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landscape Architecture^







HE practice of Landscape Architecture as a pro-
fession and art is one of the most recent, yet one
of the most important to be recognized in America.
For many centuries this art has been developed
by the highly cultured nations of the eastern world,
but in America the former generations have been
so occupied with the building up of the country
that little thought, until the last few decades, has been given to
this outdoor art. The Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks,
and Romans, and eventually all the civilized nations of Europe
gave great attention to the development of Landscape Archi-
tecture and produced results which today speak for themselves.
In our travels we admire the stately Italian Villas surrounded with
their forests of cypresses and with their arrangement of terraces,
gardens, fountains, statues, pergolas, etc. We are also impressed
with the suburban English cottages covered with vines and with
their broad lawns, walks bordered with old fashioned perennial
flowers and shade trees. It is with the recognition of these beau-
ties and with the knowledge that the rapid development of this
country was crowding the grounds to a minimum that gradually
more and more attention has been given to beautifying our cities
and towns and making the surroundings of public buildings and
private homes as attractive as skill can make them. Already
there are a great many accomplishments of which this country
can be justly proud, and there is no reason why America should
not lead in this profession, as nature has lavishly bestowed great
ranges of mountains and hills covered with virgin forest, great
rivers, lakes, and water-falls, all of which form the most beauti-
ful natural landscape effects and which only wait to be developed
and made available for public and private use.


As an Architect studies the design of his
building and considers its relation both to
an artistic impression and to a practical use-
ful purpose, and as the painter studies his
color scheme for the most realistic effect, so the Landscape Archi-
tect studies the development of grounds, whether public or pri-
vate, in their relation to the scheme which will give both the most
attractive and practical results. As it is necessary for the Archi-

A Corner of City Flower Garden.


tect to plan for the building, so it is necessary for the Landscape
Architect to plan for the grounds at large, and the work of the
two should go hand in hand to produce a harmonious whole.

Board of ParJ( Commissioners, Duluth, Minn. One of Ten Bridges on Snivel^ Road.


Up to the present time few of the American
cities have been built with a comprehensive

P ^ an ^ r ^ uture ex P ans i n > but with the rapid
growth of these cities has come the recognition
of the need for looking forward to the future so that the location
of Public Buildings, Parks, Boulevards, etc., will be such as to
meet the ultimate demands of the city and give a properly focal-
ized scheme. It is with careful study of these needs that the
Landscape Architect considers the problems of civic development
and plans for the ultimate growth and needs of a community.



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/or Par^ on Rock]) Hillside.

In each city or town there is more and more real-
ization of the need of some larger or smaller Pub-
lie Parks where the public can enjoy the beauties
of nature and gain the recreation which is only to
be found among the trees and flowers. A city can have no greater
asset than the possession of beautiful Parks, Squares, Children's
Playgrounds, Boulevards, etc. Beside the pleasure afforded to
the inhabitants themselves, the fame of such civic improvements
soon spreads and eventually repays the involved expense many

Arrangement for Small C/Vp

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times over. Fortunate is the community which has foreseen this
need and secured such spots as possess natural beauties and ac-
quired them before they are destroyed by the expansion of the
city. Example of such foresight is well illustrated by the city
of Duluth, which has secured the most beautiful ravines with
their streams and some of the rocky hillsides which otherwise are
of little value and which are being improved as shown by some
of the accompanying plans. Such natural beauties offer great
opportunities to the Landscape Architect to transform them into
natural parks. Although every city cannot be situated so as to
possess these natural advantages, there is the greater reason that
some areas should be made into charming parks by means of
careful planning and development.

The need of a Landscape Architect to plan
^ or ^ e Development f various kinds of Insti-
tut i ons i s seen today in many instances by the
sad result which has been the outcome of build-
ing from time to time without any given plan for the future growth.
It has been the aim of Landscape Architects to study as far as
possible the future requirements and ultimate growth of these In-
stitutions and so to plan for their arrangement that as the time
goes on and as the Institutions grow, year by year the plan for
this arrangement can be followed and thus by looking towards
the ultimate scheme can procure a result which will always be
harmonious in itself. An illustration of this comprehensive plan-
ning for the future growth is shown in the accompanying illus-
tration for the development of the Industrial School for Girls at
Sauk Centre, Minnesota.


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One of the largest fields for the Landscape
Architect is that of the development of Private
Grounds. Whether these be large or small,
city or country, it is his aim to produce such
surroundings to the home as will give the greatest enjoyment to the
owner and furnish him with a bit of nature and its beauty. Wheth-
er it be a walk or drive, tiny bird pool or fountain, rustic arbor
or pergola, garden gate or massive entrance, flower gardens or
formal terraces, or the informal grouping of trees and shrubs that
enters into the scheme, it receives his most careful study as to their

City Lol Treatment.

arrangement and with reference to the general color effect, both
by foliage and bloom, which will make the ground attractive
throughout the entire season. In the treatment of private grounds
it is not necessary to discuss the matter of formality or informality,
as each has its own merits and every prcblem must be solved to
its own individual advantage. Very often in connection with
the house a formal garden will act as an outdoor living room,
and will be a great addition to the house itself. An example of
such formal arrangement of flower garden in relation to the house
on a small private place in the city is shown by the accompanying

City Grounds Treatment.

Oftentimes two adjoining places can be treated in a co-oper-
ative manner and produce a simple open treatment as a whole
and thus avoid the division of property into separate schemes
with the usual hedge or fence between. In such a case the entire
scheme is much simplified as one drive, one garage, and one court
serve both properties and each has more room for lawn and gar-
den. The possibilities of such co-operative treatment of two
places is shown herewith.


With the growing demand for country life and
the country now made so accessible by modern
transportation facilities comes the natural
growth of the country estate and the possibil-
ities for Landscape Architecture in its largest sphere. Naturally,
with the larger grounds, available space can be given over to
various games and recreations, and the arrangement of flower
gardens, vegetable gardens, orchards, paddocks, and numerous
other features in keeping with the country estate can be made in
such a manner as to give each its proper place of advantage and
produce a scheme from which the owner can derive a maximum

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Arrangement for Suburban Estate.


Arrangement for Country Estate.

amount of pleasure and comfort. The possibilities of such de-
velopment is shown in the accompanying plan of a lake estate,
which arrangement should be contrasted with the existing condi-
tions before this scheme was followed, as shown by the survey

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Survey of Country Estate.

More and more thought is constantly be-
ing given to the surroundings of the pub-
lic schools. Not only with an object of
improving the appearance of the grounds
is this attention given, but with the ar-
rangement of children's gardens there is
seen direct bearing and influence upon the

continued appreciation of nature by the pupils. The work of the
children in these small experimental gardens becomes both a source
of pleasure and training for later work. Also in this connection
comes the planning of children's playgrounds to give them the
space due them for enjoyment and in this way make the school
and its surroundings a place of attraction and interest to the





Arrangement for Playgrounds.

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Another gradual change which is being
J\6Qt &Stdte noticed in the development of our cities

^giteloonient anc ^ towns * s ^ e pi annm s f r rea ' es-

' tate development, especially in the res-

idential and suburban districts, so as to make the most of any
natural advantages and so arrange the roads and lots in such a
way as to conform to the natural topography. In a rolling coun-
try the great advantage of this over the usual rectangular blocks
can easily be seen and is invariably of great interest to the pros-
pective purchaser in view of the fact that such a scheme gives
each lot an individuality of its own and each lot holder has his
own peculiar advantages and chance for individual arrangement.
A small example of such a scheme is shown in the plan of an at-
tractive piece of property fronting on a lake.

The same principles as apply to the parks and
larger estates make the matter of planning for the
Development f Club Grounds of great interest,
so arranging the location of buildings and spaces
for sports as not only to give a feasible practical arrangement, but
also to lend that touch of nature which the clubman leaving his
business for recreation craves, so that he will feel he is enjoying
the true pleasures of country life.

Probably no field of the practice has been up
J* QCtOfy to the present time so neglected as that of fac-

Cl rQlinds tory rounc ^ s anc ^ vet there ls no greater ad-
* vertising medium and nothing to which a work-

ingman will go with greater pride than to the factory whose
grounds are made attractive and surrounded with trees, shrubs,
flowers, and it has been very markedly demonstrated that the in-
fluence of such development extends beyond the beautification of

the factory grounds and extends to the workingman's home where
he desires to make his little grounds attractive and bright. It is
through this influence that the development of factory grounds is
everywhere receiving more and more attention.

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Proposed Treatment for Factory Grounds.

It is the aim of the Landscape Architect to meet
a ^ problems of development of property, public
or private, with the sole aim of planning for that
development in such a way as to produce the results which will
give the greatest enjoyment and answer all practical needs.








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Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.




LD 21-50m-6,'59

General Library

University of California



Online LibraryMorell & NicholsLandscape architecture → online text (page 1 of 1)