Morton L. (Morton Luther) Montgomery.

Historical and biographical annals of Berks County, Pennsylvania, embracing a concise history of the county and a genealogical and biographical record of representative families, comp. by Morton L. Montgomery .. online

. (page 70 of 227)
Online LibraryMorton L. (Morton Luther) MontgomeryHistorical and biographical annals of Berks County, Pennsylvania, embracing a concise history of the county and a genealogical and biographical record of representative families, comp. by Morton L. Montgomery .. → online text (page 70 of 227)
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Howard H. Bitting
John H. Behm
William K. Brendel
Jesse M. Bauder
George W. Bushman
Samuel M. Bitting
David C. Bohn
John G. Body
Harvey C. Boone
John T. Behler
Hiram W. M. Bickel
Cyrus U. Bensing
Richard S. Bitter
Cyrus K. Brendel
Jacob M. Bickel
Adam S. Body
Raymond F. Becker
John Bitting
Augustus M. Brown
Champion B. Bartron
Christian E. Coller
Benjamin F. Coller
Clair B. Cooper
Lemon Conrad
Frank B. Conrad
John K. Coldren
Walter F. Curley
James Coleman
Owen P. Deeds
Dr. L. V. Dillon
Charles M. Englert
John Eckert
William Eyrich
Frank H. Eshelman
John D. Erb
Daniel J. Erb
Isaac H. Eshelman
John H. Evans
William P. Fleisher
Nathan T. Fritz
Abraham S. Foltz
Bentley G. Foreman
Elmer E. Fair
Abraham Foltz
Christ S. Flickinger
Clinton F. Flickinger
Wallace C. Fritz
Daniel Fry
Harry Fitterling
Daniel S. Freeman
Thomas H. Fromm
David T, Field
John S. Farrell
Ploward F. Folk
Henry B. Freese
John Fisher
Alvin J. Griffith
Fred A. Gehret
Thomas J. Goodman
Charles A. Goodman
Gottlieb Gouse
Harry G. Gouse
John A. Gaul
Walter M. Geiger
Samuel J. Gerhard



Levi M. Grill
Howard F. Goodman
Daniel Hummel
Elmer J. Heinly
Carolina Hatt
Charles Himmelberger
William B. Hendel
Jesse Herneisen
George W. Hartman
Ezra Homan
Lester A. Hemmig
Jacob Hoffert
Howard L. Hartman
Zacharias H. Hornberger
William A. Hofifman
Pierce B. Hatt
Rev. C. S. Haman
William A. Huyett
John J. Hoffert
Irvin B. Huyett
Charles Haag
William T. Hill
Walter G. Hill
Harry G. Hill
Adolph Jalin
John L. Knauer
William T. Keffer
Jacob T. Kline
Frank G. Keffer
Charles A. Klopp
James P. Kleinginni
Milton Kachel
Lewis A. Lehman
Jacob A. Lesher
John T. Lotz
Lester A. Lutz
Gordon Lutz
Washington Leinbach
George F. Lee
Almah S. Lutz
Levi H. Lausch
John Lessley
Harry Lausch
Walter IT Lantz
Vallie A. Matz
Evan Mover
John FI. "]\Iarks
Bentley Aloore
John S. ]\Iiller
John M. Miller
Robert W. Moyer
Frank Moyer
Daniel H. Miller
Charles G. Miller
William H. Miller
Harvey C. Miller
Samuel S. Miller
Adam Miller
Frank P. Mohn
Charles S. Mohn
William M. Mohn
Chester A. Mohn
William H. Mohn
Katie Matz
Frank R. Myers
Chester A. Martin
Edwin P. Moyei'
John Mahley
Harry R. Mahlschnee
Charles Matz
James W. Messner
William Manabeck
Reuben H. Nye
George Newkirk
Martin Ott



BOROUGHS



395



Joseph W. Oberholtzer
Benjamin Putt
Thomas Putt
Harry Putt '
Charles Putt
Daniel Pleam
Claude W.'- Palm
Richard H. Porter
Franklin E. Phillips
Herbert V. Ruth
William H. Rollman
Harry Reber
Aldus K. Royer
Samuel A. Richard
John Rupp
Charles Ritzman
Wallace Reddig
Mary Rollman
Warren Reifsnyder
Hiester Rhime
Harry Rhime
Augusta C. Rohland
Howard C. Remp
Edwin C. Rollman
John Reiner * '
Emlein K. Royer
Wesley Rollman
Elbina Sweitzer
Albert C. Savage
Francis Savage
Alvin J. Savage
John R. Schnabel
Adolph Schwetzke
Harry C. Schaeffer
Howard D. Sitler



Isaac Schaeffer
Charles J. Strause
Edward Sweitzer
John A. Spears
Berton Schonour
Pearson Schaeffer
Morris S. Schaeffer
Zenas W. Schonour
Martin L. Steffy
Irvin Savage
John G. Stutzman
Oliver Titton
Fred J. Thurrow
B. F. S. White
Thomas White
Charles F. Wieder
Frank Wieder
Thomas Wieder
William S. Willis
Daniel I. Wentzel
John G. Wentzel
Evan J. Wentzel
Charles W. Wentzel
Harry W. Wertz
John W. Wertz
John- Wertz, Sr.
John Weiss
Jeremiah F. Wanner
Milton Wanner
Francis S. Wolf
William H. Watt
James Wieder
John White
Elmer E. Yoder
Charles Yoh
William M. Zellers



Levi H. Snyder

Property-holders ^^^

Tenants ®30

Total valuation $421,765



Luke Deeds started in 1905 and after carrying
on the plant a year died, when his wife, Aaron
Stein and A. J. Fink incorporated the business.
They have seven houses.

Cigars. — Charles M. Yetter started manufactur-
ing cigars' at Mohnsville in 1889. After carrying
on the business eight years he located at Shilling-
ton, where he erected a large three-story brick
factory, and has carried on the business quite ex-
tensively since then, employing from eighty to
ninety hands, manufacturing about 100,000 cigars
weekly. The business was incorporated in 1905.

The members of the Cumru Cornet Band start-
ed manufacturing cigars at Shillington about 1890,
and after carrying on the business several years
the Kramer Brothers of Lancaster county (who
were engaged in the leaf tobacco business) be-
came their successors and have since carried on
the business, employing from eight to ten hands.

Howard Gettis and Irvin Bright have been en-
gaged separately for some years manufacturing
cigars in a limited way.

Planing Mill. — David Becker established a small
planing-mill at Edison in 1898 and has since done
various kinds of planing-mill work by himself.

Bakery. — Charles Strauss began a bakery busi-
ness in 1901 and has since carried on an increas-
ing business with several hands to assist him.

Scenic Painter. — Dyson Bradley and Clinton
Shilling erected a large frame building in 1897
on the premises of George W. Shilling for the



Business in Borough. — The borough contained purpose of painting " theatrical scenery and have
in April, 1909, the following: since carried on the business successfully. Mr.
gj^j.gg g Hotel 1 Shilling has also shown considerable skill as a car-
Flower Houses 3 Machine Shop 1 toonist on political and other subjects.

Cigar Factories 2 Yu*^""^"^"!.,;;: \ Howry.— Martin Fritz began the manufactur-

fhiirches 3 Shoemaker Shops i . , , -^ . ^ oi -n- ^ ■ -,r^r^-, ji

Hat Factory' 1 Cemeteries 3 mg of hosiery at Shillmgton m 1901 and has smce

Grist-mill ' ' ■ ■ • 1 'Rs.ct Course 1 carried on the business sucessf ully, making men's



Grist-
Butclier Shops



Barbers



±juL^i>.i ^"v.^,.. J half-hose, employing fifty hands.

Blacksmith Shops 3 ^^''^|^(g^j,(i;'j,g •;;;;;;;;; i Telephone.— The^ Ephrata Telephone Company



Wheelwright Shop 1

Tinsmith Shop 1



Doctors 3 established a telephone exchange at Shillington in

1908.
, Churches. — (Members of the Reformed and Lu-

Grist-Mill.—A grist-mill was established alon^ theran denominations associated together in 1874
the Lancaster road, near the Wyomissing creek, ^^^ erected a brick church, but after remaining



Industries



Lilt xja.i*.\.-c«.^ i.—* *" J - - , — . ainav-i »_»^Lv-u. a, t^x j.^_i.v v-i-n-** %-.i±j t^i-ti. ti-j. i-^-^ j. v-ij.At4.*j.ii.»*^

many years ago. It was converted into a plan- ^pg,gjjjgj. ^jjj.gg years, occupying the building alter-

ing-mill by John Waren, and then destroyed by ^^^^^^^ ^^^ Lutherans withdrew. The Reformed

fire. Jacob Shadel became the owner of the prem- ^.^ngregation, under the name of Immanuel, have

ises, including the water right, and he restorea ^^^^j^^^g^ ^j^g^g ^^^^y ^^it present time. The edifice



the building as a gnst-mill. ^^^ rebuilt in 1908. Rev. W. J. Kershner has

Flower-Houses.-^UowiiTd M. Shilling estabhshed ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^^^g T^gge.
a hothouse for the raising of all kinds of flowers ^^^^^ Lutheran congregation erected a brick
in 1880, and he has carried on the plant until ^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ organization

now. excepting whilst enhsted m the Spanish War,



now, excepting

kSed''his'^plant"'and has now 17,000 feet under Members ottne unuea ^vangeiicai laimunaer
largeu Ilia Fi ^jjg name of St. Luke's, erected a fine sandstone

Harry A. Beyler started in 1898 and has five church in 1904 and have since been worshipping^-
houses in use.



when his wifi attended to the busmess. He en- ^"J;J^^°J;^ ^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^ Evangelical faith, under



there.



296



HISTORY OF BERKS COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA



Cemeteries. — Three cemeteries have been es-
tablished along the southern border of Shilling-
ton: The Fairview, in 1876, for members of the
Protestant denominations in the vicinity ; Mt. Si-
nai, in 1897, for the Reformed Jews at Reading
who had maintained a small cemetery along South
street for upward of fifty years ; and the Russian
and other Orthodox Jews several years afterward,
having secured the land from Jacob Lash.

Graded School. — The Cumru school board erect-
ed a fine two-story brick building in 1901, and upon
the erection of the borough it became the property
of Shillington.

Poorhouse. — The Poorhouse of the county ad-
joins the borough. It was established there by



the county authorities in 1825, and has been main-
tained since then at the public expense.

Miller Monument. — In the center of the street
leading to Mohnton, near the southerly line of
the borough, a unique monument was erected in
1900 by the grandchildren of Christian Miller, who
had for many years owned the farming land in
that vicinity, and when he died his remains
were interred in a private burying-ground on
the farm adjoining the pubHc road. It is
a large dark granite stone about six feet high
and is surrounded by a stone wall inclosing a lot
about twenty feet square. The inscription on the
stone reads thus : "In Memory of Christian Mil-
ler, Family and Friends."



CHAPTER XII -TOWNSHIPS



The Schuylkill river divides the county of Berk.';
into two nearly equal divisions of territory, the
eastern containing about 280,000 acres and the
western about 246,000 acres, together 526,000
acres, or 822 square miles.

Four Sections. — The eastern division can be
divided into two sections by an irregular line ex-
tended eastwardly from the Great Bend of the
river, along the upper boundary lines of Muhlen-
berg, Ruscombmanor, Rockland, District and Here-
ford townships, to Lehigh county. The southern
section embraces about 133,000 acres, and the north-
ern about 147,000 acres. Each section was iden-
tified from the earliest settlements by conspicuous
streams of water, the southern section having come
to be generally known by the name of Manatazvny,
and the northern section by Ontelaunce. Both these
words are of Indian origin. The Indians having
first possessed the entire territory, their names
naturally became attached to it. These streams
extend northwardly through the respective section.s
and drain the greater part of the territory.

The western division can be similarly divided,
for a natural boundary line divides it also into two
sections. It extends from the outlet of the Tulpe-
hocken at the Schuylkill river along the northern
and western boundary lines of Spring township
to Lancaster county, and is formed by the creek
named and its first tributary, the Cacoosing. The
upper section was called Tulpehocken by the first
settlers, a word also of Indian origin. This creek
extends westwardly and northwardly, then again
westwardly and drains the section almost entirely.
And the lower section was called Schuylkill, from
its connection with a large district of territory in
Chester county which was known by this name.
This latter section has two prominent creeks which
are known by Indian names, Wyomissing and
Allegheny, but neither of them was large enough
to give identity to the entire section. The upper



section embraces about 130,000 acres, and the lower
about 116,000 acres.

Erection of Townships. — The townships estab-
lished in the county number altogether forty-three.
In the descriptions of the respective Sections in this
chapter they have been arranged to show the origi-
nal townships at the erection of the county and
the time when settled and established ; and the ad-
ditional townships established since 1752, and from
which districts they were taken. This arrangemenc
has been adopted for convenience of reference, as
well as to avoid much repetition in description.

The names of the first taxpayers have been given
in Oiapter I, relating to the erection of the county :
but the names of the taxpayers of the townships
subsequently established, before 1800, have also
been included in this Chapter, in connection with
the Section where situated.

Development. — When the county was erected in
1752, there were twenty-three townships — eighteen
regularly established and five commonly recognized ;
and one town, Reading, the only place where a
considerable number of dwellings had collected.
Prominent highways extended from Reading
through the several sections to the extreme limits
of the county in eight diflferent directions, to enable
the taxpayers to visit the county-seat conveniently
for the transaction of business relating to
their own personal affairs and to affairs con-
nected with the government of the county. As
time advanced, decade after decade, intersecting
highways were laid out; new townships and bor-
oughs organized: post-offices established; newspa-
pers issued; turnpikes, canals and railroads con-
structed ; manufactures of all kinds encouraged ; and
numerous schools and churches erected. Now,
after the lapse of one hundred and fifty-seven years',
there are sixty-one political divisions, comprising
one city, seventeen boroughs and forty-three town-
ships, with a population of about 175,000, and a
total valuation of property exceeding $100,000,000.



TOWNSHIPS



297



And fifty towns are scattered throughout the coun-
ty, each of whose population exceeds one hun-
dred.

Government. — The townships are under the gen-
eral government of the county. For' local affairs,
they have a government of their own, the
elected officers being two justices of the peace,
a constable, six school directors, an assessor, three
supervisors of roads, and three auditors. Their
government is government in the simplest form
and it is practically the unit of government.
It is thoroughly democratic. There are only two
purposes which it serves, the maintenance of roads
and schools, and without these there would be no
necessity for its existence. Being so simple, it is
not seen or felt until the payment of taxes for road
and school purposes is demanded. The taxpayers
thus take a direct interest in their local government
and are closely connected with it. But the higher
the government advances, as into a borough, city,
county. State, or nation, the farther they become
removed from it, and their connection is necessarily
only by representation. It is apparent that the
township is the beginning of our system of free
government, just as the nation is the end of it. The
aggregation of townships compose our county;
of counties our State ; and of States our nation.

Railway and Telegraph. — Besides the public
thoroughfares for teams, the county is also well
supplied with prominent railways which run gener-
ally parallel with them ; the Philadelphia & Reading,
and the Pennsylvania Schuylkill Valley, along either
side of the river Schuylkill, from the southern ex-
tremity to the northern; the Lebanon Valley to the
west, the East Penn to the northeast, the Schuylkill
and Lehigh to the north, the Reading & Columbia
to the southwest, and the Wilmington & Northern
to the south — all of these five from Reading; and
the Colebrookdale, to the north, from Pottstown ^o
Barto, through the eastern portion. The eight
railroads cover a .total length of one hundred and
fifty miles.

The street-car lines were confined to Reading
from 1874 to 1890. Then electricity was introduced
for propelling the cars, and trolley lines began
to extend from Reading into the surrounding coun-
try; first, southeast to Exeter township, and south-
west to Mohnsville (now Mohnton) ; then west
to Womelsdorf, and east to Boyertown, and north
to Temple; and then the line to Mohnsville was
extended to Adamstown and Lancaster; the line
to Temple, to Kutztown and Allentown; and the
line to Exeter, to Birdsboro; thus reaching out in
every direction, excepting to the north to Ham-
burg and to the northwest to Bernville and Mil-
lersburg, and covering a total distance of seventy-
five miles in the county.

The introduction of electricity as the motive
power was the direct cause of these extensions.
Horses were the motive power for sixteen years
from the time that street railways were introduced



at Reading. Before 1890, the extensions of the sys-
tem into the rural districts for ten and twenty
miles were not encouraged because of the cost and
impracticability of running them; but by that time
the feasibility of introducing electricity became
more apparent and then the extdnsions began to
reach out in the several directions from Read-
ing as mentioned.

And just as connections were made for travel
by railways, communication was opened to all parts
of the county by telegraph and telephone, the
former having started in 1848 and the latter in
1879. Through these channels, the energy of steam,
and electricity is displayed in a wonderful manner;
and when we come to compare the methods and
customs of the first settlers in respect to transpor-
tation and communication with the facilities and
conveniences which we now have, we cannot help
but be amazed at our social progress as a com-
munity. But another feature of this social progress,
equally surprising, is the fact that so few per-
sons were actually engaged in devising and creat-
ing the agencies by which this progress was ac-
complished.

The roads and railroads, arid also the telegraph
and telephone, have been referred to more fully in
Chapter II.

Industrial Situation. — In respect to the farm-
ing operations, there has been a gradual diminution
in the past twenty years, and the condition of the
farmers has been generally more or less depressed.
All the_ numerous furnaces and forges, with a few
notable exceptions, have been abandoned. The num-
ber of grist-mills in all the sections has been greatly
reduced, and most of them have been converted
into chopping-mills, if not altogether discontinued.
In many places, creameries have been substituted ;
and where heretofore great quantities of flour were
ground from wheat and rye raised in the vicinity,
now great quantities of fine butter are being manu-
factured and shipped to large centers of population ;
or many thousands of gallons of milk are delivered
at railroad stations and forwarded to Philadel-
phia and other places.

Religion and Education. — The religious senti-
ment of the people has remained about the same.
At a number of places throughout the county, fine
new churches or chapels were erected, reflecting
the earnest spirit of the several denominations,
and the two most prominent denominations,
Lutheran and Reformed, have been particularly ac-
tive and successful. As to the common school system,
fine, graded schools were established, but the ten-
dency has been to lessen the number of buildings
in some of the townships on account of the decrease
of population ; and where certain children became
too far removed from school-houses in consequence
of the abandonment of some of the buildings, the
local directors made provision for conveying them
to and from school, if not able to get there by
themselves.



^98



HISTORY OF BERKS COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA



Towns. — In the county there are one hundred
and three towns and villages, and the names of the
greater number have been given after individuals.
They are distributed in the several sections as fol-
lows:

Manatawny 43 Tulpehocken 18

Ontelaune-e 27 Schuylkill 16

Their names are given in connection with the
sections. The figures opposite the names indicate
the number of dwellings, and the population can be
estimated by multiplying these figures by four. The
figures adjoining the names indicate the year when
the town was started. Fifty of the towns have
over one hundred inhabitants.

Statistics. — Statistics relating to population,
property, taxables, voters, etc., of the several town-
ships will be found in the tables which embrace
the entire county, in Chapter IX, Census.

Mercantile Licenses. — The mercantile ap-
praiser reported the number of licensed retail busi-
ness places in the several townships of the county
for the year 1909 as follows :

Albany 24

Alsace 4

Alsace, Lower 14

Amity 39

Bern IS

Bern, Upper 18

Bethel 27

Brecknock 10

Caernarvon 19

Centre 34

Colebrookdale 15

Cumru 33

District 8

Douglass 15

Earl 2

Exeter 34

Greenwich 26

Heidelberg 30

Heidelberg, Lower 40

Heidelberg, North 8

Hereford 25

Jefferson 9

Longswatnp 31

Maiden-creek 32



Washington 7

Windsor i



In Boroughs 49

In City of Reading 174



191



Total



.414



Marion 16

Maxatawny 37

Muhlenberg 32

Oley 37

Ontelaunee 13

Penn 17

Perry 24

Pike 16

Richmond 17

Robeson 28

Rockland 14

Ruscombmanor 13

Spring 45

Tilden 9

Tidpehocken 28

Tulpehocken, Upper ... 15

Union 16

Washington 32

Windsor 6



Boroughs 491

Reading 1,546



Total 2,931

LIQUOR LICENSES IN TOWNSHIPS FOR 1909



Albany 4

Alsace 3

Alsace, Lower 7

Amity 5

Bern 4

Bern, Upper 2

Brecknock 1

Bethel 7

Caernarvon 3

Cumru . . .■ 9

Centre 3

Colebrookdale 2

District 3

Douglass 3

Earl 3

Exeter 11

Greenwich 4

Heidelberg 4

Heidelberg, North 1

Heidelberg, Lower .... 10

Hereford 4



Jefferson 3

Longswamp 9

Maiden-creek 4

Maxatawny 10

Marion 3

Muhlenberg 9

Oley 4

Ontelaunee 5

Penn 4

Perry | 3

Pike 3

Rockland 2

Richmond 7

Robeson 6

Ruscombmanor 3

Spring 7

Tilden 2

Tulpehocken 7

Tulpehocken, Upper ... 3

Union 1



P. O. S. OF A. Camps.— The Patriotic Order
Sons of America has estabhshed camps at the fol-
lowing places in the county, outside of the city and
the boroughs :



No.
68
69
99
107
128
133
141
365
213
214
231
230
237
240
250
278
382
347
375
388
399
427
470
480
592
597
664
679



Place Members Assets

Hyde Park 316 $ 9,172

Mt. Aetna 77 4,360

Wernersville 186 7,818

Temple 110 831

Grimville 35 915

Shartlesville 161 8,075

Maxatawny 55 1,193

Leesport 342 8,150

Amityville 71 5,273

Millersburg 130 6,592

Lime Kiln 362 13,653

St. Lawrence 249 28,319

Stouchsburg 206 8,277

Douglassville 60 2,015

Blandon 88 7,196

Virginville 95 2,998

Sinking Spring 198 9,750

Henningsville 65 831

Robesonia 115 3,508

Geigertown 72 3,563

Bagenstose 56 1,471

Molltown 36 762

Siesholtzville 53 1,504

Pleasantville 117 2,441

Gibraltar 146 6!965

Rehrersburg 52 1,905

Strausstown 96 1,368

Morgantown 71 1,046



3,419 $148,152



Reading 3,335 113,398

Boroughs 2,115 81,454



Total 9,369 343,004

P O. S. of A. Halls. — Camps in the countv which
own their respective halls where the meetines are
held :



Bechtelsville
Oley Line
St. Lawrence
Hyde Park



Lenhartsville

Shartlesville

Gibraltar



MANATAWNY SECTION

The Manatawny Section comprises fifteen town-
ships, and the time of their settlement and erection
is set forth in the following table.



ORIGINAL



Alsace

Amity

Colebrookdale ,

Douglass

Exeter,

Hereford

Oley

Ruscombmanor



Settled
1735
1701
1730
1720
171S
1732
1712
1749



Erected
1744
1719
1741
1736
1741
1753
1740
1752



TOWNSHIPS



}i99



ADDITIONAL
Taken from Erected

Rockland Oley 1758

District Oley 1759

Earl Oley 1781

Pike Oley 1812

Washington Colebrookdale

and Hereford 1839

Muhlenberg Alsace 1851

Alsace, Lower Alsace 1888

Derivation of Names.— The derivation of the
names was as follows :

Alsace, from the name of the principality in Ger-
many whence the first settlers had emigrated on
account of long continued religious intolerance and
persecution.

Amity, from the friendliness of the Indians with
the Swedes, the first settlers who had been in-
duced to locate here by the persuasion of William
Penn.

Colebrookdale, from a district of territory in Eng-
land, called Colebrook, whence some of the first
settlers had emigrated. They were Englishmen,
familiar with the manufacture of iron, and the
early discovery of iron ore in this region led to
the taking up of grants of land here and to its
-settlement and improvement by them. The first
iron furnace was established here about 1717 along
the Ironstone creek, a tributary of the Manatawny
(the locality being now within the southern por-
tion of Boyertown) ; and the first forge was estab-
lished several miles to the southwest along the
Manatawny at the same time, the selection of the
place having been made on account of the strong
flow of water for power to carry on the process
of forging.



German, but the name was doubtless suggested by
English ironmasters who were interested in the
territory.

Oley, commonly supposed to have originated from
an Indian word, Olink, meaning a hollow, the prin-
cipal portion of land being rich and productive, al-
most surrounded by hills; but it may have been
taken from Oleye, the name of a community in



Online LibraryMorton L. (Morton Luther) MontgomeryHistorical and biographical annals of Berks County, Pennsylvania, embracing a concise history of the county and a genealogical and biographical record of representative families, comp. by Morton L. Montgomery .. → online text (page 70 of 227)