping requirements. Instead, a sample of these
employers are selected to participate in the survey. Participation requires each establishment
to maintain records only for that year. The data derived from these records are used only for
statistical purposes. Our 2002 sample surveyed 3,565 establishments.

The Montana Department of Labor and Industry, Research and Analysis Bureau has
cooperated with the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics in conducting this
annual survey which has provided these essential work injury and illness statistics over the
past 20 years.

The material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without
permission, as long as this agency and the Bureau of Labor Statistics are cited as the source.



Summary for 2002

In 2002, employees of Montana businesses experienced a total of 16,800 nonfatal
occupational injuries and illnesses. This converts into an overall incidence rate of 6.8
accidents and illnesses per 100 full-time workers. Table 1 shows the number of injuries and
illnesses and the corresponding incidence rates in private industry in Montana by major
industry division.

Table 1. Frequency and incidence rates of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses

in private industry in Montana, 2002

Number Incidence

of Rate (Number

Injuries & perlOOFTE

Illnesses Employees)



Private Industry


16,800


6.8


Goods Producing Industries






- Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing


300


11.3


-Mining


300


6.8


-Construction


1,800


10.3


-Manufacturing


2,100


9.9


Service Producing Industries






-Transportation and Public Utilities


1,200


6.5


-Wholesale Trade


1,200


7.8


-Retail Trade


4,400


7.2


-Finance, Insurance and Real Estate


500


2.8


-Services


4,900


5.6



Note: Because of rounding, components may not add to totals.

OSHS industries stated above are Standard Industrial Classification
System (SIC) based and therefore not directly comparable to ES 202
employment data which is NAICS based.



Li general, industries involved in producing goods (agriculture, mining, construction and
manufacturing) have incidence rates of occupational injuries and illnesses which are higher
than those engaged in providing services (transportation; wholesale and retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services).

Montana's 2002 overall occupational injury and illness incidence rate was 6.8, a decrease from
last year's rate of 8.3. Montana has consistently had higher rates than the national average. The
national overall incidence rate for 2002 was 5.3 injuries and illnesses per 100 workers.



Comparison of incidence rates of nonfatal injuries & illnesses,
Montana vs. United States, 2002




Comparison of overall incidence rates of nonfatal occupational
injuries & illnesses by major industry, Montana 2002



-Finance, Insurance and Real
Estate



-Retail Trade



-Wholesale Trade



-Transportation and Public
Utilities



-Manufacturing



-Construction



-Mining



-Agriculture, Forestry, and
Fishing




2 4 6



10 12



Due to the revision in OSHA's record keeping regulations effective in 2002,
no year-to-year comparisons to prior year's data are possible.

3



Lost Workday Cases

Total lost workday cases involve days away from work, days of restricted activity, or both.
This indicator is a measure of severity of the injury or illness. Using this as a measure of
severity, the injuries and illnesses reported in Montana are similar to those reported elsewhere.
In Montana, an estimated 5,613 of the 16,800 cases (33.4 percent) involved at least one day
away from work.

Table 2 shows the number of injuries and illnesses rates in private industry in Montana by
major industry division for the year 2002, and the corresponding incidence

The most common type of injury in Montana, was a sprain or strain. More than half of the
injuries reported (52.3 percent) involved sprains or strains. The next most common type of
injuries were fractures. Fractures occurred in 7.5 percent of the reported injuries. The third
most common type of injuries were cuts and lacerations. These were involved in 6.9 percent of
these cases.

Frequency and incidence rates of nonfatal occupational

injuries and illnesses with at least one day away from work

in private industry in Montana, 2002.



Private Industry

Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Mining

Construction

Manufacturing

Transportation and Public Utilities

Wholesale Trade

Retail Trade

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate

Services



Note: Because of rounding, components may not add to totals.



Number


Incidence


of lost days


Rate(Number


Injuries &


perlOOFTE


Illnesses


Employees)


5,613


2.3


100


2.9


200


4.0


700


3.9


700


3.1


600


3.0


300


2.1


1,600


2.5


100


0.6


1,400


1.6



c



Occupations



The most hazardous occupations were nursing aides, orderlies and attendants, truck drivers,
nonconstruction laborers, cashiers and carpenters.

Table 3 shows that aides, orderlies and attendants accounted for 7.7 percent of the injuries
involving days away from work. Truck drivers were responsible for 6.7 percent,
nonconstruction laborers for 6.3 percent, while cashiers accounted for 3.8 percent of these
injuries. Carpenters accounted for 3.5 percent, construction laborers 3.4 percent, cooks
accounted for another 3.2 percent; kitchen workers and food preparation 2.7 percent.

Of these occupation groups, the one having the highest median number of days away from
work was truck drivers. The median number of days away from work for an occupational
injury for truck drivers was 29 days.



Occupations with the highest frequency of injuries and illnesses
involving at least one day away from work, Montana, 2002.







Proportions of


Median




Number of


the Total


Number of




Injuries &


Injuries & Illnesses


Days Away




Illnesses


Reported (%)


from Work


Total


5,613


100.0%


5


Nursing Aids & Orderlies


433


7.7%


5


Truck Drivers


377


6.7%


29


Nonconstruction Laborers


351


6.3%


10


Cashiers


211


3.8%


10


Carpenters


196


3.5%


5


Construction Laborers


192


3.4%


4


Cooks


179


3.2%


1


Kitchen Workers, Food Preparation


151


2.7%


4



Gender




Worker Charac teristics



Length of Service



1,220 1,016

2,080



■ less than 3 months

■ 3 to 11 months
D 1 to 5 years

D more than 5 years



Age



1 Qnn












1 fi7r
































i4nn


1,346




1 onn








1 045


1 nnn








ftnn


/46










f^nn












517




222














4nn






200












67










1




J


1 1



1 6 to 1 9 20 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 64



65 and
older



Race



5,000 n


4,614 ,


A nnn








'^ snn






'^ nnn






p snn






p nnn






1 snn






1 nnn




740












snn


110 1 A 135






-




1 , ' , , ' ' , 1


^



White Non-
Hispanic



Hispanic



Asian Pacific American Indian Multi /

Islander unknown/ other



Case Chara cteristics




Nature of Injury, Illness



3,500 ^2,935
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500




<o^'



#



<b<5^



<'S'



o



r^



<b^



v^ ^ n^ K^



J^






<<^



\'



^



•^



#
^o^ ^^^



#



f

266 390 423 ^^ ^ 33 ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ I

jzzi EH □ = 1=1 . — . '






-y



cf






^^ ^-s^



^^






{5>



^^



.#



0.0.



Sprains, Strains by industry



000 -I


























930










Rnn


















Rnn


















.^04 Q-^n


287-






'^nn












onn














160




1 nn


18


00












41


-


1 1




1


1


1


1 1



-.0






^^






\<'



V



\<-'



^^^



.<-



^^






..^'



<^^






.<^



^



„<^^"



Transpot . * Transportation Industry
estate Industry



FIRE** Finance, Insurance, real



7



Illnesses



About 93.5 percent of the estimated 16,00 cases of injuries and illnesses reported in Montana in
2002 involved injuries. There were 15,900 injuries compared to 900 illnesses. Little variation
was observed across the different industry sectors.



The number of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses
and percent injuries in Montana, 2002.



Number








Of


Number


Number




Injuries &


of


of


Percent


Illnesses


Injuries


Illnesses


Injuries



Private Industry

Goods Producing Industries

- Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

-Mining

-Construction

-Manufacturing

Service Producing Industries

-Transportation and Public Utilities

-Wholesale Trade

-Retail Trade

-Finance, Insurance and Real Estate

-Services



16,800



15,900



300


300


300


300


1,800


1,800


2,100


1,900


1,200


1,200


1,200


1,200


4,400


4,300


500


400


4,900


4,600



900



200



100
100
300



94.6%



1 00%

1 00%

1 00%

95.2%



1 00%

1 00%

97.7%

80.0%

93.9%



** FEWER THAN 50 CASES

Note: Because of rounding, components may not add to totals.



Mai or Industry Division Details



Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

Farms and ranches with fewer than 11 employees are exempt from reporting injuries and
illnesses occurring in their work areas according to OSHA regulations. Since these smaller
operations constitute a majority of this industry in Montana, the estimated incidence rates for
this industrial sector are severely underreported.

Because of the small number of workers employed in the larger agricultural operations, it has
been difficult to consistently estimate the number of occupational injuries and illnesses which
occurred. In the year 2000, there were approximately 300 cases with an incidence rate of 9.3
cases per 100 full-time workers. In 2001, there were about 400 cases for an incidence rate of
14.1, and in 2002 with 300 cases, the incidence rate was 11.3 cases per 100 full- time workers.
This rate shows agriculture to be one of the three most hazardous industries for workers in
Montana.

Over the years, Montana has consistently reported higher incidence rates of occupational
injuries and illnesses in the agriculture sector than the national average. For example, in 2002,
the national incidence rate was 6.4 cases per 100 full- time workers.

Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
agriculture, forestry & fishing industries, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



20.0

18.0

16.0

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0





1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana



■United States



^The Incidence Rate was not reported for 1994 and 1998, because data did not meet publication criteria.



Mining

In recent years, mining has become a relatively small sector in Montana. In 2002, it was
estimated that there were 300 cases of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among these
workers.

The incidence rate of injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers in the mining sector in
Montana increased in 2002, to 6.8, up from 5.4 in 2001.

In recent years, the trend of Montana's incidence rates of injuries and illnesses in the mining
sector has been the opposite of the national trend. In the year 2002, Montana' s rate increased
while the national rate stayed the same. Nationally, the injury and illness incidence rate for
mining stayed the same at 4.0 injuries and illnesses per 100 full- time worker's in 2002.
Oil and gas field services had the highest incidence rate within the mining sector. The
incidence rate for oil and gas field services was 10.9 cases per 100 workers. In contrast, the
incidence rate for metal mining was 7.8, nonmetallic minerals mining, 3.9, and coal mining was
4.1.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
mining industry, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana



■United States



10



Construction

Construction is one of the three industry sectors in Montana with the highest incidence rate of
injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers. In 2002, it was 10.3, a decrease from 14.0 in
2001, 12.0 in 2000 and a rate of 10.8 in 1999.

Compared to national statistics, these rates are high. Montana consistently has a higher number
of injuries and illnesses than national statistics. The national incidence rate for the construction
sector in 2002, for example, was 7.1 illnesses and injuries per 100 full-time workers.

In Montana, general building contractors had 11.1 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time
workers. Special trade contractors followed with an incidence rate of 10.6.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
construction industry, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002.



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana —■— United States



11



Manufacturing

Over the past 10 years, the manufacturing sector in both the nation and Montana has reported
significantly lower incidence rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. In the year 2002,
Montana's rate was unchanged at 9.9 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers, while the
national rate decreased to 7.2 Although manufacturing is one of the three major industry
sectors with the highest incidence rates, recent improvement has been commendable. In 2002,
the Montana incidence rate was 9.9, the same as in 2001; a considerable decrease from the
2000 rate of 13.8 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.

Like the other high-incidence sectors, most of these cases were classified as occupational
injuries instead of illnesses.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
manufacturing industry, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



20.0



15.0



10.0



5.0



0.0





1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana



■United States



Within manufacturing, establishments in miscellaneous manufacturing industries had the
highest rate with 14.9 per 100 workers. Manufacture of stone, clay, and glass products had the
highest rates of occupational injuries and illnesses, 12.9 per 100 workers. This was followed
by the lumber and wood products with 10.7. The median number of workdays lost from an
injury in the manufacturing sector was five days, with stone, clay and glass products having a
median of 14 lost workdays.



12



Transportation, Communications and Utilities

The injury and illness incidence rates for the transportation and pubUc utilities sector for 2002
in Montana was 6.5 cases per 100 workers. This is lower than the rate observed in 2001, which
was 7.7. Nationally, the injury and illness rate for this sector in 2002, was 6.1 injuries and
illnesses per 100 full-time workers, which was lower than the Montana rate.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,

transportation, communications & utility industries,

Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002.



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0




^^^



1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana



■United States



The Incidence Rate was not reported for 1996, because data did not meet publication criteria.



13



Wholesale Trade

Wholesale trade had an occupational injury and illness incidence rate of 7.8 cases per 100
workers in 2002, up from the rate of 7.3 cases per 100 workers in 2001. Nationally, the injury
and illness incidence rate for this industry is lower than Montana's rate. In 2001, it was 5.3 and
in 2002, it was 5.2 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
wholesale trade, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002.



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 1 00 full-time workers



12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0




\ \ 1 1 1 \ = \ \ \ \ \ T 1

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana —■— United States



14



Retail Trade

Retail trade reported an estimated 1,500 of the 5,613 lost workday cases of occupational
injuries and illnesses in 2002. The incidence rate was 7.2 cases per 100 workers, lower than
200rs rate of 8.5. Nationally, the incidence rate for occupational injuries and illnesses in the
retail trade sector has been lower than the state's rate in recent years. Li 2002, for example, the
national rate was 5.3 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
retail trade, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002.



No. of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

-♦—Montana —■— United States



15



Finance, Insurance and Real Estate

Finance, insurance and real estate (FIRE) continues to be the safest industry in both Montana
and in the United States in 2002. Montana's incidence rate of 2.8 injuries and illnesses per 100
full-time workers is higher than the national injury and illness incidence rate of 1.7 cases per
100 workers.



Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
finance, insurance, and real estate industries, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002.



No. of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana —■— United States



The Incidence Rate was not reported for 1995, because data did not meet publication criteria.



16



Services

The incidence rate for the Services industry in 2002 was 5.6 cases per 100 workers, an increase
from 200 1's 7.9. Nationally, the injury and illness incidence rate for the services sector has
been consistently lower than the state's. In 2002, the national rate was reported to be 4.6
injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.

Workers in health services had the highest incidence rate (11.5 injuries and illnesses per 100
full-time workers) in 2001 within the services sector. Hotels and other lodging places came in
second with a rate of 8.7 injuries and illnesses per 100 full-time workers.

Comparison of nonfatal occupational injuries & illnesses,
services industries, Montana vs. U.S., 1990-2002



Number of Injuries and Illnesses per 100 full-time workers



12.0




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002



-♦—Montana



■United States



17



Appendix A



Tables showing Montana 2002 Incidence Rates

by selected features

All nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses:

TABLE 3 — by Major Industry Division & Employment Size
TABLE 5 — by Major Industry Division & category of Llness
TABLE 6— by Type of Case & DetaUed Industry

Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses involving days away from work:

TABLE 14 — by Selected Nature of the Injury or Illness & Major Industry Division
TABLE 15— by Selected Parts of the Body Affected & Major Industry Division
TABLE 16 — by Selected Source of the Injury or Illness & Major Industry Division
TABLE 17 — by Selected Events or Exposures & Major Industry Division




Table 3. Incidence rates^ of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses by industry division and employment size, 2002

IVIontana





All

establishments




Estab


ishment employment size (workers)


Industry division


1 to 10


1 1 to 49


50 to 249


250 to 999


1,000 or more


Private industry^


6.8


3.9


7.5


8.3


6.8


7.7


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing^


11.3


7.5


14.0


9.7


-


-


Mining'


6.8


7.0


8.7


-


-


8.3


Construction


10.3


8.6


11.9


-


-


-


Manufacturing


9.9


4.7


12.1


11.3


6.5


__


Durable goods


10.8


6.8


14.1


10.9


7.5


-


Nondurable goods


8.4


-


7.3


11.8


3.0


-


Transportation and public utilities'


6.5


6.3


7.8


-


-


2.2


Wholesale and retail trade


7.3


3.1


8.5


8.6


-





Wholesale trade


7.8


3.9


10.2


9.5


-


-


Retail trade


7.2


2.7


8.1


8.5


-


-


Finance, insurance, and real estate


2.8


0.7


2.9


4.1


4.5


-


Services


5.6


3.0


4.5


7.4


8.6


7.7



Incidence rates represent the number of injuries per 1 00 fuli-time
workers and were caicuiated as: (N/EH) x 200,000 where



N

EH



200,000



= number of injuries and iiinesses

: totai hours worked by ali employees during

the calendar year
: base for 100 equivalent full-time workers

(working 40 hours per week, 50 weeks per year).



Excludes farms with fewer than 1 1 employees.

Data for Mining (Division B in the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1 987 edition) include establishments not governed by the Mine
Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) rules and reporting, such as
those in Oil and Gas Extraction. Data for mining operators in coal, metal,
and nonmetal mining are provided to BLS by the Mine Safety and Health
Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, independent mining contractors



are excluded from the coal, metal, and nonmetal mining industries. These
data do not reflect the changes OSHA made to its recordkeeping requirements
effective January 1 , 2002; therefore estimates for these industries are not
comparable with estimates for other industries.

Data for employers in railroad transportation are provided to BLS by the
Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. These
data do not reflect the changes OSHA made to its recordkeeping requirements


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